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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#1
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432397/downregulation-of-neuropilin-1-on-macrophages-modulates-antibody-mediated-tumoricidal-activity
#2
Kosuke Kawaguchi, Eiji Suzuki, Mariko Nishie, Isao Kii, Tatsuki R Kataoka, Masahiro Hirata, Masashi Inoue, Fengling Pu, Keiko Iwaisako, Moe Tsuda, Ayane Yamaguchi, Hironori Haga, Masatoshi Hagiwara, Masakazu Toi
Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)-expressing macrophages are engaged in antitumor immune functions via various mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the role of NRP-1 on macrophages in antibody-mediated tumoricidal activity. Treatment of macrophages with NRP-1 knockdown or an anti-NRP-1-neutralizing antibody significantly suppressed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and modulated cytokine secretion from macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo studies using a humanized mouse model bearing human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer xenografts showed that antibody-mediated antitumor activity and tumor infiltration of CD4(+) T lymphocytes were significantly downregulated when peripheral blood mononuclear cells in which NRP-1 was knocked down were co-administered with an anti-HER2 antibody...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432347/identification-and-characterization-of-differentially-regulated-type-ivb-pilin-genes-necessary-for-predation-in-obligate-bacterial-predators
#3
Ofir Avidan, Margarita Petrenko, René Becker, Sebastian Beck, Michael Linscheid, Shmuel Pietrokovski, Edouard Jurkevitch
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an obligate predator of bacteria that grows and divides within the periplasm of its prey. Functions involved in the early steps of predation have been identified and characterized, but mediators of prey invasion are still poorly detailed. By combining omics data available for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALO's), we identified 43 genes expressed in B. bacteriovorus during the early interaction with prey. These included genes in a tight adherence (TAD) operon encoding for two type IVb fimbriae-like pilin proteins (flp1 and flp2), and their processing and export machinery...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432122/dual-regulation-of-stat1-and-stat3-by-the-tumor-suppressor-protein-pml-contributes-to-ifn%C3%AE-mediated-inhibition-of-angiogenesis
#4
Kuo-Sheng Hsu, Xuan Zhao, Xiwen Cheng, Dongyin Guan, Ganapati H Mahabeleshwar, Yu Liu, Ernest Borden, Mukesh K Jain, Hung-Ying Kao
IFNs are effective in inhibiting angiogenesis in preclinical models and in treating several angio-proliferative disorders. However, the detailed mechanisms of IFNα-mediated anti-angiogenesis are not completely understood. Stat1/2/3 and PML are IFNα downstream effectors and are pivotal regulators of angiogenesis. Here, we investigated PML's role in the regulation of Stat1/2/3 activity. In Pml knockout (KO) mice, ablation of Pml largely reduces IFNα angiostatic ability in Matrixgel plug assays. This suggested an essential role for PML in IFNα's anti-angiogenic function...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432097/diazotrophy-overcomes-the-deleterious-growth-phenotype-of-glne-deletion-in-azotobacter-vinelandii
#5
Florence Mus, Alex Tseng, Ray Dixon, John W Peters
Overcoming the inhibitory effects of excess environmental ammonium on nitrogenase synthesis or activity, or preventing ammonium assimilation, have both been considered as strategies to increase the amount of fixed nitrogen transferred from bacterial to plant partners in associative or symbiotic plant-diazotroph relationships. The GlnE adenylyltransferase/adenylyl-removing enzyme catalyzes reversible adenylylation of glutamine synthetase (GS), thereby affecting the post translational regulation of ammonium assimilation critical for appropriate coordination of carbon and nitrogen assimilation...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431572/hepatitis-c-virus-ns4b-protein-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-upregulation-of-snail
#6
Bicheng Hu, Shenggao Xie, Yuqian Hu, Wen Chen, Xiaofan Chen, Yi Zheng, Xinxing Wu
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process associated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. HCV infection, HCV core and NS5A protein could induce EMT process, but the role of NS4B on EMT remains poorly understood. METHODS: We overexpressed HCV NS4B protein in HepG2 cells or Huh7.5.1 cells infected by HCVcc, the E-cadherin expression, N-cadherin expression and the EMT-associated transcriptional factor Snail were determined...
