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Benjamin R Pittman-Polletta, Allison Quach, Ali I Mohammed, Michael Romano, Krishnakanth Kondabolu, Nancy J Kopell, Xue Han, Michelle M McCarthy
Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) β oscillations (15-30 Hz) are ele- vated in Parkinson's disease and correlated with movement disability. To date, no experimental paradigm outside of loss of dopamine has been able to specifically elevate β oscillations in the CBT loop. Here, we show that activation of striatal cholinergic receptors selectively increased β oscillations in mouse striatum and motor cortex. In individuals showing simultaneous β increases in both striatum and M1, β partial directed coherence (PDC) increased from striatum to M1 (but not in the reverse direction)...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Lin Li, Mayur Patel, Joyel Almajano, Jerome Engel, Anatol Bragin
The current study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the intra-/extrahippocampal areas during epileptogenesis. Local field potentials were bilaterally recorded from hippocampus (CA1), thalamus, motor cortex, and prefrontal cortex in 13 rats before and after intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) lesions. HFOs in the ripple (100-200 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) ranges were detected and their rates were computed during different time periods (1-5 weeks) after KA-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
March 6, 2018: Epilepsia
Anteneh M Feyissa, Gregory A Worrell, William O Tatum, Deependra Mahato, Benjamin H Brinkmann, Steven S Rosenfeld, Karim ReFaey, Perry S Bechtle, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) and the presence of preoperative seizures, World Health Organization tumor grade, and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutational status in gliomas. METHODS: We retrospectively studied intraoperative electrocorticography recorded in 16 patients with brain tumor (12 presenting with seizures) who underwent awake craniotomy and surgical resection between September 2016 and June 2017...
February 28, 2018: Neurology
Eugene N Kablov, Valentina L Stolyarova, Viktor A Vorozhtcov, Sergey I Lopatin, Olga В Fabrichnaya, Mariia O Ilatovskaya, Fedor N Karachevtsev
RATIONALE: Materials based on the La2 O3 -Y2 O3 -HfO2 system are promising for the production of highly refractory ceramics, e.g., thermal barrier coatings and molds for casting of elements of gas turbine engines. When these ceramics are synthesized or used at high temperatures, selective vaporization of components may take place, resulting in changes in the physicochemical The verties of the materials. Consequently, development of materials based on the La2 O3 -Y2 O3 -HfO2 system requires information on vaporization in this system as well as on its thermodynamics, without which prediction and modeling of their physicochemical properties are impossible...
February 27, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Leslie A Consitt, Gunjan Saxena, Yuriy Slyvka, Brian C Clark, Max Friedlander, Yizhu Zhang, Felicia V Nowak
Evidence suggests that paternal diet can predispose offspring to metabolic dysfunction. Despite this knowledge, little is known regarding the effects of paternal high-fat feeding on offspring insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate for the first time the effects of paternal high-fat feeding on whole-body and skeletal muscle insulin action in young and adult offspring. At 4 weeks of age, founder C57BL6/N males (F0) were fed a high-fat diet or control diet for 12 weeks and then bred with females on a control diet...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Mohamad Shamas, Pascal Benquet, Isabelle Merlet, Mohamad Khalil, Wassim El Falou, Anca Nica, Fabrice Wendling
OBJECTIVE: In this study we aim to identify the key (patho)physiological mechanisms and biophysical factors which impact the observability and spectral features of High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs). METHODS: In order to accurately replicate HFOs we developed virtual-brain/virtual-electrode simulation environment combining novel neurophysiological models of neuronal populations with biophysical models for the source/sensor relationship. Both (patho)physiological mechanisms (synaptic transmission, depolarizing GABAA effect, hyperexcitability) and physical factors (geometry of extended cortical sources, size and position of electrodes) were taken into account...
February 11, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Etienne Blandre, Makoto Shimizu, Asaka Kohiyama, Hiroo Yugami, Pierre-Olivier Chapuis, Rodolphe Vaillon
Easy-to-fabricate, high-temperature, thermally-stable radiators are critical elements for developing efficient and sustainable thermophotovoltaic energy conversion devices. In this frame, a trilayer-on-substrate structure is selected. It is composed of a refractory metal -molybdenum - constituting the substrate and an intermediate thin film sandwiched between two hafnia transparent layers. An in-depth analysis shows that two spectrally distinct interference regimes take place in the hafnia layer-molybdenum thin film substructure, and that backward and forward thermally-emitted waves by the thin film are selected in two distinct interferential resonating cavities...
