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Nathalie Ly, Nadia Elkhatib, Enzo Bresteau, Olivier Piétrement, Mehdi Khaled, Maria M Magiera, Carsten Janke, Eric Le Cam, Andrew D Rutenberg, Guillaume Montagnac
Acetylation of the lysine 40 of α-tubulin (K40) is a post-translational modification occurring in the lumen of microtubules (MTs) and is controlled by the α-tubulin acetyl-transferase αTAT1. How αTAT1 accesses the lumen and acetylates α-tubulin there has been an open question. Here, we report that acetylation starts at open ends of MTs and progressively spreads longitudinally from there. We observed acetylation marks at the open ends of in vivo MTs re-growing after a Nocodazole block, and acetylated segments growing in length with time...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Junyu Wu, Zhimin He, Da-Liang Wang, Fang-Lin Sun
Microtubules play essential roles in mitosis, cell migration, and intracellular trafficking. Drugs that target microtubules have demonstrated great clinical success in cancer treatment due to their capacity to impair microtubule dynamics in both mitotic and interphase stages. In a previous report, we demonstrated that JMJD5 associated with mitotic spindle and was required for proper mitosis. However, it remains elusive whether JMJD5 could regulate the stability of cytoskeletal microtubules and whether it affects the efficacy of microtubule-targeting agents...
October 7, 2016: Cell Cycle
Antonella Sferra, Gilbert Baillat, Teresa Rizza, Sabina Barresi, Elisabetta Flex, Giorgio Tasca, Adele D'Amico, Emanuele Bellacchio, Andrea Ciolfi, Viviana Caputo, Serena Cecchetti, Annalaura Torella, Ginevra Zanni, Daria Diodato, Emanuela Piermarini, Marcello Niceta, Antonietta Coppola, Enrico Tedeschi, Diego Martinelli, Carlo Dionisi-Vici, Vincenzo Nigro, Bruno Dallapiccola, Claudia Compagnucci, Marco Tartaglia, Georg Haase, Enrico Bertini
Tubulinopathies constitute a family of neurodevelopmental/neurodegenerative disorders caused by mutations in several genes encoding tubulin isoforms. Loss-of-function mutations in TBCE, encoding one of the five tubulin-specific chaperones involved in tubulin folding and polymerization, cause two rare neurodevelopmental syndromes, hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism and Kenny-Caffey syndrome. Although a missense mutation in Tbce has been associated with progressive distal motor neuronopathy in the pmn/pmn mice, no similar degenerative phenotype has been recognized in humans...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Jun-Chao Wang, Hong Lv, Ke-Liang Wu, Yun-Shan Zhang, Hai-Ning Luo, Zi-Jiang Chen
Mouse oocyte meiotic division requires the establishment of asymmetries in the oocyte before division, indicating the presence of polarity-establishing molecules. During mouse oocyte maturation proper orientation and positioning of the meiotic spindle at the oocyte cortex, as well as polarity in the oocyte cytoplasm and its oolemma, are necessary for the formation of functional haploid oocytes. Discs large homologue 1 (Dlg1) protein is a conserved protein that regulates cell polarity. In the present study, we found that Dlg1 was expressed at different stages of oocyte development...
September 21, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
J Jin, J Liu
During mitosis, Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) change dramatically in morphology and composition, but little is known about function of PML in mitosis. Here, we show that PML is phosphorylated at T409 (PML p409) in a mitosis-specific manner. More importantly, PML p409 contributes to maintain the duration of pro-metaphase and regulates spindle checkpoint. Deficient PML p409 caused a shortening of pro-metaphase and challenged the nocodazole-triggered mitotic arrest. T409A mutation led to a higher frequency of misaligned chromosomes on metaphase plate, and subsequently death in late mitosis...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
William H Parker, Elizabeth Meredith Rhea, Zhi-Chao Qu, Morgan R Hecker, James M May
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, both tightens the endothelial permeability barrier in basal cells and prevents barrier leak induced by inflammatory agents. Barrier tightening by ascorbate in basal endothelial cells requires nitric oxide derived from activation of nitric oxide synthase. Although ascorbate did not affect cyclic AMP levels in our previous study, there remains a question of whether it might activate downstream cyclic AMP-dependent pathways. In this work, we found in both primary and immortalized cultured endothelial cells that ascorbate tightened the endothelial permeability barrier by about 30%...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
B Vijayalakshmi Ayyar, M Zouhair Atassi
Binding behaviors of the HN and the HC domains of BoNT/A were investigated individually to identify if there exist any differences in their interaction with the cell membrane. Recombinant fragments corresponding to both BoNT/A HN and HC regions were prepared (HN519-845 and HC967-1296) and their binding to synaptic proteins was verified. The binding behaviors of these heavy-chain domains were analyzed by treating the Neuro 2a, a murine neuroblastoma cell line, with compounds known to alter membrane properties...
