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Wheat flour

Stefanie Hackenberg, Mario Jekle, Thomas Becker
Mechanical flour modification is frequently associated with a reduced bread volume due to changed structural and functional properties of protein and starch. To clarify the effect of mechanical flour treatment on the protein network formation at the optimum kneading time (Peaktime), dough was produced with various mechanical starch modification (MSM) levels and visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope before being characterized by protein network analysis (PNA). Dough produced with high MSM showed a reduced branching rate (-14%), a high end-point rate (+25%) and an increased lacunarity (+139%), indicating a poor network connectivity with network interruptions...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Michele A De Santis, Ondrej Kosik, Diana Passmore, Zina Flagella, Peter R Shewry, Alison Lovegrove
The data presented are related to the research article entitled "Comparison of the dietary fibre composition of old and modern durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) genotypes" (De Santis et al., 2018) [1]. This article provides details of the structures of the major dietary fibre components, arabinoxylan and β-glucan, in semolina and wholemeal flour of old and modern Italian durum wheat genotypes grown in two seasons, determined by enzyme digestion followed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (enzyme fingerprinting)...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Chun-Xin Li, Wei-Gang Xu, Rui Guo, Jian-Zhou Zhang, Xue-Li Qi, Lin Hu, Ming-Zhong Zhao
Zhengmai 7698 is an elite winter wheat variety widely cultivated in the Southern regions of the Yellow-Huai River Valley of China. Here, we report the molecular markers used for breeding Zhengmai 7698 and the genome composition of this cultivar revealed using genome-wide SNPs. A total of 26 DNA markers derived from the genes controlling gluten protein quality, grain hardness, flour color, disease resistance, or pre-harvesting sprouting resistance were used during breeding. Consequently, Zhengmai 7698 had strong gluten, high grain hardness index, white flour color, and high levels of resistance to powdery mildew, stripe rust infections, and pre-harvesting sprouting...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Penny Comino, Barbara A Williams, Michael J Gidley
Insoluble dietary fibre is often considered to be fermented slower and to a lesser extent in (models for) the colon than soluble dietary fibre. However these comparisons are typically made for fibre components of different composition. In the case of fibre from refined cereal flours, there is little difference in fibre composition between soluble and insoluble forms, so effects of solubility on fermentation can be tested without this confounding factor. For each of wheat, rye, and hull-less barley, soluble and insoluble fibre fractions from refined flour and models for baking and extrusion had comparable in vitro fermentation rates and extents, with similar levels of short chain fatty acid metabolites...
January 5, 2018: Food & Function
Guojun Lan, Yan Wang, Yiyang Qiu, Xiaolong Wang, Ji Liang, Wenfeng Han, Haodong Tang, Huazhang Liu, Jian Liu, Ying Li
N-Doped mesoporous carbon extrudate with a major quaternary N species has been successfully prepared through direct carbonization of wheat flour/gluten with silica, which is a cheap and convenient method for scale-up production approach. The obtained carbon extrudate metal-free catalyst enables highly efficient production of vinyl chloride monomer through acetylene hydrochlorination, with a superior catalytic performance and excellent stability (>85% conversion and vinyl chloride selectivity over 99% at 220 °C)...
January 4, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Xingfeng Guo, Xiaohong Sun, Yingying Zhang, Ruihong Wang, Xin Yan
Soy protein hydrolyzate has been used as supplements in wheat flour to enhance the nutritional value of its products, but it may negatively affect the gluten properties simultaneously. In order to explore the mechanism of this effect, protein characteristics including disulfide bond, protein composition, intermolecular force of dough proteins, and atomic force microscope images of gluten were obtained. Results showed that disulfide bonds in dough increased when soy protein hydrolyzate was added, but glutenin macropolymer decreased...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mohammed Saleh, Youngseung Lee, Hayat Obeidat
The effects of substituting wheat flour using fractions of blanched or non-blanched sweet potato flour on produced pasta functional characteristics were investigated. The use of sweet potato flour to replace fractions of wheat flour, regardless of blanching treatment, resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase in water holding capacity (WHC), cooked pasta water uptake and solid leaching out and freeze-thaw stability of produced pasta. For instance, treatment containing 40% of non-blanched sweet potato flour and held at 55°C resulted in 27 percentage point increase in WHC compared to the control...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
N G Heredia-Sandoval, A M Calderón de la Barca, E Carvajal-Millán, A R Islas-Rubio
Consumers with gluten-related disorders require gluten-free (GF) foods to avoid an immune response. Alternative to the use of non-gluten containing grains to prepare GF bread, the gluten reactivity has been greatly reduced using a proline specific cleavage enzyme, however, the gluten functionality was lost. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding an amaranth flour blend (AFB) to enzymatically modified wheat-flour proteins on dough functionality and to evaluate the immunoreactivity and acceptability of the prepared bread...
