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Wheat flour

István Monostori, Márk Heilmann, Gábor Kocsy, Marianna Rakszegi, Mohamed Ahres, Susan B Altenbach, Gabriella Szalai, Magda Pál, Dávid Toldi, Livia Simon-Sarkadi, Noémi Harnos, Gábor Galiba, Éva Darko
The use of light-emitting diode (LED) technology for plant cultivation under controlled environmental conditions can result in significant reductions in energy consumption. However, there is still a lack of detailed information on the lighting conditions required for optimal growth of different plant species and the effects of light intensity and spectral composition on plant metabolism and nutritional quality. In the present study, wheat plants were grown under six regimens designed to compare the effects of LED and conventional fluorescent lights on growth and development, leaf photosynthesis, thiol and amino acid metabolism as well as grain yield and flour quality of wheat...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Robert J Henry, Agnelo Furtado, Parimalan Rangan
Analysis of the transcriptome of the developing wheat grain has associated expression of genes with traits involving production (e.g. yield) and quality (e.g. bread quality). Photosynthesis in the grain may be important in retaining carbon that would be lost in respiration during grain filling and may contribute to yield in the late stages of seed formation under warm and dry environments. A small number of genes have been identified as having been selected by humans to optimize the performance of wheat for foods such as bread...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Sabina Jakobi, Mario Jekle, Thomas Becker
In recent years, high-pressure treatment (HPT) has become an established process concerning the preservation of food. However, studies dealing with the structural, and consequently functional modification of non-hydrated starchy matrices (moisture content ≤ 15%) by HPT are missing. To close this knowledge gap, pressure (0⁻600 MPa, 10 min) and pressurization time depending (0⁻20 min, 450 MPa) alterations of wheat flour were investigated. Pressure rise from 0 to 600 MPa or pressurization time rise from 0 to 20 min resulted in a decline of amylopectin content from 68...
May 16, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Craig F Morris
Noodles are a leading food in the world, and color is a key determinant of consumer acceptance. In this review the two prominent forms of wheat noodles are considered, white salted and alkaline. Many of the preparation and evaluation strategies are the same for both, with prominence placed on 'brightness' (L*) or a lack of discoloration (ΔL*), and the absence of 'specks'. All raw noodles darken over time. Increasing protein content of flours almost always translates into darker noodles. Greater discoloration is also associated with higher flour extraction rates, higher ash contents and higher starch damage...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hannes Puntscher, Mary-Liis Kütt, Philipp Skrinjar, Hannes Mikula, Joachim Podlech, Johannes Fröhlich, Doris Marko, Benedikt Warth
Mycotoxins produced by Alternaria fungi are ubiquitous food contaminants, but analytical methods for generating comprehensive exposure data are rare. We describe the development of an LC-MS/MS method covering 17 toxins for investigating the natural occurrence of free and modified Alternaria toxins in tomato sauce, sunflower seed oil, and wheat flour. Target analytes included alternariol (AOH), AOH-3-glucoside, AOH-9-glucoside, AOH-3-sulfate, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), AME-3-glucoside, AME-3-sulfate, altenuene, isoaltenuene, tenuazonic acid (TeA), tentoxin (TEN), altertoxin I and II, alterperylenol, stemphyltoxin III, altenusin, and altenuic acid III...
May 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Da Li, Huaibing Jin, Kunpu Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Faming Wang, Yue Zhao, Naxin Huo, Xin Liu, Yong Q Gu, Daowen Wang, Lingli Dong
Gliadins are a major component of wheat seed proteins. However, the complex homoeologous Gli-2 loci (Gli-A2, -B2 and -D2) encoding the α-gliadins in commercial wheat are still poorly understood. Here we analyzed the Gli-D2 locus of Xiaoyan 81 (Xy81), a winter wheat cultivar. A total of 421.091 kb of Gli-D2 sequence was assembled from sequencing multiple bacterial artificial clones, and 10 α-gliadin genes were annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that Xy81 carried only eight of the α-gliadin genes of the D genome donor Ae...