February 19, 2018: Optics Express
Subhabrata Ghosh, Shivakiran Bhaktha B N
Eu-doped 70 SiO<sub>2</sub> - 23 HfO<sub>2</sub> - 7 ZnO (mol%) glass- ceramic waveguides have been fabricated by sol-gel method as a function of heat-treatment temperatures for on-chip blue-light emitting source applications. Structural evolution of spherical ZnO and spherical as well as rod-like HfO<sub>2</sub> nanocrystalline structures have been observed with heat-treatments at different temperatures. Initially, in the as-prepared samples at 900 °C, both, Eu<sup>2+</sup> as well as Eu<sup>3+</sup> ions are found to be present in the ternary matrix...
February 23, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yong-Hua Zhang, Stephen A Campbell, Sreejith Karthikeyan
Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) based on microneedles is an excellent approach due to its advantages of both traditional transdermal patch and hypodermic syringes. In this paper, the fabrication method of hollow out-of-layer hafnium oxide (HfO2 ) microneedles mainly based on deep reactive ion etching of silicon and atomic layer deposition of HfO2 is described, and the finite element analysis of the microneedles based on ANSYS software is also presented. The fabrication process is simplified by using a single mask...
February 17, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Uwe Schroeder, Claudia Richter, Min Hyuk Park, Tony Schenk, Milan Pešić, Michael Hoffmann, Franz P G Fengler, Darius Pohl, Bernd Rellinghaus, Chuanzhen Zhou, Ching-Chang Chung, Jacob L Jones, Thomas Mikolajick
Recently simulation groups have reported the lanthanide series elements as the dopants that have the strongest effect on the stabilization of the ferroelectric non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic phase in hafnium oxide. This finding confirms experimental results for lanthanum and gadolinium showing the highest remanent polarization values of all hafnia-based ferroelectric films until now. However, no comprehensive overview that links structural properties to the electrical performance of the films in detail is available for lanthanide-doped hafnia...
February 15, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
So-Young Kim, Yun Ji Kim, Ukjin Jung, Byoung Hun Lee
High-k materials such as Al 2 O 3 and HfO 2 are widely used as gate dielectrics in graphene devices. However, the effective work function values of metal gate in graphene FET are significantly deviated from their vacuum work function, which is similar to the Fermi level pinning effect observed in silicon MOSFETs with high-k dielectric. The degree of deviation represented by a pinning factor was much worse with HfO 2 (pinning factor (S) = 0.19) than with Al 2 O 3 (S = 0.69). We propose that the significant pinning-like behaviors induced by HfO 2 are correlated with the oxygen exchange reactions occurred at the interface of graphene and HfO 2 ...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amanda R Martins, Amanda R Crisma, Laureane N Masi, Catia L Amaral, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Lucas H M Bomfim, Bruno G Teodoro, André L Queiroz, Tamires D A Serdan, Rosangela P Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Alice C Rodrigues, Tatiana C Alba-Loureiro, Tania C Pithon-Curi, Renata Gorjao, Leonardo R Silveira, Rui Curi, Philip Newsholme, Sandro M Hirabara
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been reported to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in animal models of insulin resistance, but the involved mechanisms still remain unresolved. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fish oil (FO), a source of n-3 PUFAs, on obesity, insulin resistance and muscle mitochondrial function in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57Bl/6 male mice, 8 weeks old, were divided into four groups: control diet (C), high-fat diet (H), C+FO (CFO) and H+FO (HFO)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ziyuan Wang, Yuhang Wang, Jianfeng Li, Stephan Henne, Boya Zhang, Jianxin Hu, Jianbo Zhang
HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) was proposed as a mobile air conditioners (MACs) refrigerant worldwide. However, its atmospheric degradation product is the highly soluble and phytotoxic trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), which persists in aquatic environments. We used a global 3-D chemical transport model to assess the potential environmental effects resulting from complete future conversion of all MACs to HFO-1234yf in China, the United States and Europe. The annual mean atmospheric concentrations of HFO-1234yf were 2...
