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Cerebral blood flow

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430966/decreased-thromboembolic-stroke-but-not-atherosclerosis-or-vascular-remodeling-in-mice-with-rock2-deficient-platelets
#1
Nikola Sladojevic, Goo Taeg Oh, Hyung-Hwan Kim, Lea M Beaulieu, Hervé Falet, Karol Kaminski, Jane E Freedman, James K Liao
Aims: Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase (ROCK)-2 is an important mediator of the actin cytoskeleton. Because changes in the actin cytoskeleton are critical for platelet function, we hypothesized that ROCK2 in platelets will play important role in thrombosis and can be potentially a target for therapeutic intervention in thromboembolic stroke. Methods and Results: We generated platelet-specific ROCK2-deficient mice (ROCK2 Plt-/- ) from conditional ROCK2 fl°x/fl°x and platelet factor (PF)-4-Cre transgenic mice...
April 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430000/neuroprotective-and-regenerative-roles-of-intranasal-wnt-3a-administration-after-focal-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#2
Zheng Zachory Wei, James Ya Zhang, Tammi M Taylor, Xiaohuan Gu, Yingying Zhao, Ling Wei
Wnt signaling is a conserved pathway involved in expansion of neural progenitors and lineage specification during development. However, the role of Wnt signaling in the post-stroke brain has not been well-elucidated. We hypothesized that Wnt-3a would play an important role for neurogenesis and brain repair. Adult male mice were subjected to a focal ischemic stroke targeting the sensorimotor cortex. Mice that received Wnt-3a (2 µg/kg/day, 1 h after stroke and once a day for the next 2 days, intranasal delivery) had reduced infarct volume compared to stroke controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429081/cognitive-and-mood-improvements-following-acute-supplementation-with-purple-grape-juice-in-healthy-young-adults
#3
C F Haskell-Ramsay, R C Stuart, E J Okello, A W Watson
PURPOSE: Berry-derived phenolic compounds found in grapes have been associated with a number of health benefits, including the augmentation of human brain function and cognition. Previous intervention studies of Concord grape juice have demonstrated improvement to memory and driving ability following 3- to 4-month supplementation in middle-aged and older adults. However, no studies to date have demonstrated acute cognitive benefits of grape juice, and investigation of these effects in young adults is lacking...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427869/ischemic-preconditioning-with-ketogenic-diet-improves-brain-ischemic-tolerance-through-increased-extracellular-adenosine-levels-and-hypoxia-inducible-factors
#4
Qi Yang, Min Guo, Xun Wang, Yanxin Zhao, Hongyan Ding, Mei Cui, Qiang Dong
Achieving a prolonged neuroprotective state reduces brain damage and neurological dysfunction characteristic of brain ischemia. The ketogenic diet (KD) has disease-modifying effects in several neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we fed mice with KD for three weeks and performed reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the animals. KD-fed mice had significantly reduced infarct volume, increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and extracellular adenosine levels in both ischemic and reperfusion stages...
April 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427768/syndrome-of-transient-headache-and-neurological-deficits-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-lymphocytosis-handl-in-a-patient-with-confusional-symptoms-diffuse-eeg-abnormalities-and-bilateral-vasospasm-in-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
M Hidalgo de la Cruz, R Domínguez Rubio, E Luque Buzo, F Díaz Otero, P Vázquez Alén, J Orcajo Rincón, J Prieto Montalvo, A Contreras Chicote, F Grandas Pérez
INTRODUCTION: HaNDL syndrome (transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis) is characterised by one or more episodes of headache and transient neurological deficits associated with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. To date, few cases of HaNDL manifesting with confusional symptoms have been described. Likewise, very few patients with HaNDL and confusional symptoms have been evaluated with transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). TCD data from patients with focal involvement reveal changes consistent with vasomotor alterations...
April 17, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425701/the-effects-of-glutamate-receptor-activation-on-local-oxygen-changes
#6
Lindsay Walton, Nick G Boustead, Susan Carroll, R Mark Wightman
Glutamate is ubiquitous throughout the brain and serves as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Neurons require energy to fire, and energetic substrates (i.e., O2, glucose) are renewed via cerebral blood flow (CBF) to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Magnetic resonance brain functionality studies rely on the assumption that CBF and neuronal activity are coupled consistently throughout the brain; however, the origin of neuronal activity does not always coincide with signals indicative of energy consumption (e...
