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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919569/the-relation-between-radon-in-schools-and-in-dwellings-a-case-study-in-a-rural-region-of-southern-serbia
#1
Z S Žunić, P Bossew, F Bochicchio, N Veselinovic, C Carpentieri, G Venoso, S Antignani, R Simovic, Z Ćurguz, V Udovicic, Z Stojanovska, T Tollefsen
Recognized as a significant health hazard, radon (Rn) has been given increasing attention for years. Surveys of different kinds have been performed in many countries to assess the intensity and the geographical extent of possible Rn problems. Common surveys cover mainly dwellings, the indoor place with highest occupancy, and schools, where people spend a large fraction of their lifetime and which can also be considered exemplary for Rn exposure at workplaces; it has however been observed that relating them is difficult...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919498/association-between-exposure-to-farm-animals-and-pets-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Dylan Siejka, Bruce Taylor, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Terence Dwyer, Ingrid van der Mei
PURPOSE: There exists inconsistent evidence regarding animals including pets as risk factors for the development of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We investigated the association between farm animals and pets as possible environmental factors in MS development. METHODS: Population based case-control study with 136 clinically definite MS cases and 272 controls randomly chosen from the community matched on sex and age. Data was collected from both questionnaire and a lifetime calendar detailing residence, occupation and pet/animal exposure over the course of participant's lives...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919337/radiation-and-circulatory-disease
#3
Mark P Little
Exposure to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation is associated with damage to the heart and coronary arteries. However, only recently have studies with high-quality individual dosimetry data allowed this risk to be quantified while also adjusting for concomitant chemotherapy, and medical and lifestyle risk factors. At lower levels of exposure the evidence is less clear. In this article I review radiation-associated risks of circulatory disease in groups treated with radiotherapy for malignant and non-malignant disease, and in occupationally- or environmentally-exposed groups receiving rather lower levels of radiation dose, also for medical diagnostic purposes...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919335/cataractogenesis-following-high-let-radiation-exposure
#4
Nobuyuki Hamada, Tatsuhiko Sato
Biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation differs with its linear energy transfer (LET) such that high-LET radiation is more effective for various biological endpoints than low-LET radiation. Human exposure to high-LET radiation occurs in cancer patients, nuclear workers, aviators, astronauts and other space travellers. From the radiation protection viewpoint, the ocular lens is among the most radiosensitive tissues in the body, and cataract (a clouding of the normally transparent lens) is classified as tissue reactions (formerly called nonstochastic or deterministic effects) with a threshold below which no effect would occur...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919334/ionizing-radiation-induced-cataracts-recent-biological-and-mechanistic-developments-and-perspectives-for-future-research
#5
Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Stephen Barnard, Scott Bright, Claudia Dalke, Miguel Jarrin, Sarah Kunze, Rick Tanner, Joseph R Dynlacht, Roy A Quinlan, Jochen Graw, Munira Kadhim, Nobuyuki Hamada
The lens of the eye has long been considered as a radiosensitive tissue, but recent research has suggested that the radiosensitivity is even greater than previously thought. The 2012 recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to substantially reduce the annual occupational equivalent dose limit for the ocular lens has now been adopted in the European Union and is under consideration around the rest of the world. However, ICRP clearly states that the recommendations are chiefly based on epidemiological evidence because there are a very small number of studies that provide explicit biological, mechanistic evidence at doses <2Gy...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919333/radiation-and-cataract-risk-impact-of-recent-epidemiologic-studies-on-icrp-judgments
#6
Roy E Shore
In its 2012 report on tissue reactions, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) made several key assumptions regarding radiation risk to the lens of the eye, including that radiation-related minor opacities will progress to become vision-impairing cataracts, that protracted irradiation confers as much risk per unit dose as an acute exposure, and that there is a dose threshold for cataract effects at about 0.5Gy. The few studies available provide only limited support for the ICRP assumption that radiation-related minor opacities are predictive of vision-impairing cataracts; further longitudinal data are clearly needed...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919185/modeling-the-effect-of-succimer-dmsa-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-chelation-therapy-in-patients-poisoned-by-lead
#7
Jan C H van Eijkeren, J Daniël N Olie, Sally M Bradberry, J Allister Vale, Irma de Vries, Harvey J Clewell, Jan Meulenbelt, Claudine C Hunault
CONTEXT: Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA) chelation therapy on blood lead concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We integrated a two-compartment kinetic succimer model into an existing PBPK lead model and produced a Chelation Lead Therapy (CLT) model...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919063/predictors-of-low-back-pain-in-nursing-home-workers-after-implementation-of-a-safe-resident-handling-programme
#8
Judith E Gold, Laura Punnett, Rebecca J Gore
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare workers have high rates of low back pain (LBP) related to handling patients. A large chain of nursing homes experienced reduced biomechanical load, compensation claims and costs following implementation of a safe resident handling programme (SRHP). The aim of this study was to examine whether LBP similarly declined and whether it was associated with relevant self-reported occupational exposures or personal health factors. METHODS: Worker surveys were conducted on multiple occasions beginning with the week of first SRHP introduction (baseline)...