April 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431283/zika-virus-infection-of-adult-and-fetal-stat2-knock-out-hamsters
#7
Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Rong Li, Jinxin Miao, Zhongde Wang, John D Morrey, Justin G Julander
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was investigated in adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out (KO) hamsters. Subcutaneous injection of ZIKV of adults resulted in morbidity, mortality, and infection of the uterus, placenta, brain, spinal cord, and testicles, thus providing an opportunity to evaluate congenital ZIKV infection in a second rodent species besides mice. ZIKV-infected cells with morphologies of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed in the testes, which may have implications for sexual transmission and male sterility...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431272/specific-microrna-mrna-regulatory-network-of-colon-cancer-invasion-mediated-by-tissue-kallikrein-related-peptidase-6
#8
Earlphia Sells, Ritu Pandey, Hwudaurw Chen, Bethany A Skovan, Haiyan Cui, Natalia A Ignatenko
Metastatic colon cancer is a major cause of deaths among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Elevated expression of kallikrein 6 (KLK6), a member of a kallikrein subfamily of peptidase S1 family serine proteases, has been reported in CRC and is associated with low patient survival rates and poor disease prognosis. We knocked down KLK6 expression in HCT116 colon cancer cells to determine the significance of KLK6 expression for metastatic dissemination and to identify the KLK6-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) signaling networks in metastatic colon cancer...
April 18, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430879/role-of-phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-pten-in-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction
#9
Adrienn Krauszman, Tak Mak, Katalin Szaszi, Wolfgang M Kuebler
AIMS: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) redistributes blood flow from poorly ventilated to better aerated areas in the lung, thereby optimizing ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q). Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) contraction in response to hypoxia is triggered by Ca2+ influx via transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) cation channels that have translocated to caveolae in the plasma membrane. Since phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was suggested to regulate TRPC6 in endothelial cells, we aimed to define its role in the hypoxic response of PASMCs and as a putative mediator of HPV...
April 18, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430827/dual-role-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-clathrin-adaptor-ap1-in-the-sorting-of-rhoptry-and-microneme-proteins-and-in-parasite-division
#10
Kannan Venugopal, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Nicolas Barois, Jean-Michel Saliou, Anais Poncet, Ludovic Huot, Fabien Sindikubwabo, Mohamed Ali Hakimi, Gordon Langsley, Frank Lafont, Sabrina Marion
Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL)...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430139/the-metalloproteinase-adam28-promotes-metabolic-dysfunction-in-mice
#11
Lakshini Herat, Caroline Rudnicka, Yasunori Okada, Satsuki Mochizuki, Markus Schlaich, Vance Matthews
Obesity and diabetes are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The current study builds upon our previous association studies highlighting that A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 28 (ADAM28) appears to be implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Our novel study characterised the expression of ADAM28 in mice with the metabolic syndrome and used molecular inhibition approaches to investigate the functional role of ADAM28 in the pathogenesis of high fat diet-induced obesity...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429795/cd200-positive-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-augment-the-sensitivity-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-positive-lung-adenocarcinomas-to-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#12
Masayuki Ishibashi, Shinya Neri, Hiroko Hashimoto, Tomoyuki Miyashita, Tatsuya Yoshida, Yuka Nakamura, Hibiki Udagawa, Keisuke Kirita, Shingo Matsumoto, Shigeki Umemura, Kiyotaka Yoh, Seiji Niho, Masahiro Tsuboi, Kenkichi Masutomi, Koichi Goto, Atsushi Ochiai, Genichiro Ishii
Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play important roles in the chemotherapeutic process, especially through influencing the resistance of tumor cells to molecular targeted therapy. Here we report the existence of a special subpopulation of patient-specific-CAFs that augment the sensitivity of EGFR gene mutation-positive lung cancer to the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), gefitinib. When cocultured with EGFR mutation positive lung cancer cells, these CAFs increased the apoptic effect of gefitinib on cancer cells, whereas, in the absence of gefitinib, they did not affect cancer cell viability...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429761/a-specific-nanobody-prevents-amyloidogenesis-of-d76n-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-in-vitro-and-modifies-its-tissue-distribution-in-vivo
