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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324191/planarian-homolog-of-puromycin-sensitive-aminopeptidase-djpsa-is-required-for-brain-regeneration
#1
Suge Wu, Bin Liu, Zuoqing Yuan, Xiufang Zhang, Hong Liu, Qiuxiang Pang, Bosheng Zhao
Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) belongs to the M1 zinc metallopeptidase family. PSA is the most abundant aminopeptidase in the brain and plays a role in the metabolism of neuropeptides including those involved in neurodegeneration. A cDNA DjPsa was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It contains a 639-bp open reading frame corresponding to a deduced protein of 212 amino acids. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that DjPsa is expressed in the brain and ventral nerve cords of intact and regenerating animals and demonstrates a tissue and stage-specific expression pattern of DjPsa in developing embryos and larvae...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323983/autophagic-degradation-of-collagen-1a1-by-cortisol-in-human-amnion-fibroblasts
#2
Yabing Mi, Wangsheng Wang, Chuyue Zhang, Chao Liu, Jiangwen Lu, Wenjiao Li, Rujuan Zuo, Leslie Myatt, Kang Sun
Rupture of fetal membranes can initiate parturition at both term and preterm. Collagen is the crucial factor determining the tensile strength of the membranes. Toward the end of gestation, a feed-forward regeneration of cortisol via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 exists in fetal membranes. It remains undetermined whether cortisol contributes to collagen reduction in fetal membranes. Here we have examined whether cortisol accumulation is a causative factor for collagen reduction in human amnion fibroblasts, the major source of collagens in the membranes...
January 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320093/tmf-protects-chondrocytes-from-er-stress-induced-apoptosis-by-down-regulating-gsk-3%C3%AE
#3
Xiaoliang Yuan, Linfu Li, Weimei Shi, Hai Liu, Xianhua Huang, Zhiping Liu, Longhuo Wu
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced chondrocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration. Previous studies showed that 5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF) exhibited chondroprotective activity through inhibiting PGE2-induced ER stress and down regulating the expression of GSK-3β. To further investigate the role of GSK-3β in ER stress-induced chondrocytes apoptosis and the protective role of TMF, GSK-3β siRNA and pcDNA3.1-myc-GSK-3β were employed to knock down and overexpress GSK-3β, respectively, in chondrocytes...
March 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319320/the-endochondral-bone-protein-chm1-sustains-an-undifferentiated-invasive-phenotype-promoting-lung-metastasis-in-ewing-sarcoma
#4
Kristina von Heyking, Julia Calzada-Wack, Stefanie Göllner, Frauke Neff, Oxana Schmidt, Tim Hensel, David Schirmer, Annette Fasan, Irene Esposito, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Poul H Sorensen, Stefan Burdach, Günther H S Richter
Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant, osteolytic bone or soft tissue tumors, which are characterized by EWS-ETS translocations and early metastasis to lung and bone. In this study, we investigated the role of the BRICHOS chaperone domain-containing endochondral bone protein chondromodulin I (CHM1) in ES pathogenesis. CHM1 is significantly over-expressed in ES, and chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data demonstrate CHM1 to be directly bound by an EWS-ETS translocation, EWS-FLI1. Using RNA interference we observed that CHM1 promoted chondrogenic differentiation capacity of ES cells but decreased the expression of osteolytic genes such as HIF1A, IL6, JAG1 and VEGF...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319140/role-of-muscle-il-6-in-gender-specific-metabolism-in-mice
#5
Amalia Molinero, Antonio Fernandez-Perez, Aina Mogas, Mercedes Giralt, Gemma Comes, Olaya Fernandez-Gayol, Mario Vallejo, Juan Hidalgo
The aim of the present work was to further explore the physiological roles of muscle-derived IL-6. Adult-floxed and conditional skeletal muscle IL-6 knock out male and female mice were used to study energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry at rest and during treadmill exercise, and body temperature cycle during the light phase) and energy intake (response to fast/refeeding). We also evaluated the responses to leptin and the activity of the insulin signalling pathway in skeletal muscle and liver by phosphorylation of Akt at Ser 473...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319067/the-histone-demethylase-kdm3a-and-its-downstream-target-mcam-promote-ewing-sarcoma-cell-migration-and-metastasis
