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Wheat flour

Claudia Vetrani, Francesco Sestili, Marilena Vitale, Ermelinda Botticella, Rosalba Giacco, Ettore Griffo, Giuseppina Costabile, Paola Cipriano, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Angela A Rivellese, Domenico Lafiandra, Gabriele Riccardi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The amylose-amylopectin ratio influences starch properties. A higher amylose content is associated with slower starch digestion thus reducing the postprandial plasma glucose response and improving the overall postprandial metabolism. So far, limited evidence is available on the metabolic effect of wheat-based foods rich in amylose. This randomised controlled study investigated the acute metabolic effects of amylose-rich wheat-based rusks in overweight subjects focusing on potential mechanisms...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hamid Tayebi Khosroshahi, Nosratola D Vaziri, Behzad Abedi, Bahlol Habibi Asl, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Wanghui Jing, Amir Mansur Vatankhah
INTRODUCTION: Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress play a central role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and numerous other complications of CKD. Recent studies demonstrated that consumption of a diet enriched with amylose (HAM-RS2), attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation, and improves intestinal microbiome in CKD rats. The present study was designed to explore the effect of dietary amylose supplementation in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Forty-six stable hemodialysis patients were randomized to receive biscuits containing 20 g/day during the first four weeks and 25 g/day in the next four weeks of either HAM-RS2 or wheat-flour...
March 13, 2018: Hemodialysis International
Vijaya Kancherla, Sarah Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid has been proven to be a highly effective way to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly. Yet, over 100 countries worldwide do not implement this intervention. Our objectives were to identify countries with an immediate potential for mandatory fortification of wheat flour with folic acid and to estimate the number of preventable cases of spina bifida and anencephaly that would be averted each year through the intervention. METHODS: We examined folic acid fortification characteristics in countries as of September 2017...
March 13, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Sule Keskin, Erkan Yalçin, Hazim Özkaya
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of storage and granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.; Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on pH, protein solubility (PS) and gel electrophoresis properties of meal and roller-milled flours of hard (Ceyhan-99 cv.) and soft (Eser cv.) wheat cultivars, respectively, after 6 mo of storage. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique was applied for studying the electrophoretic properties. Hard and soft wheats were infested with non-sexed S...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Pichamon Limcharoenchat, Sarah E Buchholz, Michael K James, Nicole O Hall, Elliot T Ryser, Bradley P Marks
Inoculation methods in pathogen inactivation studies ideally represent conditions that might occur in real-world scenarios. Surface contamination in or on low-moisture foods affects Salmonella thermal resistance, which is critically important for process validation applications. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inoculation protocol on the thermal resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in fabricated low-moisture foods. Almond meal, almond butter, wheat meal, wheat flour, and date paste were inoculated via prefabrication and postfabrication protocols...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Dinka Rees, Grietje Holtrop, Gemma Chope, Kim M Moar, Morven Cruickshank, Nigel Hoggard
The aim of the present study was to determine if the enzyme Aspergillus niger prolyl endoprotease (ANPEP), which degrades the immunogenic proline-rich residues in gluten peptides, can be used in the development of new wheat products, suitable for gluten-sensitive (GS) individuals. We have carried out a double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial with two groups of adults; subjects, self-reporting benefits of adopting a gluten-free or low-gluten diet (GS, n 16) and a control non-GS group (n 12). For the trial, volunteers consumed four wheat breads: normal bread, bread treated with 0·8 or 1 % ANPEP and low-protein bread made from biscuit flour...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Enoch T Quayson, Alessandra Marti, Craig F Morris, Mauro Marengo, Francesco Bonomi, Koushik Seetharaman, Stefania Iametti
The effect of puroindolines (PINs) on structural characteristics of wheat proteins was investigated in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (cv. Svevo) and Triticum aestivum (cv. Alpowa) and in their respective derivatives in which PIN genes were expressed (Soft Svevo) or the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 5D was deleted and PINs were not expressed (Hard Alpowa). The presence of PINs decreased the amount of cold-SDS extractable proteins and the accessibility of protein thiols to specific reagents, but resulted in facilitated solvation of gluten proteins, as detected by tryptophan fluorescence measurements carried out on minimally mixed flour/water mixtures...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ermelinda Botticella, Francesco Sestili, Francesca Sparla, Stefano Moscatello, Lucia Marri, Jose A Cuesta-Seijo, Giuseppe Falini, Alberto Battistelli, Paolo Trost, Domenico Lafiandra
Modifications to the composition of starch, the major component of wheat flour, can have a profound effect on the nutritional and technological characteristics of the flour's end-products. The starch synthesized in the grain of conventional wheats (Triticum aestivum) is a 3:1 mixture of the two polysaccharides amylopectin and amylose. Altering the activity of certain key starch synthesis enzymes (GBSSI, SSIIa and SBEIIa) has succeeded in generating starches containing a different polysaccharide ratio. Here, mutagenesis, followed by a conventional marker-assisted breeding exercise, has been used to generate three mutant lines which produce starch with an amylose contents of 0%, 46% and 79%...