#13
Sara Raimondi, Riccardo Porcari, P Patrizia Mangione, Guglielmo Verona, Julien Marcoux, Sofia Giorgetti, Graham W Taylor, Stephan Ellmerich, Maurizio Ballico, Stefano Zanini, Els Pardon, Raya Al-Shawi, J Paul Simons, Alessandra Corazza, Federico Fogolari, Manuela Leri, Massimo Stefani, Monica Bucciantini, Julian D Gillmore, Philip N Hawkins, Maurizia Valli, Monica Stoppini, Carol V Robinson, Jan Steyaert, Gennaro Esposito, Vittorio Bellotti
Systemic amyloidosis is caused by misfolding and aggregation of globular proteins in vivo for which effective treatments are urgently needed. Inhibition of protein self-aggregation represents an attractive therapeutic strategy. Studies on the amyloidogenic variant of β2-microglobulin, D76N, causing hereditary systemic amyloidosis, have become particularly relevant since fibrils are formed in vitro in physiologically relevant conditions. Here we compare the potency of two previously described inhibitors of wild type β2-microglobulin fibrillogenesis, doxycycline and single domain antibodies (nanobodies)...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429395/shrna-knock-down-of-cxcr7-inhibits-tumour-invasion-and-metastasis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization
#14
Zhong-Wei Zhao, Xiao-Xi Fan, Jing-Jing Song, Min Xu, Min-Jiang Chen, Jian-Fei Tu, Fa-Zong Wu, Deng-Ke Zhang, Lu Liu, Li Chen, Xi-Hui Ying, Jian-Song Ji
To investigate the effects of lentiviral vector-mediated shRNA suppressing CXCR7 on tumour invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). HCCLM3 cell lines were cultured and assigned into the CXCR7-shRNA, negative control (NC) and blank groups. The qRT-PCR and Western blotting were applied to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of CXCR7, CXCR4 and MMP-2 in HCCLM3 cells. Cell proliferation and invasion were evaluated by MTT and Transwell assays...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429154/developing-elite-neurospora-crassa-strains-for-cellulosic-ethanol-production-using-fungal-breeding
#15
Joshua C Waters, Andrew Nixon, Morgan Dwyer, Justin C Biffinger, Kwangwon Lee
The demand for renewable and sustainable energy has generated considerable interest in the conversion of cellulosic biomass into liquid fuels such as ethanol using a filamentous fungus. While attempts have been made to study cellulose metabolism through the use of knock-out mutants, there have been no systematic effort to characterize natural variation for cellulose metabolism in ecotypes adapted to different habitats. Here, we characterized natural variation in saccharification of cellulose and fermentation in 73 ecotypes and 89 laboratory strains of the model fungus Neurospora crassa...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428949/p2x1-p2x4-and-p2x7-receptor-knock-out-mice-expose-differential-outcome-of-sepsis-induced-by-%C3%AE-haemolysin-producing-escherichia-coli
#16
Anne-Sofie Greve, Marianne Skals, Steen K Fagerberg, Wulf Tonnus, Svend Ellermann-Eriksen, Richard J Evans, Andreas Linkermann, Helle A Praetorius
α-haemolysin (HlyA)-producing Escherichia coli commonly inflict severe urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, which comprises substantial risk for sepsis. In vitro, the cytolytic effect of HlyA is mainly mediated by ATP release through the HlyA pore and subsequent P2X1/P2X7 receptor activation. This amplification of the lytic process is not unique to HlyA but is observed by many other pore-forming proteins including complement-induced haemolysis. Since free hemoglobin in the blood is known to be associated with a worse outcome in sepsis one could speculate that inhibition of P2X receptors would ameliorate the course of sepsis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428430/collagen-beta-1-o-galactosyltransferase-1-glt25d1-is-required-for-the-secretion-of-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-and-affects-lipid-accumulation
#17
Julie A Webster, Zhe Yang, Yu-Hee Kim, Dorothy Loo, Rasha M Mosa, Hongzhuo Li, Chen Chen
Secretion of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is dependent on post-translational modification (PTM) of conserved lysines in the collagenous domain. This work aims to characterize the enzymes responsible for the PTM of conserved lysines which leads to HMW adiponectin secretion, and to define its significance in relation to obesity.  Collagen beta (1- O ) galactosyltransferase 1 (GLT25D1) was knocked down in HEK cells modified for the stable expression of adiponectin (Adipo-HEK cells) as well as in Simpson Golabi-Behmel-Syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes...