#6
M Sechler, J K Parrish, D K Birks, P Jedlicka
Ewing Sarcoma is the second most common solid pediatric malignant neoplasm of bone and soft tissue. Driven by EWS/Ets, or rarely variant, oncogenic fusions, Ewing Sarcoma is a biologically and clinically aggressive disease with a high propensity for metastasis. However, the mechanisms underpinning Ewing Sarcoma metastasis are currently not well understood. In the present study, we identify and characterize a novel metastasis-promotional pathway in Ewing Sarcoma, involving the histone demethylase KDM3A, previously identified by our laboratory as a new cancer-promoting gene in this disease...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318165/-effects-of-rhoa-silencing-on-proliferation-of-tongue-squamous-cancer-cells
#7
Yan Guoxin, Fan Bing, Zou Ronghai, Zhang Jian, Sun Xiaofeng, Tong Lei, Wang Qimin, Han Jinhong, Lu Xufei, Wang Ying, Zhou Yuan, He Zongxuan, Liao Yixiang, Li Ning, Cao Lei, Chen Zhenggang
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of RhoA silencing through RNA interference on proliferation and growth of tongue cancer cells, as well as explored the possible mechanisms of this effect. METHODS: SSC-4 tongue cancer cells were cultured in vitro and then transfected with small interfering RNA to knock down RhoA expression. The tested cells were divided into three groups: experimental group (experimental group 1: transfected with RhoA-siRNA-1; experi-mental group 2: transfected with RhoA-siRNA-2), negative control group (transfected by random sequence NC-siRNA), and blank control group (transfected with Lipofectamine)...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318036/autophagy-determines-efficiency-of-liver-directed-gene-therapy-with-adeno-associated-viral-vectors
#8
Marianna Hösel, Anke Huber, Susanne Bohlen, Julie Lucifora, Giuseppe Ronzitti, Francesco Puzzo, Florence Boisgerault, Ulrich T Hacker, Wilhelmus J Kwanten, Nora Klöting, Matthias Blüher, Alexander Gluschko, Michael Schramm, Olaf Utermöhlen, Wilhelm Bloch, Federico Mingozzi, Oleg Krut, Hildegard Büning
Use of Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for liver-directed gene therapy has shown considerable success, particularly in patients with severe hemophilia B. However, the high vector doses required to reach therapeutic levels of transgene expression caused liver inflammation in some patients that selectively destroyed transduced hepatocytes. We hypothesized that such detrimental immune responses can be avoided by enhancing the efficacy of AAV vectors in hepatocytes. Because autophagy is a key liver response to environmental stresses, we characterized the impact of hepatic autophagy on AAV infection...
March 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316325/silencing-of-the-small-gtpase-diras3-induces-cellular-senescence-in-human-white-adipose-stromal-progenitor-cells
#9
Asim Ejaz, Monika Mattesich, Werner Zwerschke
Inhibition of Akt-mTOR signaling protects from obesity and extends life span in animals. In the present study, we analyse the impact of the small GTPase, GTP-binding RAS-like 3 (DIRAS3), a recently identified weight-loss target gene, on cellular senescence in adipose stromal/progenitor cells (ASCs) derived from human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). We demonstrate that DIRAS3 knock-down (KD) in ASCs induces activation of Akt-mTOR signaling and proliferation arrest. DIRAS3 KD ASCs lose the potential to form colonies and are negative for Ki-67...
March 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316110/proteasome-ubiquitin-receptor-psmd4-is-an-amplification-target-in-breast-cancer-and-may-predict-sensitivity-to-parpi
#10
Marlena S Fejzo, Lee Anderson, Hsiao-Wang Chen, Enrique Guandique, Ondrej Kalous, Dylan Conklin, Dennis J Slamon
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is an enzyme involved in DNA repair under investigation as a chemotherapeutic target. Current randomized phase 3 trials of PARPi in metastatic breast cancer are limited to patients with documented BRCA1/2 mutations and no biomarker of PARPi beyond BRCA status is available. In an effort to identify novel biomarkers for PARP inihibition, we created a cell line (HCC1187/TALRES) resistant to the PARP1 inhibitor talazoparib. Herein we show by array-CGH that HCC1187/TALRES has a selective loss of the proteasome ubiquitin receptor PSMD4 amplicon resulting in significant down-regulation of PSMD4...