March 2, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Gianfranco Mamone, Giuseppe Iacomino
Triticum monococcum L. is one of the oldest ancestors of wheat. There is some evidence that einkorn encloses forms of gliadin-deriving peptides which may potentially exert a reduced toxicity to consumers with gluten-related disorders. Accordingly, ID331 and Monlis lines were comparatively investigated in this study. The biological effects of gastro-resistant peptides deriving from an in vitro simulated digestion were evaluated on 21 d differentiated Caco-2 cells. Triticum aestivum digested gliadin was included as the positive control...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Anton M Pluschke, Barbara A Williams, Dagong Zhang, Stephen T Anderson, Eugeni Roura, Michael J Gidley
Acute and sustained soluble dietary fibre (SDF) consumption are both associated with improved glucose tolerance in humans and animal models (e.g. porcine). However, the effects on glucose tolerance in grower pigs, adapted to diets with a combination of SDF have not been studied previously. In this experiment, cereal SDF wheat arabinoxylan (AX) and oat β-glucan (BG) were fed individually and in combination to determine the effect on glucose tolerance in jugular vein catheterized grower pigs. Five groups of Large White male grower pigs were fed highly digestible diets containing either 10% AX, 10% BG, 5% AX with 5% BG, a model cereal whole wheat flour (WWF), or a control wheat starch diet (WS) with no SDF...
2018: PloS One
Hongrui Jiang, Navam S Hettiararchchy, Ronny Horax
Sorghum is a gluten-free grain and more attention has been given to the nutritional properties and recently its usage as a wheat replacement in food products. In the present work, protein-enriched sorghum based snack chips, prepared from sorghum meal with soy protein isolates and soy flour to meet the final protein content of 35.7%, were produced. The effect of varying baking powder (1.5-2.5%), dough sheet thickness (0.7-1.7 mm), and baking time (6-12 min) on the physical properties of the snack chips was investigated using a central composite design of response surface methodology...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Mariana B Osuna, Ana M Romero, Carmen M Avallone, María A Judis, Nora C Bertola
The improvement of fatty acids (FA) profile of bread made with bovine fat (BF) and a mixture of flours completely replacing fat with canola oil (CO), or olive oil (OO) was evaluated. Technological and sensory characteristics and overall acceptability of the fortified breads were also studied. The results showed a decrease in saturated FA and a relative increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA compared to bread made with BF. Regarding CO, this caused the higher increase in n3 FA. This effect was maximized in bread made from the mixture of wheat flour (WF) + flaxseed flour (FF) + soybean flour (SF)...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Agnieszka Nawrocka, Magdalena Krekora, Zbigniew Niewiadomski, Antoni Miś
FTIR spectroscopy was used to determine changes in secondary structure, as well as water state, in gluten and model doughs supplemented by four fibre polysaccharides (microcrystalline cellulose, inulin, apple pectin and citrus pectin). The gluten and model doughs were obtained from commercially available wheat gluten and model flour, respectively. The polysaccharides were used in five concentrations: 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 18%. Analysis of the FTIR spectra indicated that polysaccharides could be divided into two groups: first - microcrystalline cellulose and inulin, second - apple and citrus pectins that induced opposite structural changes...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Wen-Kui Li, Hai-Xia Zhang, Yan-Ping Shi
A novel analytical method based on magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was established for three herbicides simultaneous determination. The key of the method was the explored extractant, which was a composite of hollow carbon nanospheres (HCSs) enhanced magnetic carboxylic MWCNTs (HCSs@Fe3 O4 -MWCNTs-COOH). MWCNTs-COOH was inserted in the pores of HCSs by oscillation and sonication with the capillary forces, making the carboxylic groups and structure intervals of the composite increase as compared to MWCNTs-COOH, therefore the extractant exhibited enhanced hydrophilicity, dispersibility, adsorptivity and selectivity...