September 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yoshinori Inagaki, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Wei Tang, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Human Embryonic Lung fibroblasts (HEL cells) are widely used as a normal cell in studies of cell biology and can be easily maintained in the resting phase. Here we aimed to discover compounds that exhibit cytotoxicity against HEL cells in the dividing phase, but not in the resting phase. The cytotoxicity of each compound against HEL cells either in the resting phase or in the dividing phase was determined by MTT assay. Ratios of the IC50 of cells in the resting phase and that of cells in the dividing phase (RRD) for these compounds were compared...
2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Elisa Herawati, Daisuke Taniguchi, Hatsuho Kanoh, Kazuhiro Tateishi, Shuji Ishihara, Sachiko Tsukita
Multiciliated cells (MCCs) promote fluid flow through coordinated ciliary beating, which requires properly organized basal bodies (BBs). Airway MCCs have large numbers of BBs, which are uniformly oriented and, as we show here, align linearly. The mechanism for BB alignment is unexplored. To study this mechanism, we developed a long-term and high-resolution live-imaging system and used it to observe green fluorescent protein-centrin2-labeled BBs in cultured mouse tracheal MCCs. During MCC differentiation, the BB array adopted four stereotypical patterns, from a clustering "floret" pattern to the linear "alignment...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Thu Ngo, Xin Miao, Douglas N Robinson, Qiong-Qiong Zhou
AIM: RNA-binding proteins are a large group of regulators (800-1000 in humans), some of which play significant roles in mRNA local translation. In this study, we analyzed the functions of the protein RNP-1, which was previously discovered in a genetic selection screen for nocodazole suppression. METHODS: The growth rates and the microtubule networks of Dictyostelium cells were assessed with or without nocodazole (10 μmol/L) in suspension culture. Fluorescent images of RNP-1-GFP and RFP-tubulin were captured when cells were undergoing cytokinesis, then the GFP signal intensity and distance to the nearest centrosome were analyzed by using a computer program written in Matlab(®)...
August 29, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
A Słońska, J Cymerys, M M Godlewski, M W Bańbura
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), a member of Alphaherpesvirinae, has a broad host range in vitro, allowing for study of the mechanisms of productive viral infection, including intracellular transport in various cell cultures. In the current study, quantitative methods (scanning cytometry and real-time PCR) and confocal-microscopy-based image analysis were used to investigate the contribution of microtubules and neurofilaments in the transport of virus in primary murine neurons separately infected with two EHV-1 strains...
November 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Carolyne Simard-Bisson, Julie Bidoggia, Danielle Larouche, Sylvain L Guérin, Richard Blouin, Syu-Ichi Hirai, Lucie Germain
Dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK) is an inducer of keratinocyte differentiation, a complex process also involving microtubule reorganization to the cell periphery. However, signaling mechanisms involved in this process remain to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that DLK enhances and is required for microtubule reorganization to the cell periphery in human cell culture models and in Dlk knockout mouse embryos. In tissue-engineered skins with reduced DLK expression, cortical distribution of two microtubule regulators, LIS1 and HSP27, is impaired as well as desmosomal and tight junction integrity...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Eunhye Kim, Zhong Zheng, Yubyeol Jeon, Yong-Xun Jin, Seon-Ung Hwang, Lian Cai, Chang-Kyu Lee, Nam-Hyung Kim, Sang-Hwan Hyun
Pigs provide outstanding models of human genetic diseases due to their striking similarities with human anatomy, physiology and genetics. Although transgenic pigs have been produced using genetically modified somatic cells and nuclear transfer (SCNT), the cloning efficiency was extremely low. Here, we report an improved method to produce diploid cloned embryos from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs), which were synchronized to the G2/M stage using a double blocking method with aphidicolin and nocodazole...