April 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428045/sco2-deficient-mice-develop-increased-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#18
Shauna Hill, Sathyaseelan S Deepa, Kavithalakshmi Sataranatarajan, Pavithra Premkumar, Daniel Pulliam, Yuhong Liu, Vanessa Y Soto, Kathleen E Fischer, Holly Van Remmen
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is an essential transmembrane protein complex (Complex IV) in the mitochondrial respiratory electron chain. Mutations in genes responsible for the assembly of COX are associated with Leigh syndrome, cardiomyopathy, spinal muscular atrophy and other fatal metabolic disorders in humans. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the COX assembly protein Surf1 (Surf1(-/-) mice) paradoxically show a number of beneficial metabolic phenotypes including increased insulin sensitivity, upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, induction of stress response pathways and increased lifespan...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427614/production-of-graphene-quantum-dots-by-ultrasound-assisted-exfoliation-in-supercritical-co2-h2o-medium
#19
Hanyang Gao, Chen Xue, Guoxin Hu, Kunxu Zhu
In this research, three kinds of graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-pristine graphene quantum dots (PGQDs), expanded graphene quantum dots (EGQDs) and graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs)-were produced from natural graphite, expanded graphite, and oxide graphite respectively in an ultrasound-assisted supercritical CO2 (scCO2)/H2O system. The effects of aqueous solution content ratio, system pressure, and ultrasonic power on the yields of different kinds of GQDs were investigated. According to these experiment results, the combination of the intense knocking force generated from high-pressure acoustic cavitation in a scCO2/H2O system and the superior penetration ability of scCO2 was considered to be the key to the successful exfoliation of such tiny pieces from bulk graphite...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427446/respiratory-chain-complex-iii-deficiency-due-to-mutated-bcs1l-a-novel-phenotype-with-encephalomyopathy-partially-phenocopied-in-a-bcs1l-mutant-mouse-model
#20
Saara Tegelberg, Nikica Tomašić, Jukka Kallijärvi, Janne Purhonen, Eskil Elmér, Eva Lindberg, David Gisselsson Nord, Maria Soller, Nicole Lesko, Anna Wedell, Helene Bruhn, Christoph Freyer, Henrik Stranneheim, Rolf Wibom, Inger Nennesmo, Anna Wredenberg, Erik A Eklund, Vineta Fellman
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases due to defective respiratory chain complex III (CIII) are relatively uncommon. The assembly of the eleven-subunit CIII is completed by the insertion of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein, a process for which BCS1L protein is indispensable. Mutations in the BCS1L gene constitute the most common diagnosed cause of CIII deficiency, and the phenotypic spectrum arising from mutations in this gene is wide. RESULTS: A case of CIII deficiency was investigated in depth to assess respiratory chain function and assembly, and brain, skeletal muscle and liver histology...
April 20, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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