November 10, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919062/epidemiology-of-occupational-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-reports-from-the-sword-scheme%C3%A2-in-the-uk-from-1996-to-2015
#9
C M Barber, R E Wiggans, M Carder, R Agius
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the reported incidence of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis (OHP) in the UK and to consider whether the pattern of attributed causation has changed over time. METHODS: All cases of OHP reported to the SWORD scheme between January 1996 and December 2015 were classified into 1 of 10 categories of the suspected agent. Cases were grouped into four 5-year time periods to examine any changing pattern in incidence or suspected causation. For each time period, the annual incidence was calculated using the estimated number of reported cases and the working population of the UK...
October 8, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919060/estimation-of-quantitative-levels-of-diesel-exhaust-exposure-and-the-health-impact-in-the-contemporary-australian-mining-industry
#10
Susan Peters, Nicholas de Klerk, Alison Reid, Lin Fritschi, Aw Bill Musk, Roel Vermeulen
OBJECTIVES: To estimate quantitative levels of exposure to diesel exhaust expressed by elemental carbon (EC) in the contemporary mining industry and to describe the excess risk of lung cancer that may result from those levels. METHODS: EC exposure has been monitored in Western Australian miners since 2003. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate EC levels for five surface and five underground occupation groups (as a fixed effect) and specific jobs within each group (as a random effect)...
November 15, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919059/role-of-maternal-occupational-physical-activity-and-psychosocial-stressors-on-adverse-birth-outcomes
#11
Laura J Lee, Elaine Symanski, Philip J Lupo, Sarah C Tinker, Hilda Razzaghi, Wenyaw Chan, Adrienne T Hoyt, Mark A Canfield
OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of an array of estimated maternal occupational physical activities and psychosocial stressors during pregnancy with odds for preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA). METHODS: Data for infants born without major birth defects delivered from 1997 to 2009 whose mothers reported working at least 1 month during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We linked occupational codes to the US Department of Labor's Occupational Information Network, which provides estimates of exposure for multiple domains of physical activity and psychosocial stressors by occupational categories...
October 6, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918982/traffic-derived-particulate-matter-exposure-and-histone-h3-modification-a-repeated-measures-study
#12
Yinan Zheng, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Zhou Zhang, Brian T Joyce, Jia Zhong, Jacob K Kresovich, Lei Liu, Wei Zhang, Tao Gao, Dou Chang, Citlalli Osorio-Yanez, Juan Jose Carmona, Sheng Wang, John P McCracken, Xiao Zhang, Yana Chervona, Anaite Díaz, Pier A Bertazzi, Petros Koutrakis, Choong-Min Kang, Joel Schwartz, Andrea A Baccarelli, Lifang Hou
BACKGROUND: Airborne particulate matter (PM) may induce epigenetic changes that potentially lead to chronic diseases. Histone modifications regulate gene expression by influencing chromatin structure that can change gene expression status. We evaluated whether traffic-derived PM exposure is associated with four types of environmentally inducible global histone H3 modifications. METHODS: The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers examined twice, 1-2 weeks apart, for ambient PM10 (both day-of and 14-day average exposures), personal PM2...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918957/genetic-variability-in-the-system-of-natriuretic-b-peptide-and-principal-toxicological-parameters-in-workers-exposed-to-lead
#13
Marta Jurdziak, Paweł Gać, Rafał Poręba, Marzena Gonerska, Anna Jonkisz, Małgorzata Gromek, Małgorzata Poręba, Anna Szymańska-Chabowska, Grzegorz Mazur, Małgorzata Sobieszczańska
The study was aimed at evaluating the influence of selected polymorphisms of natriuretic peptide B precursor (NPPB) and natriuretic peptide receptor C (NPR3) genes on blood lead concentration (Pb-B) and blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration (ZnPP) in persons occupationally exposed to lead. Investigations were conducted on 360 persons (mean age: 44.49±9.62years), workers exposed to lead compounds. The analysis examined four polymorphisms of BNP gene, i.e.,: rs198388, rs198389, rs632793, and rs6676300; as well as one polymorphism of receptor C for natriuretic peptides, i...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#14
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
December 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914484/comparing-non-occupational-post-exposure-prophylaxis-drug-regimens-for-hiv-insights-from-a-linked-hiv-surveillance-system
#15
Anna B Pierce, Carol El-Hayek, Damien McCarthy, Jude Armishaw, Kerrie Watson, Anna Wilkinson, Brian Price, Edwina J Wright, Jennifer F Hoy, Mark A Stoové
Background: International non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) guidelines recommend routine use of three drug NPEP regimens, despite absence of evidence for greater prevention efficacy compared with two drug regimens. This study examines the potential for excess HIV seroconversions among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting receptive anal intercourse with a source of unknown HIV serostatus (RAIU) following a two-drug versus a three-drug NPEP regimen. Methods: Data for MSM in the Victorian NPEP service database between 10 August 2005 and 31 December 2012 were linked with all Victorian HIV notifications up to 31 December 2013...
