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Cerebral blood flow

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458187/mri-techniques-to-measure-arterial-and-venous-cerebral-blood-volume
#1
Jun Hua, Peiying Liu, Tae Kim, Manus Donahue, Swati Rane, J Jean Chen, Qin Qin, Seong-Gi Kim
The measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) has been the topic of numerous neuroimaging studies. To date, however, most in vivo imaging approaches can only measure CBV summed over all types of blood vessels, including arterial, capillary and venous vessels in the microvasculature (i.e. total CBV or CBVtot). As different types of blood vessels have intrinsically different anatomy, function and physiology, the ability to quantify CBV in different segments of the microvascular tree may furnish information that is not obtainable from CBVtot, and may provide a more sensitive and specific measure for the underlying physiology...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458114/severity-dependent-influence-of-isocapnic-hypoxia-on-reaction-time-is-independent-of-neurovascular-coupling
#2
Hannah G Caldwell, Geoff B Coombs, Michael M Tymko, Daniela Nowak-Flück, Philip N Ainslie
With exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia, global cerebral oxygen delivery is maintained via increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF); therefore, regional and localized changes in oxygen tension may explain neurocognitive impairment. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the close temporal and regional relationship of CBF to changes in neural activity and may aid in explaining the localized CBF response with cognitive activation. High-altitude related cognitive impairment is likely affected by hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction that may influence regional CBF regulation independent of hypoxia...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457643/performing-under-pressure-hypertension-and-the-regulation-of-cerebral-oxygen-delivery
#3
Ryan L Hoiland
Reductions in arterial oxygen content (CaO2 ) elicit increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) that are adequate to maintain convective delivery of oxygen to the brain in healthy humans (i.e. cerebral oxygen delivery, CDO2 ). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457144/functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-enabling-routine-functional-brain-imaging
#4
Meryem A Yücel, Juliette J Selb, Theodore J Huppert, Maria Angela Franceschini, David A Boas
Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) maps human brain function by measuring and imaging local changes in hemoglobin concentrations in the brain that arise from the modulation of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism by neural activity. Since its advent over 20 years ago, researchers have exploited and continuously advanced the ability of near infrared light to penetrate through the scalp and skull in order to non-invasively monitor changes in cerebral hemoglobin concentrations that reflect brain activity...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456122/blood-perfusion-in-left-inferior-and-middle-frontal-gyrus-predicts-communication-skills-in-schizophrenia
#5
Andrea Cantisani, Katharina Stegmayer, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Sebastian Walther
Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders, severely affecting patients' community functioning. Functional capacity (FC) describes the skills necessary for successful functional outcome (FO), such as financial knowledge or communication skills. We investigated whether resting-state cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured at baseline with arterial spin labeling (ASL) would predict FC or FO at a 6-months follow-up in 27 schizophrenia patients. A negative linear association was noted between FC and rCBF in the left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, areas involved in language processing, suggesting a potential relationship between cerebral perfusion and prospective FC in schizophrenia...
February 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455683/defining-ct-perfusion-thresholds-for-infarction-in-the-golden-hour-and-with-ultra-early-reperfusion
#6
Mohamed Najm, Fahad S Al-Ajlan, Mari E Boesen, Lisa Hur, Chi Kyung Kim, Enrico Fainardi, Michael D Hill, Andrew M Demchuk, Mayank Goyal, Ting Y Lee, Bijoy K Menon
In this brief report, computed tomography perfusion (CTP) thresholds predicting follow-up infarction in patients presenting 20 to 23 seconds and cerebral blood flow <5 to 7 ml/min-1/(100 g)-1 or relative cerebral blood flow <0.14 to 0.20 optimally predicted the final infarct. These thresholds are stricter than published thresholds.
February 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454960/a-case-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-from-ruptured-oncotic-fusiform-aneurysms-from-choriocarcinoma-metastasis-treated-with-aneurysmectomy-and-vessel-reconstruction
#7
Yuichi Ito, Yoshio Araki, Takashi Izumi, Sho Okamoto, Masaaki Kimura, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
BACKGROUND: Oncotic aneurysm is a rare condition with a high mortality rate. Since no consensus has been reached regarding therapeutic strategy for ruptured oncotic aneurysm, treatment remains challenging. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 35-year-old woman developed sudden onset of severe headache. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral angiography revealed two fusiform aneurysms in the distal portion of the left middle cerebral artery. Aneurysmectomy with vessel reconstruction using a superficial temporal artery graft was performed to maintain blood flow to the distal middle cerebral artery...