April 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421854/reduction-of-bold-interference-in-pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-towards-quantitative-fmri
#7
Geoffrey Warnock, Pinar S Özbay, Felix P Kuhn, Daniel Nanz, Alfred Buck, Andreas Boss, Cristina Rossi
Fluctuations in blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal and perfusion affect the quantification of changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), coupled to neuronal activity, in arterial spin labeling (ASL). Subtraction methods for control and labeled MR images (i.e. pair-wise, surround subtraction, and subtraction of sinc-interpolated images), postulated to mitigate this interference in pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL), were evaluated by comparison with quantitative (15)O-water PET. At rest, a good agreement in the CBF values was found between PET and MRI for each of the subtraction methods...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421851/global-and-multi-focal-changes-in-cerebral-blood-flow-during-subthalamic-nucleus-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Asim M Mubeen, Babak Ardekani, Michele Tagliati, Ron Alterman, Vijay Dhawan, David Eidelberg, John J Sidtis
Electrical stimulation of subthalamic nuclei (STN) is a widely used therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). While deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN alters the neurophysiological activity in basal ganglia, the therapeutic mechanism has not been established. A positron emission tomography (PET) study of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during speech production in PD subjects treated with STN-DBS found significant increases in global (whole-brain) CBF.(1) That study utilized a series of whole-slice regions of interest to obtain global CBF values...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421173/cerebral-autoregulation-brain-injury-and-the-transitioning-premature-infant
#9
REVIEW
Zachary A Vesoulis, Amit M Mathur
Improvements in clinical management of the preterm infant have reduced the rates of the two most common forms of brain injury, such as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter injury, both of which are contributory factors in the development of cerebral palsy. Nonetheless, they remain a persistent challenge and are associated with a significant increase in the risk of adverse neurodevelopment outcomes. Repeated episodes of ischemia-reperfusion represent a common pathway for both forms of injury, arising from discordance between systemic blood flow and the innate regulation of cerebral blood flow in the germinal matrix and periventricular white matter...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420470/-explore-objective-clinical-variables-for-detecting-delirium-in-icu-patients-a-prospective-case-control-study
#10
Xiaojiang Liu, Jie Lyu, Youzhong An
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case-control study is to explore clinical objective variables for diagnosing delirium of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: According to the method of prospective case-control study, critical adult postoperative patients who were transferred to ICU of Peking University People's Hospital from October 2015 to May 2016 and needed mechanical ventilation were included. After evaluating the Richmond agitation sedation scale score (RASS), the patients whose score were -2 or greater were sorted into two groups, delirium and non-delirium, according to the confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU)...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419552/feasibility-and-utility-of-portable-ultrasound-during-retrieval-of-sick-preterm-infants
#11
Kathryn Browning Carmo, Tracey Lutz, Mark Greenhalgh, Andrew Berry, Martin Kluckow, Nick Evans
AIM: Document the incidence of haemodynamic pathology in critically ill preterm newborns requiring transport. METHOD: A transport neonatologist performed cardiac and cerebral ultrasound before and after transportation of infants born ≤ 30 weeks gestation. RESULTS: 44 newborns were studied 2008 - 2015, 21 transported by road, 19 by helicopter and 4 by fixed wing. Median birth weight 1130g (680-1960g), median gestation 27 weeks (23-30) and 30/44 were male...
April 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419229/non-invasive-assessment-of-cerebral-oxygen-metabolism-following-surgery-of-congenital-heart-disease
#12
Felix Neunhoeffer, Katharina Sandner, Milena Wiest, Christoph Haller, Hanna Renk, Matthias Kumpf, Christian Schlensak, Michael Hofbeck
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral protection is a major issue in the treatment of infants with complex congenital heart disease. We tested a new device combining tissue spectrometry and laser Doppler flowmetry for non-invasive determination of cerebral oxygen metabolism following cardiac surgery in infants. METHODS: We prospectively measured regional cerebral oxygen saturation cSO 2 and microperfusion (rcFlow) in 43 infants 12-24 h following corrective ( n  = 30) or palliative surgery ( n  = 13) of congenital heart defects...