June 29, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Greg S Garrett, Lynn B Bailey
In this paper we review the evidence basis for prevention of folic acid-sensitive neural tube defects (NTDs) through public health interventions in women of reproductive age (WRA), the proven vehicles for delivery of folic acid, and what is needed to effectively scale these, and provide a snapshot of potential innovations that require future research. Our primary focus is on the global situation affecting large-scale food fortification (LSFF) with folic acid, in particular the fortification of wheat flour and maize meal...
February 16, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Monika Raulf, Santiago Quirce, Olivier Vandenplas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous clinically relevant allergenic molecules enhance the performance of specific (s) IgE tests and improve the specificity of allergy diagnosis. This review aimed to summarize our current knowledge of the high-molecular-weight allergens involved in the development of occupational asthma and rhinitis and to critically analyze the contribution of component-resolved diagnosis in the management of these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a lack of standardization and validation for most available extracts of occupational agents, and assessment of sIgE reactivity to occupational allergen components has been poorly investigated, with the notable exception of natural rubber latex (NRL) and wheat flour...
February 14, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
R-M Guillermic, F Koksel, X Sun, D W Hatcher, M T Nickerson, G S Belev, M A Webb, J H Page, M G Scanlon
Bubbles, found in a huge variety of food products, are known to afford desirable quality attributes, especially those related to texture, mouthfeel and taste. However, the presence of bubbles and their effects on wheat flour noodles is an aspect that has been, until now, largely overlooked, despite the positive and negative connotations of bubbly inclusions on Asian noodle quality. X-rays from a synchrotron source (Biomedical Imaging and Therapy facility at the Canadian Light Source) were used to rapidly and non-destructively acquire tomographic images of noodle dough...
March 2018: Food Research International
G A Casas, D A Rodriguez, H H Stein
This experiment was designed to determine nutrient composition and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, OM, and NDF and the concentration of DE and ME in 10 sources of wheat middlings and in 1 source of red dog that were obtained from different flour mills in the U.S. Twelve growing pigs (initial BW: 31.0 ± 1) were randomly allotted to a 12 × 8 Youden square design with 12 dietary treatments and 8 14-d periods. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for total collection of feces and urine...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Long Chen, Wei Gu, Hai-Yan Xu, Gui-Lian Yang, Xiao-Feng Shan, Guang Chen, Chun-Feng Wang, Ai-Dong Qian
Bacillus velezensis 157 was isolated from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides , and exhibited antagonistic activity against a broad spectrum of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Moreover, B. velezensis 157 also showed various lignocellulolytic activities including cellulase, xylanase, α-amylase, and pectinase, which had the ability of using the agro-industrial waste (soybean meal, wheat bran, sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, rice husk, maize flour and maize straw) under solid-state fermentation and obtained several industrially valuable enzymes...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Amanda C Nogueira, Georgia A R Sehn, Ana Paula Rebellato, Janclei P Coutinho, Helena T Godoy, Yoon K Chang, Caroline J Steel, Maria Teresa P S Clerici
Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage...
February 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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