March 18, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316027/validation-of-dopamine-receptor-drd1-and-drd2-antibodies-using-receptor-deficient-mice
#11
Tamara Stojanovic, Michaela Orlova, Fernando J Sialana, Harald Höger, Stanislav Stuchlik, Ivan Milenkovic, Jana Aradska, Gert Lubec
Dopamine receptors 1 and 2 (DRD1, DRD2) are essential for signaling in the brain for a multitude of brain functions. Previous work using several antibodies against these receptors is abundant but only the minority of antibodies used have been validated and, therefore, the results of these studies remain uncertain. Herein, antibodies against DRD1 (Merck Millipore AB1765P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-14001, Sigma Aldrich D2944, Alomone Labs ADR-001) and DRD2 (Abcam ab21218, Merck Millipore AB5084P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-5303) have been tested using western blotting and immunohistochemistry on mouse striatum (wild type and corresponding knock-out mice) and when specific, they were further evaluated on rat and human striatum...
March 18, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315838/germline-proliferation-is-regulated-by-somatic-endocytic-genes-via-jnk-and-bmp-signaling-in-drosophila
#12
Yaning Tang, Qing Geng, Di Chen, Shaowei Zhao, Xian Liu, Zhaohui Wang
Signals derived from the microenvironment contribute greatly to tumorigenesis. The underlying mechanism requires thorough investigation. Here, we use Drosophila testis as a model system to address this question, taking the advantage of the ease to distinguish germline and somatic cells and to track the cell numbers. In an EMS mutagenesis screen, we identified Rab5, a key factor in endocytosis, for its non-autonomous role in germline proliferation. The disruption of Rab5 in somatic cyst cells, which escort the development of germline lineage, induced the over-proliferation of under-differentiated but genetically wild-type germ cells...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315680/selenoprotein-s-is-required-for-clearance-of-c99-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-degradation
#13
Jun Ki Jang, Ki Jun Park, Jea Hwang Lee, Kwan Young Ko, Seongman Kang, Ick Young Kim
Amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) is normally cleaved by α-secretase, but can also be cleaved by β-secretase (BACE1) to produce C99 fragments in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. C99 is subsequently cleaved to amyloid β (Aβ), the aggregation of which is known to cause Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, C99 removing is for preventing the disease. Selenoprotein S (SelS) is an ER membrane protein participating in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), one of the stages in resolving ER stress of misfolded proteins accumulated in the ER...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315486/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-in-plants
#14
Xuejun Liu, Chuanxiao Xie, Huaijun Si, Jinxiao Yang
The increasing burden of the world's population on agriculture necessitates the development of more robust crops. As the amount of information from sequenced crop genomes increases, technology can be used to investigate the function of genes in detail and to design improved crops at the molecular level. Recently, an RNA-programmed genome-editing system composed of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-encoded guide RNA and the nuclease Cas9 has provided a powerful platform to achieve these goals...