April 16, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417646/cerebral-hemodynamic-assessment-and-neuroimaging-across-the-lifespan-in-sickle-cell-disease
#13
Lori C Jordan, Michael R DeBaun
Children and adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have a higher risk of strokes compared to age- and race-matched peers. Velocity in the middle cerebral or distal internal carotid artery as measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound is a recognized method to identify children but not adults with SCA at high-risk for first stroke. For both children and adults with SCA that have had a stroke, no methods clearly identify individuals at highest risk of recurrent strokes or an initial silent stroke, the most common neurological injury...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416813/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val-66-met-genotype-and-ovarian-steroids-interactively-modulate-working-memory-related-hippocampal-function-in-women-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#14
S-M Wei, E B Baller, P D Kohn, J S Kippenhan, B Kolachana, S J Soldin, D R Rubinow, P J Schmidt, K F Berman
Preclinical evidence suggests that the actions of ovarian steroid hormones and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are highly convergent on brain function. Studies in humanized mice document an interaction between estrus cycle-related changes in estradiol secretion and BDNF Val(66)Met genotype on measures of hippocampal function and anxiety-like behavior. We believe our multimodal imaging data provide the first demonstration in women that the effects of the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism on hippocampal function are selectively modulated by estradiol...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414895/the-impact-of-ct-perfusion-threshold-on-predicted-viable-and-nonviable-tissue-volumes-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#15
Xuya Huang, Dheeraj Kalladka, Bharath Kumar Cheripelli, Fiona Catherine Moreton, Keith W Muir
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perfusion imaging is used for patient selection in clinical practice and trials. Postprocessing and definitions of tissue viability are nevertheless not standardized. We compared the lesion volumes generated with two well-recognized perfusion tissue definitions in a single-center phase 2 thrombolysis study. METHODS: We analyzed perfusion imaging data from the Alteplase-Tenecteplase Trial Evaluation for Stroke Thrombolysis (ATTEST) study using two popular tissue viability thresholds (ischemic core definition: (1) cerebral blood volume < 2...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412909/prolonged-perfusion-predicts-recurrent-ischemic-stroke-but-not-transient-ischemic-attack-in-patients-with-symptomatic-intracranial-stenosis
#16
Linfang Lan, Xinyi Leng, Vincent Ip, Thomas Leung, Yannie Soo, Jill Abrigo, Ka Sing Wong
BACKGROUND: Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is the dominant cause for ischemic stroke worldwide, with hemodynamic compromise as a crucial contributor. Prolonged perfusion is commonly observed in ICAS patients on CT perfusion (CTP) maps, while the clinical significance of this perfusion pattern has not been elucidated. METHODS: Patients having symptomatic ICAS of 50-99% stenosis with sustained downstream cerebral blood flow (CBF) were enrolled into this study...
April 13, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412852/transitional-hemodynamics-in-infants-of-diabetic-mothers-by-targeted-neonatal-echocardiography-electrocardiography-and-peripheral-flow-study
#17
Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Giuseppa Pinello, Ettore Piro, Mario Giuffrè, Simona La Placa, Giovanni Corsello
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic alterations of intrauterine environment in diabetes mellitus (DM) lead to fetal cardiac dysfunctions that can persist after birth. The aim of the study was to assess the cardiovascular adaptation in infants born to diabetic mothers (IDM) with different degrees of glycometabolic control, in relation to revised guidelines for diagnosis of DM and quality improvements in neonatal care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational case-control study was conducted on IDM with gestational, type 1, and type 2 DM...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412669/measurement-of-frontal-lobe-volume-and-thalamic-volume-in-fetuses-with-congenital-heart-disease-at-different-gestational-weeks-using-three-dimensional-ultra-sonography-and-its-clinical-value
#18
Zhu Li-Fei, Liu Hong-Xiong, H E Ying
Our study aimed to investigate the measurement of frontal lobe volume and thalamic volume in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) at different gestational weeks using three dimensional (3-D) ultrasonography and its clinical value. Then, 238 pregnant women who received obstetric ultrasonography in ultrasound department of Internal Medicine of our hospital were enrolled between March 2013 to April 2014. In this study, 85 fetuses were diagnosed to develop CHD by prenatal fetal echocardiography, and the other 153 fetuses were normal...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411965/dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-assessment-using-extracranial-internal-carotid-artery-doppler-ultrasonography
#19
Nai-Fang Chi, Hsiao-Lun Ku, Chen-Yen Wang, Yanhui Liu, Lung Chan, Ying-Chin Lin, Chung-Kang Peng, Vera Novak, Han-Hwa Hu, Chaur-Jong Hu
Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is frequently used to assess dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA); however, this is difficult in patients with poor temporal bone windows. In the study described here, we investigated the agreement and sensitivity of dCA indices determined from the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and those determined from the MCA. Measurements for 32 stroke patients and 59 controls were analyzed. Measurement of the mean flow correlation index (Mx) and transfer function analysis based on spontaneous blood pressure fluctuation were simultaneously performed for the extracranial ICA and MCA...
April 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410590/early-predictors-of-poor-outcome-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#20
Louise Martinell, Niklas Nielsen, Johan Herlitz, Thomas Karlsson, Janneke Horn, Matt P Wise, Johan Undén, Christian Rylander
BACKGROUND: Early identification of predictors for a poor long-term outcome in patients who survive the initial phase of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) may facilitate future clinical research, the process of care and information provided to relatives. The aim of this study was to determine the association between variables available from the patient's history and status at intensive care admission with outcome in unconscious survivors of OHCA. METHODS: Using the cohort of the Target Temperature Management trial, we performed a post hoc analysis of 933 unconscious patients with OHCA of presumed cardiac cause who had a complete 6-month follow-up...
April 13, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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