February 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454933/effects-of-resting-state-condition-on-reliability-trait-specificity-and-network-connectivity-of-brain-function-measured-with-arterial-spin-labeled-perfusion-mri
#8
Zhengjun Li, Marta Vidorreta, Natalie Katchmar, David C Alsop, Daniel H Wolf, John A Detre
Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) provides imaging biomarkers of task-independent brain function that can be associated with clinical variables or modulated by interventions such as behavioral training or pharmacological manipulations. These biomarkers include time-averaged regional brain function as manifested by regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI and correlated temporal fluctuations of function across brain networks with either ASL or blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454932/preserved-canonicality-of-the-bold-hemodynamic-response-reflects-healthy-cognition-insights-into-the-healthy-brain-through-the-window-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Monroe P Turner, Nicholas A Hubbard, Dinesh K Sivakolundu, Lyndahl M Himes, Joanna L Hutchison, John Hart, Jeffrey Spence, Elliot Frohman, Teresa Frohman, Darin Okuda, Bart Rypma
The hemodynamic response function (HRF), a model of brain blood-flow changes in response to neural activity, reflects communication between neurons and the vasculature that supplies these neurons in part by means of glial cell intermediaries (e.g., astrocytes). Intact neural-vascular communication might play a central role in optimal cognitive performance. This hypothesis can be tested by comparing healthy individuals to those with known white-matter damage and impaired performance, as seen in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454105/assessing-the-repeatability-of-absolute-cmro-2-oef-and-haemodynamic-measurements-from-calibrated-fmri
#10
Alberto Merola, Michael A Germuska, Kevin Murphy, Richard G Wise
As energy metabolism in the brain is largely oxidative, the measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) is a desirable biomarker for quantifying brain activity and tissue viability. Currently, PET techniques based on oxygen isotopes are the gold standard for obtaining whole brain CMRO 2 maps. Among MRI techniques that have been developed as an alternative are dual calibrated fMRI (dcFMRI) methods, which exploit simultaneous measurements of BOLD and ASL signals during a hypercapnic-hyperoxic experiment to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation...
February 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453753/pediatric-astrocytic-tumor-grading-comparison-between-arterial-spin-labeling-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-mri-perfusion
#11
Giovanni Morana, Domenico Tortora, Serena Staglianò, Paolo Nozza, Samantha Mascelli, Mariasavina Severino, Gianluca Piatelli, Alessandro Consales, Maarten Lequin, Maria Luisa Garrè, Andrea Rossi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI perfusion with respect to diagnostic performance in tumor grading in pediatric patients with low- and high-grade astrocytic tumors (AT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 37 children with histologically proven treatment naive low- and high-grade AT who underwent concomitant pre-operative ASL and DSC MRI perfusion. Studies were performed on a 1...
February 16, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452984/quantitative-cerebrovascular-pathology-in-a-community-based-cohort-of-older-adults
#12
Swati Rane, Natalie Koh, Peter Boord, Tara Madhyastha, Mary K Askren, Suman Jayadev, Brenna Cholerton, Eric Larson, Thomas J Grabowski
Cerebrovascular disease, especially small vessel pathology, is the leading comorbidity in degenerative disorders. We applied arterial spin labeling and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) imaging to quantify small vessel disease and study its effect on cognitive symptoms in nondemented older adults from a community-based cohort. We evaluated baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin labeling and percent signal change as a marker of CVR using blood-oxygen level-dependent imaging following a breath-hold stimulus...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452906/extracranial-arterial-wall-volume-is-increased-and-shows-relationships-with-vascular-mri-measures-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Stephen Ball, Sarah Al-Bachari, Laura M Parkes, Hedley C A Emsley, Charles N McCollum
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by dementia. Cardiovascular risk factors and spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) are strongly associated with Alzheimer's (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). We measured SCE in the middle cerebral artery and arterial wall volume in the extracranial arteries in patients with IPD and controls, and explored the relationships with structural and physiological MRI brain neurovascular measures...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452265/characterizing-the-modulation-of-resting-state-fmri-metrics-by-baseline-physiology
#14
Powell P W Chu, Ali M Golestani, Jonathan B Kwinta, Yasha B Khatamian, J Jean Chen
The blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal is commonly used to assess functional connectivity across brain regions, particularly in the resting state (rs-fMRI). However, the BOLD fMRI signal is not merely a representation of neural activity, but a combination of neural activity and vascular response. These aspects of the BOLD signal are easily influenced by systemic physiology, potentially biasing BOLD-based functional connectivity measurements. In this work, we focus on the following physiological modulators of the BOLD signal: cerebral blood flow (CBF), venous blood oxygenation, and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
February 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452205/impaired-cerebral-microcirculation-induced-by-ammonium-chloride-in-rats-is-due-to-cortical-adenosine-release
#15
Peter Nissen Bjerring, Esben Jannik Bjerrum, Fin Stolze Larsen
BACKGROUND: Liver failure results in hyperammonaemia, impaired regulation of cerebral microcirculation, encephalopathy and death. However, the key mediator that alters cerebral microcirculation remains unidentified. In this study we show that topical ammonium significantly increases periarteriolar adenosine tone on the brain surface of healthy rats and is associated with a disturbed microcirculation. METHODS: Cranial windows were prepared in anaesthetized Wistar rats...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452150/cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-and-autoregulation-in-paediatric-patients-following-a-global-hypoxic-ischaemic-insult
#16
Marlina E Lovett, Tensing Maa, Melissa G Chung, Nicole F O'Brien
AIM: To describe the cerebral blood flow velocity pattern and investigate cerebral autoregulation using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) following a global hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) event in children. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study in a quaternary-level paediatric intensive care unit. Intubated children, newborn to 17 years admitted to the PICU following HI injury (asphyxia, drowning, cardiac arrest) were eligible for inclusion. TCD was performed daily until post-injury day 8, discharge, or death, whichever occurred earliest...