March 14, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315413/akr1-attenuates-methylmercury-toxicity-through-the-palmitoylation-of-meh1-as-a-subunit-of-the-yeast-ego-complex
#15
Zhi-Ting Zhang, Yousuke Ogiwara, Yuichi Ito, Akinori Hikida, Nobuhiko Miura, Shusuke Kuge, Akira Naganuma, Gi-Wook Hwang
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that palmitoyltransferase activity of Akr1 is required for alleviation of methylmercury toxicity in yeast. In this study, we identified a factor that alleviates methylmercury toxicity among the substrate proteins palmitoylated by Akr1, and investigated the role of this factor in methylmercury toxicity. METHODS: Gene disruption and site-directed mutagenesis were used to examine the relationship of methylmercury toxicity and vacuole function...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315126/screening-for-main-components-associated-with-the-idiosyncratic-hepatotoxicity-of-a-tonic-herb-polygonum-multiflorum
#16
Chunyu Li, Ming Niu, Zhaofang Bai, Congen Zhang, Yanling Zhao, Ruiyu Li, Can Tu, Huifang Li, Jing Jing, Yakun Meng, Zhijie Ma, Wuwen Feng, Jinfa Tang, Yun Zhu, Jinjie Li, Xiaoya Shang, Zhengsheng Zou, Xiaohe Xiao, Jiabo Wang
The main constituents of a typical medicinal herb, Polygonum multiflorum (Heshouwu in Chinese), that induces idiosyncratic liver injury remain unclear. Our previous work has shown that cotreatment with a nontoxic dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and therapeutic dose of Heshouwu can induce liver injury in rats, whereas the solo treatment cannot induce observable injury. In the present work, using the constituent "knock-out" and "knock-in" strategy, we found that the ethyl acetate (EA) extract of Heshouwu displayed comparable idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity to the whole extract in LPS-treated rats...
March 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314794/the-microtubule-associated-protein-map18-affects-rop2-gtpase-activity-during-root-hair-growth
#17
Erfang Kang, Mingzhi Zheng, Yan Zhang, Ming Yuan, Shaul Yalovsky, Lei Zhu, Ying Fu
Establishment and maintenance of the polar site are important for root hair tip growth. We previously reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN18 (MAP18) functions in controlling the direction of pollen tube growth and root hair elongation. Additionally, the Rop GTPase ROP2 was reported as a positive regulator of both root hair initiation and tip growth in Arabidopsis. Both loss-of-function of ROP2 or knock-down of MAP18 leads to a decrease in root hair length, whereas overexpression of either MAP18 or ROP2 causes multiple tips or a branching hair phenotype...
March 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314283/stable-shrna-silencing-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-a-ldha-in-human-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells-fails-to-alter-lactic-acid-production-glycolytic-activity-atp-or-survival
#18
Nzinga Mack, Elizabeth A Mazzio, David Bauer, Hernan Flores-Rozas, Karam F A Soliman
BACKGROUND: In the US, African Americans have a high death rate from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by lack of hormone receptors (ER, PR, HER2/ERRB2) which are otherwise valuable targets of chemotherapy. There is a need to identify novel targets that negatively impact TNBC tumorigenesis. TNBCs release an abundance of lactic acid, under normoxic, hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions; this referred to as the Warburg effect. Accumulated lactic acid sustains peri-cellular acidity which propels metastatic invasion and malignant aggressive transformation...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304295/palmitate-increases-%C3%AE-site-a%C3%AE-pp-cleavage-enzyme-1-activity-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-genesis-by-evoking-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-subsequent-c-ebp-homologous-protein-activation
#19
Gurdeep Marwarha, Stephen Rostad, Jaclyn Lilek, Mason Kleinjan, Jared Schommer, Othman Ghribi
Epidemiological studies implicate diets rich in saturated free fatty acids (sFFA) as a potential risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, high plasma levels of the sFFA palmitic acid (palmitate) were shown to inversely correlate with cognitive function. However, the cellular mechanisms by which sFFA may increase the risk for AD are not well known. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as one of the signaling pathways initiating and fostering the neurodegenerative changes in AD by increasing the aspartyl protease β-site AβPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and amyloid-β (Aβ) genesis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304228/induction-of-xa10-like-genes-in-rice-cultivar-nipponbare-confers-disease-resistance-to-rice-bacterial-blight
#20
Jun Wang, Dongsheng Tian, Keyu Gu, Xiaobei Yang, Lanlan Wang, Xuan Zeng, Zhongchao Yin
Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases throughout the major rice growing regions in the world. The rice disease resistance (R) genes Xa10 confers race-specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the corresponding transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors AvrXa10. Upon bacterial infection, AvrXa10 binds specifically to the effector binding element (EBE) in the promoter of the R gene and activates its expression...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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