December 20, 2017: Food & Function
Elena Mellado-Ortega, Dámaso Hornero-Méndez
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term storage on the carotenoid pigments present in whole-grain flours prepared from durum wheat and tritordeum. As expected, higher storage temperatures showed a catabolic effect, which was very marked for free carotenoid pigments. Surprisingly, for both cereal genotypes, the thermal conditions favoured the synthesis of lutein esters, leading to an enhanced stability, slower degradation, and, subsequently, a greater carotenoid retention. The putative involvement of lipase enzymes in lutein esterification in flours is discussed, particularly regarding the preferential esterification of the hydroxyl group with linoleic acid at the 3' in the ε-ring of the lutein molecule...
December 11, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Yuqing Zeng, Dingyan Bi, Zhan Yi, Jianwei Lu, Fuhua Zhong, Binfeng Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical efficacy and partial mechanism of medicinal-cake-separated moxibustion for senile osteoporosis. METHODS: Sixty cases of senile osteoporosis were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group according to the random digits table, 30 cases in each one. The two groups were both treated with basic treatment of western medicine. The acupoints included four groups:① Dazhui (GV 14), Dazhu (BL 11) and Ganshu (BL 18); ② Zhongwan (CV 12), Danzhong (CV 17) and Zusanli (ST 36); ③ Pishu (BL 20), Shenshu (BL 23) and Mingmen (GV 4); ④ Shenque (CV 8) and Guanyuan (CV 4)...
May 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Milena Veronezi Silva, Giseli Cristina Pante, Jéssica Cristina Zoratto Romoli, Alexandra Perdigão Maia de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Oliveira da Rocha, Flavio Dias Ferreira, Adriane Lettnin Roll Feijó, Salesia Maria Prodócimo Moscardi, Karina Ruaro de Paula, Erika Bando, Samuel Botião Nerilo, Miguel Machinski
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important of the trichothecenes in terms of amounts and occurrence in wheat. This compound was show to be associated with a glomerulonephropathy involving an increase of immunoglobulin A in humans. This study assessed the occurrence of DON in wheat flour and the exposure of Brazilian teenagers, adults and elderly to this mycotoxin due to intake of wheat flour-based products. DON extraction in wheat flour was carried out by solid phase extraction and the quantification was performed by ultra-high proficiency liquid chromatography with diode-array detection...
December 6, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Fernanda G Santos, Camilly Fratelli, Denise G Muniz, Vanessa D Capriles
The aim of the study was utilized chickpea to create appealing, nutritious, and palatable gluten-free bread (GFB). The performance of chickpea flour (CF) in single and composite GFB formulations was studied with a mixture design and response surface methodology. Six simplex-centroid designs for 3 ingredients were used to identify the ideal proportions of CF in various blends with cassava starch (CS), maize starch (MS), potato starch (PS), and rice flour (RF) achieving the best physical properties. For each design, 3 single, 3 binary, and 3 ternary formulations were prepared...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Monika Šporin, Martina Avbelj, Boris Kovač, Sonja Smole Možina
Wheat bread was enriched with 6%, 10% and 15% dried and milled grape pomace flour from two grape cultivars: 'Merlot' and 'Zelen'. Rheological, textural, sensory and antioxidant properties of the enriched dough and bread were evaluated, and compared to control samples. Grape cultivar had significant impact on the rheological characteristics of the dough, and on the sensory and antioxidant properties of the final bread. Development time and dough stability were longer when 'Merlot' grape pomace flour was added compared to 'Zelen' grape pomace flour and the control...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Luiz Antonio Molotto, Daniele Scheres Firak, Priscila Lagner da Silveira Estevão, Beatriz Boger, Noemi Nagata, Patricio Peralta-Zamora, Daiane Garabeli Trojan
BACKGROUND: The quality control in wheat industry comprises numerous analyses that are time-consuming and demand numerous procedures and specific apparatus. The application of multivariate calibration techniques contributes to the interpretation of the data generated during these analyses. The main purpose of this work was to correlate a representative number of wheat properties with the treatment applied to the wheat seeds using multivariate calibration techniques. RESULTS: During this work, a wheat pilot planting experiment applying different fungicides combination as a seed treatment (Carbendazim, Carbendazim + Thiram, Carboxin + Thiram, and Triadimenol) was conducted...