February 13, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450932/cardiorespiratory-noise-correction-improves-the-asl-signal
#17
Mahlega S Hassanpour, Qingfei Luo, W Kyle Simmons, Justin S Feinstein, Martin P Paulus, Wen-Ming Luh, Jerzy Bodurka, Sahib S Khalsa
Cardiorespiratory fluctuations such as changes in heart rate or respiration volume influence the temporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements during arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI. This "physiological noise" can confound estimates of resting state network activity, and it may lower the signal-to-noise ratio of ASL during task-related experiments. In this study we examined several methods for minimizing the contributions of both synchronized and non-synchronized physiological noise in ASL measures of CBF, by combining the RETROICOR approach with different linear deconvolution models...
February 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450601/usefulness-of-perfusion-and-diffusion-weighted-imaging-to-differentiate-between-pilocytic-astrocytomas-and-high-grade-gliomas-a-multicenter-study-in-japan
#18
Kazufumi Kikuchi, Akio Hiwatashi, Osamu Togao, Koji Yamashita, Ryotaro Kamei, Mika Kitajima, Masafumi Kanoto, Hiroto Takahashi, Yusuke Uchiyama, Masafumi Harada, Yuki Shinohara, Takashi Yoshiura, Yuki Wakata, Hiroshi Honda
PURPOSE: Imaging findings of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) vary widely, sometimes resembling those of high-grade glioma (HGG). This study aimed to identify the imaging parameters that can be used to differentiate PA from HGG. METHODS: Altogether, 60 patients with PAs and 138 patients with HGGs were included in the study. Tumor properties and the presence of hydrocephalus, peritumoral edema, and dissemination were evaluated. We also measured the maximum relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF max ) and volume (rCBV max ) and determined the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC min ) in the tumor's solid components...
February 15, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449517/-a-case-of-moyamoya-disease-with-postoperative-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-followed-by-cerebral-infarction-due-to-watershed-shift
#19
Kimitoshi Sato, Shun Tsudaka, Takanori Miki, Norikata Kobayashi, Taro Yamashita, Kiyoharu Imataka, Takashi Yoshida, Fuminori Shimizu
The concept of "watershed shift"(WS)has been proposed as a cause of the ischemic complications following a superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery(STA-MCA)bypass operation performed for the management of moyamoya disease. Previous reports have observed that only 1.2-5.7% of the patients who underwent a bypass operation for the management of moyamoya disease developed cerebral infarction secondary to the WS phenomenon. To date, the WS phenomenon has not been objectively proven on imaging studies...
February 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448967/facial-nerve-stimulation-in-normal-pigs-and-healthy-human-volunteers-transitional-development-of-a-medical-device-for-the-emergency-treatment-of-ischemic-stroke
#20
Olivia Sanchez, Andrea García, Fernando Castro-Prado, Miriam Perez, Rafael Lara-Estrada, Martin Ramirez-Meza, Montserrat Godinez, Michael L Coco, Joaquín Azpiroz, Mark K Borsody, Emilio Sacristán
BACKGROUND: Magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve has been tested in preclinical studies as a new, non-invasive emergency treatment of ischemic stroke that acts by increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF). The objective of the studies reported herein was to identify minimal stimulation parameters that increase CBF in large animals and then test those stimulation parameters in healthy volunteers for safety, tolerability, and effectiveness at increasing CBF. This translational research is necessary preparation for clinical studies in ischemic stroke patients...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
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