2016: PloS One
Mark D Gurden, Simon J Anderhub, Amir Faisal, Spiros Linardopoulos
Accurate chromosome segregation is dependent on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). In current models, the key direct role of Aurora B in the SAC has been suggested to be to promote rapid kinetochore localisation of MPS1, allowing MPS1 to generate the checkpoint signal. However, Aurora B is also thought to play an indirect role in the SAC through the destabilisation of kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachments. Here, we demonstrate that Aurora B activity is not required for the kinetochore recruitment of the majority of SAC proteins...
July 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Yan Cao, Juan Du, Dandan Chen, Qian Wang, Nana Zhang, Xiaoyun Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Jing Weng, Yuanjing Liang, Wei Ma
Staufen2 (Stau2) is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein involved in cell fate decision by regulating mRNA transport, mRNA stability, translation, and ribonucleoprotein assembly. Little is known about Stau2 expression and function in mammalian oocytes during meiosis. Herein we report the sub-cellular distribution and function of Stau2 in mouse oocyte meiosis. Western blot analysis revealed high and stable expression of Stau2 in oocytes from germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII). Immunofluorescence showed that Stau2 was evenly distributed in oocytes at GV stage, and assembled as filaments after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), particularly, colocalized with spindle at MI and MII...
October 2016: Cell Cycle
Catherine Czeisler, Aaron Short, Tyler Nelson, Patrick Gygli, Cristina Ortiz, Fay Patsy Catacutan, Ben Stocker, James Cronin, John Lannutti, Jessica Winter, José Javier Otero
We sought to determine the contribution of scaffold topography to the migration and morphology of neural stem cells by mimicking anatomical features of scaffolds found in vivo. We mimicked two types of CNS scaffolds encountered by neural stem cells during development in vitro by constructing different diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber mats, a substrate that we have shown to be topographically similar to brain scaffolds. We compared the effects of large fibers (made to mimic blood vessel topography) with those of small diameter fibers (made to mimic radial glial process topography) on the migration and differentiation of neural stem cells...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jiaju Zhong, Xi Zhu, Kui Luo, Lian Li, Manlin Tang, Yanxi Liu, Zhou Zhou, Yuan Huang
As the hearts of tumor cells, the nucleus is the ultimate target of many chemotherapeutic agents and genes. However, nuclear drug delivery is always hampered by multiple intracellular obstacles, such as low efficiency of lysosome escape and insufficient nuclear trafficking. Herein, an N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymer-based drug delivery system was designed, which could achieve direct cytoplasmic delivery by a nonendocytic pathway and transport into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent fashion...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Sonja Frölich, Michael Wallach
The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules...
2016: Scientific Reports
V Ganga Reddy, T Srinivasa Reddy, V Lakshma Nayak, Budaganaboyina Prasad, Adiyala Praveen Reddy, A Ravikumar, Shaik Taj, Ahmed Kamal
A series of new (N-((1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide derivatives (8-35) were designed, synthesized and evaluated as CDK1/Cdc2 inhibitors. Biological evaluation assays indicated that compounds 16 and 27 showed the most potent growth inhibitory activity against human cancer cell lines (MIAPaCa-2, MCF-7 and HeLa) with GI50 values ranging from 0.13 to 0.7 μM, compared with the positive control nocodazole (0.81-0.95 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that these compounds induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and Western blot analysis suggested that compound treatment resulted in reduction of CDK1 expression levels in MCF-7 cell line...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Myriem Boufraqech, Darmood Wei, Urbain Weyemi, Lisa Zhang, Martha Quezado, Petr Kalab, Electron Kebebew
LOX regulates cancer progression in a variety of human malignancies. It is overexpressed in aggressive cancers and higher expression of LOX is associated with higher cancer mortality. Here, we report a new function of LOX in mitosis. We show that LOX co-localizes to mitotic spindles from metaphase to telophase, and p-H3(Ser10)-positive cells harbor strong LOX staining. Further, purification of mitotic spindles from synchronized cells show that LOX fails to bind to microtubules in the presence of nocodazole, whereas paclitaxel treated samples showed enrichment in LOX expression, suggesting that LOX binds to stabilized microtubules...
May 17, 2016: Oncotarget
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