December 4, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mohammad Rezaei, Nabi Shariatifar, Shahram Shoeibi, Maryam Amir Ahmadi, Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki
Food safety has a direct impact on human health and as such is a growing concern worldwide. Presence of harmful pesticide residue in food is a serious cause for concern among consumers so it is important to monitor levels of pesticides in foods. The aim of this study was simultaneous determination of concentrations of 58 pesticides in 40 wheat flour samples collected from Tehran market in January, 2014. The city under study (Tehran) was divided into five districts and samples were collected independently from each district and sourced from different bakeries (n=40)...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Ravi Kiran Tadapaneni, Ren Yang, Brady Carter, Juming Tang
In recent years, research studies have shown that the thermal resistance of foodborne pathogens in the low moisture foods is greatly influenced by the water activity (aw) at temperatures relevant to thermal treatments for pathogen control. Yet, there has been a lack of an effective method for accurate measurement of aw at those temperatures. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate a new method for measuring aw of food samples at elevated temperatures. An improved thermal cell with a relative humidity and temperature sensor was used to measure the aw of the three different food samples, namely, organic wheat flour, almond flour, and non-fat milk powder, over the temperature range between 20 and 80°C...
December 2017: Food Research International
Roberto Gotti, Elisa Amadesi, Jessica Fiori, Sara Bosi, Valeria Bregola, Ilaria Marotti, Giovanni Dinelli
Phenolic compounds have received great attention among the health promoting phytochemicals in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), mainly because of their strong antioxidant properties. In the present study a simple Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE) method with UV detection was optimized and validated for the quantitation of six of the most important phenolic acids in whole grain i.e., sinapic, ferulic, syringic, p-coumaric, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The separation was achieved in a running buffer composed of sodium phosphate solution (50 mM) in water/methanol 80:20 (v/v) at pH 6...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Preeti Tripathi, Jyothi Lakshmi A, Mukesh Kapoor
The present study was aimed at enhancing phytase (Phy-Ck) production from Citrobacter koseri PM-7 using response surface methodology (RSM) and improving the bioaccessibility of minerals (Fe and Zn) and protein digestibility in high-phytate food using Phy-Ck. A five-variable and three-level central composite design of RSM using wheat bran (6.681% w/v), inoculum level (2.5% v/v), and triton-x-100 (0.2% v/v) resulted in up to 5.57-fold (1.047 U/ml) improvement in Phy-Ck yield from C. koseri PM-7 when compared with fermentation media I & II...
December 1, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Roberto Ciccoritti, Giovanna Terracciano, Alessandro Cammerata, Daniela Sgrulletta, Viviana Del Frate, Laura Gazza, Francesca Nocente
This work describes a process for producing durum wheat flour fractions with high potential nutritional value using grain pre-milling hydrothermal treatment and ultra-fine grinding (micronization), coupled with air classification. The difference of bioactive value of the flour fractions in relation to dietary fibre and phenolic compounds was monitored on four durum wheat cultivars by analysing total arabinoxylans, water extractable arabinoxylans and 5- n-alkylresorcinols. The extractability of the analysed compounds was most significantly affected by hydrothermal treatment...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Yeong-Min Jo, Kyoungwon Cho, Hye-Jung Lee, Sun-Hyung Lim, Jin Sun Kim, Young-Mi Kim, Jong-Yeol Lee
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary global food cereal. However, when compared to wheat, rice has poor food processing qualities. Dough that is made from rice flour has low viscoelasticity because rice seed lacks storage proteins that are comparable to gluten protein from wheat. Thus, current research efforts aim to improve rice flour processing qualities through the transgenic expression of viscoelastic proteins in rice seeds. In this study, we characterized the transgenic expression of wheat glutenin subunits in rice seeds...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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