January 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hari Guragain, Jan Cimbalnik, Matt Stead, David M Groppe, Brent M Berry, Vaclav Kremen, Daniel Kenney-Jung, Jeffrey Britton, Gregory A Worrell, Benjamin H Brinkmann
OBJECTIVE: To assess the variation in baseline and seizure onset zone interictal high-frequency oscillation (HFO) rates and amplitudes across different anatomic brain regions in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Seventy patients who had wide-bandwidth (5 kHz) intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings during surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy between 2005 and 2014 who had high-resolution MRI and CT imaging were identified. Discrete HFOs were identified in 2-hour segments of high-quality interictal iEEG data with an automated detector...
February 20, 2018: Neurology
Jack Strand, Moloud Kaviani, Valeri V Afanas'ev, Judit Lisoni, Alexander L Shluger
We demonstrate that electron trapping at intrinsic precursor sites is endemic to non-glass-forming amorphous oxide films. The energy distributions of trapped electron states in ultra-pure prototype amorphous (a)-HfO<sub>2</sub> insulator obtained from exhaustive photo-depopulation experiments demonstrate the electron states in the energy range of 2-3 eV below the oxide conduction band. These energy distributions are compared to the results of density functional calculations of a-HfO<sub>2</sub> models of realistic density...
January 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
Wanitchaya Minta, Siripong Palee, Duangkamol Mantor, Wissuta Sutham, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Sirinart Kumfu, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
The incidence of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome increases after the onset of menopause, suggesting estrogen has a vital role in their prevention. Mitochondrial dynamics are known to play an important role in the maintenance of cardiac physiological function. However, the effects of estrogen deprivation on cardiometabolic status and cardiac mitochondrial dynamics under conditions of obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. We hypothesized that estrogen deprivation aggravates cardiac dysfunction through increased cardiac mitochondrial fission in obese-insulin resistant rats...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Yasushi Iimura, Kevin Jones, Lynne Takada, Itsuki Shimizu, Misaki Koyama, Kyoko Hattori, Yushi Okazawa, Yutaka Nonoda, Eishi Asano, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Cristina Go, Ayako Ochi, O Carter Snead, Elizabeth J Donner, James T Rutka, James M Drake, Hiroshi Otsubo
OBJECTIVE: Epileptic spasms (ES) often become drug-resistant. To reveal the electrophysiological difference between children with ES (ES+) and without ES (ES-), we compared the occurrence rate (OR) of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) and the modulation index (MI) of coupling between slow and fast oscillations. In ES+, we hypothesized that (1) pathological HFOs are more widely distributed and (2) slow oscillations show stronger coupling with pathological HFOs than in ES-. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 24 children with drug-resistant multilobar onset epilepsy, who underwent intracranial video electroencephalography prior to multilobar resections...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsia
Ahmed El-Nawawy, Azza Moustafa, Hassan Heshmat, Ahmed Abouahmed
El-Nawawy A, Moustafa A, Heshmat H, Abouahmed A. High frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional mechanical ventilation in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: A randomized controlled study. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 130-143. The aim of this prospective randomized study is to compare the outcomes of the early use of either high frequency oscillation (HFO) or conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in patients with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS). We allocated two hundred PARDS patients over 5 years in 1:1 ratio to either mode...
2017: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Nicolas Roehri, Francesca Pizzo, Stanislas Lagarde, Isabelle Lambert, Anca Nica, Aileen McGonigal, Bernard Giusiano, Fabrice Bartolomei, Christian-George Bénar
OBJECTIVE: High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in intracerebral EEG (stereoelectroencephalography, SEEG) are considered as better biomarkers of epileptogenic tissues than spikes. How this can be applied at the patient level remains poorly understood. We investigated how well the HFOs and the spikes can predict epileptogenic regions with a large spatial sampling at the patient level. METHODS: We analyzed non-REM sleep SEEG recordings sampled at 2,048Hz of thirty patients...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
Apostolos Mikroulis, Christos Panagiotis Lisgaras, Caterina Psarropoulou
We have earlier demonstrated that a Status Epilepticus (SE) during CNS development has long-lasting effects on cholinergic neurotransmission, detectable in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we aimed to localize changes in temporal (T) vs septal (S) hippocampus and to correlate adult CA3 interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) frequency changes to those of Ripples (R) and Fast Ripples (FR) of the High-Frequency Oscillations (HFOs). Spontaneous IEDs were induced by bathing slices in Mg2+ -free ACSF or in 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, 50 µM) and data were analyzed separately for each model...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
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