December 5, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914155/-main-causes-of-occupational-allergic-contact-dermatitis-a-three-year-study-in-the-center-of-portugal
#16
Catarina Pestana, Raquel Gomes, Vítor Pinheiro, Miguel Gouveia, Isabel Antunes, Margarida Gonçalo
INTRODUCTION: Allergic contact dermatitis, along with irritant contact dermatitis and immediate contact reactions, contact urticarial, are the most frequent dermatological occupational disease, but seldom reported to the National authorities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a 3-year retrospective study at the allergology section in the Dermatology Clinic of the University Hospital of Coimbra to evaluate the main occupations diagnosed as occupational allergic contact dermatitis, most common allergens and the effect of the modification of the work station in the evolution of the disease...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913844/global-dna-methylation-profiling-of-manganese-exposed-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells-reveals-epigenetic-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease-associated-genes
#17
Prashant Tarale, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Atul P Daiwile, Reinhard Stöger, Amit Bafana, Pravin K Naoghare, Devendra Parmar, Tapan Chakrabarti, Krishnamurthi Kannan
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for optimal functioning of cellular biochemical pathways in the central nervous system. Elevated exposure to Mn through environmental and occupational exposure can cause neurotoxic effects resulting in manganism, a condition with clinical symptoms identical to idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Epigenetics is now recognized as a biological mechanism involved in the etiology of various diseases. Here, we investigated the role of DNA methylation alterations induced by chronic Mn (100 µM) exposure in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells in relevance to Parkinson's disease...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913814/life-course-socioeconomic-adversities-and-10-year-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health
#18
Dayse Rodrigues de Sousa Andrade, Lidyane V Camelo, Rodrigo Citton P Dos Reis, Itamar S Santos, Antonio Luiz Ribeiro, Luana Giatti, Sandhi Maria Barreto
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether life course exposure to adverse socioeconomic positions (SEP) as well as maintaining a low SEP or decreasing the SEP intra- and intergeneration was associated with an increased 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk predicted by the Framingham Risk Score. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (2008-2010) of 13,544 active workers from ELSA-Brasil cohort. Maternal education, leg length, social class of first occupation and education were used to evaluate childhood, youth and adulthood SEP...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913314/audiologic-characteristics-in-a-sample-of-recently-separated-military-veterans-the-noise-outcomes-in-servicemembers-epidemiology-study-noise-study
#19
J S Gordon, S E Griest, E J Thielman, K C Carlson, W J Helt, M S Lewis, C Blankenship, D Austin, S M Theodoroff, J A Henry
Military Service Members are often exposed to high levels of occupational noise, solvents, and other exposures that can be damaging to the auditory system. Little is known about hearing loss and how it progresses in Veterans following military service. This epidemiology study is designed to evaluate and monitor a cohort of Veterans for 20 years or more to determine how hearing loss changes over time and how those changes are related to noise exposure and other ototoxic exposures encountered during military service...
November 29, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909446/functional-toxicogenomic-profiling-expands-insight-into-modulators-of-formaldehyde-toxicity-in-yeast
#20
Matthew North, Brandon D Gaytán, Carlos Romero, Vanessa Y De La Rosa, Alex Loguinov, Martyn T Smith, Luoping Zhang, Chris D Vulpe
Formaldehyde (FA) is a commercially important chemical with numerous and diverse uses. Accordingly, occupational and environmental exposure to FA is prevalent worldwide. Various adverse effects, including nasopharyngeal, sinonasal, and lymphohematopoietic cancers, have been linked to FA exposure, prompting designation of FA as a human carcinogen by U.S. and international scientific entities. Although the mechanism(s) of FA toxicity have been well studied, additional insight is needed in regard to the genetic requirements for FA tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
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