May 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Caterina Villa, Joana Costa, Cristina Gondar, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Isabel Mafra
Lupine is widely used as an ingredient in diverse food products, but it is also a source of allergens. This work aimed at proposing a method to detect/quantify lupine as an allergen in processed foods based on a normalised real-time PCR assay targeting the Lup a 4 allergen-encoding gene of Lupinus albus. Sensitivities down to 0.0005%, 0.01% and 0.05% (w/w) of lupine in rice flour, wheat flour and bread, respectively, and 1 pg of L. albus DNA were obtained, with adequate real-time PCR performance parameters using the ΔCt method...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Peter R Shewry, Marianna Rakszegi, Alison Lovegrove, Dominic Amos, Delia-Irina Corol, Ahmed Tawfike, Peter Miko, Jane L Ward
The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate and choline, and decreased fructose and succinate, with increasing nitrogen fertilisation. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96kgN/Ha, but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars and organic acids...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jie Li, Xinhao Liu, Xiwen Yang, Yongchun Li, Chenyang Wang, Dexian He
Powdery mildew of wheat is one of the major foliar diseases, causing significant yield loss and flour quality change. In this study, grain protein and starch response to powdery mildew infection were investigated. Total protein, glutenin and gliadin exhibited a greater increase in grains from infected wheat, while the content of total starch and amylopectin was decreased. Comparative proteomic analysis demonstrated that the overabundant protein synthesis-related proteins might facilitate the accumulation of storage proteins in grains from infected plants...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Begüm Zeynep Hançerlioğulları, Hamit Köksel, Fahriye Ceyda Dudak
BACKGROUND: Since the common protease substrates did not give satisfactory results for the determination of Sunn pest protease activity in damaged wheat, different peptide substrates derived from the repeat sequences of high molecular weight glutenin subunits were synthesized. RESULTS: Hydrolysis of peptides by pest protease was determined by HPLC. Among three peptides having the same consensus motifs, peptide1 (PGQGQQGYYPTSPQQ) showed the best catalytic efficiency...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Graziana Difonzo, Antonella Pasqualone, Roccangelo Silletti, Lucrezia Cosmai, Carmine Summo, Vito M Paradiso, Francesco Caponio
Olive leaves are a waste of the olive oil processing industry and represent a good source of phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of olive leaf extract (OLE) on lipid oxidation of baked snacks, like breadsticks, made with wheat flour, extra virgin olive oil (EVO), white wine, and salt. Two EVOs having different peroxide value and antioxidant profile (total phenol content, tocopherols, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity) were considered. The snacks were subjected to oven test or stored in the usual conditions of retailer shelves...
June 2018: Food Research International
Luana Nionelli, Marco Montemurro, Erica Pontonio, Michela Verni, Marco Gobbetti, Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello
Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) flour, spontaneously fermented dough, and type I sourdough. Isolates were identified and further selected based on pro-technological, nutritional and functional properties. Lactobacillus plantarum/s5, Pediococcus acidilactici/s5, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides/s1 were used as mixed starter to produce hemp sourdough. Significant decreases of the concentration of phytic acid, condensed tannins, and total saponins were observed during fermentation...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Mayumi Hachinohe, Naoto Nihei, Shinichi Kawamoto, Shioka Hamamatsu
To clarify the behavior of radioactive cesium (Cs) in buckwheat grains during milling and cooking processes, parameters such as processing factor (Pf) and food processing retention factor (Fr) were evaluated in two lots of buckwheat grains, R1 and R2, with different concentrations of radioactive Cs. Three milling fractions, the husk, bran, and flour fractions, were obtained using a mill and electric sieve. The radioactive Cs (134 Cs + 137 Cs) concentrations in husk and bran were higher than that in grain, whereas the concentration in flour was lower than that in grain...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Santosh Lohumi, Hoonsoo Lee, Moon S Kim, Jianwei Qin, Lalit Mohan Kandpal, Hyungjin Bae, Anisur Rahman, Byoung-Kwan Cho
The potential adulteration of foodstuffs has led to increasing concern regarding food safety and security, in particular for powdered food products where cheap ground materials or hazardous chemicals can be added to increase the quantity of powder or to obtain the desired aesthetic quality. Due to the resulting potential health threat to consumers, the development of a fast, label-free, and non-invasive technique for the detection of adulteration over a wide range of food products is necessary. We therefore report the development of a rapid Raman hyperspectral imaging technique for the detection of food adulteration and for authenticity analysis...
2018: PloS One
Shuxiang Liu, Rossana V Rojas, Peter Gray, Mei-Jun Zhu, Juming Tang
This study investigated the influence of temperature-dependent water activity (aw ) on thermal resistances of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 (E. faecium) and Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 (S. Enteritidis) in wheat flour. The aw for wheat flour samples at 20, 40, and 60 °C was determined by a vapor sorption analyzer and at 75, 80 and 85 °C using custom-built thermal cells with high temperature humidity sensors. Full-factorial isothermal inactivation studies of both strains in sealed aluminum-test-cells included three temperatures (75, 80, and 85 °C) and three aw,25°C levels (0...
September 2018: Food Microbiology
Tomoya Yoshinari, Nanami Takeda, Maiko Watanabe, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi
4,15-Diacetoxyscirpenol (4,15-DAS) is a type A trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. Four modified forms of 4,15-DAS including 7-hydroxydiacetoxyscirpenol, 7,8-dihydroxydiacetoxyscirpenol, 4β,8α,15-triacetoxy-3α,7α-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene and 4,15-diacetylnivalenol were purified from cultures of F. equiseti . An analytical method using a multifunctional column has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 4,15-DAS, its four modified forms, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and neosolaniol in cereals...
April 26, 2018: Toxins
Rui Liu, Chunyue Shi, Yingshi Song, Tao Wu, Min Zhang
We found that oligomeric procyanidins improve the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, and that a more compact and denser gluten microstructure is formed when an increasing amount of oligomeric procyanidins is incorporated. Further, we found that oligomeric procyanidins alter the rheological properties, molecular weight distribution, secondary structure, and thermal stability of gluten, and that oligomeric procyanidins alleviate the loss of extensibility and viscosity after the dough is exposed to high temperatures...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Laura Román, Joana Pico, Beatriz Antolín, Mario M Martinez, Manuel Gómez
Fried battered foods are widely consumed worldwide. In this study, the influence of the replacement of native wheat flour by extruded flours (7.5 and 15%) subjected to different extrusion severities on chicken nuggets was assessed. Microstructure, pick-up, moisture and fat content, texture, colour, volatile profile, and consumer acceptability were evaluated. Extruded flour replacement resulted in batters with improved pick-up with increasing percentage and severity of extrusion treatment. Extruded flour also contributed to a moisture increase, while oil remained practically unchanged...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Charbel El Bcheraoui, Aisha O Jumaan, Michael L Collison, Farah Daoud, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: The effect of the ongoing war in Yemen on maternal and child health (MCH) has not been comprehensively assessed. Providing a situational analysis at the governorate level is critical to assist in planning a response and allocating resources. METHODS: We used multiple national- and governorate-level data sources to provide estimates of 12 relevant MCH indicators in 2016 around child vaccination, and child and maternal nutritional status, and the change in these estimates for the period 2013-2016 based on shock variables including change in gross domestic product, burden of airstrikes per 1000 population, change in access to untreated water sources and unimproved toilets, and change in wheat flour prices...
April 25, 2018: Globalization and Health
Soottawat Benjakul, Supatra Karnjanapratum
Whole wheat cracker fortified with tuna bone bio-calcium (Bio-Ca) powder was developed as health-promoting food rich in calcium. Fortification with different levels of Bi-Ca, over the range of 0-50% of whole wheat flour (w/w) on quality and sensory properties of crackers, were determined. Color, thickness, weight and textural properties of crackers varied with the different levels of Bio-Ca powder added, but it was found that up to 30% could be added without detrimental effect on sensory properties. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that the developed crackers were less porous and had a denser structure, compared to the control...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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