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Cerebral blood flow

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532471/perfusion-by-arterial-spin-labelling-following-single-dose-tadalafil-in-small-vessel-disease-pastis-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Mathilde M H Pauls, Natasha Clarke, Sarah Trippier, Shai Betteridge, Franklyn A Howe, Usman Khan, Christina Kruuse, Jeremy B Madigan, Barry Moynihan, Anthony C Pereira, Debbie Rolfe, Egill Rostrup, Caroline E Haig, Thomas R Barrick, Jeremy D Isaacs, Atticus H Hainsworth
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease is a common cause of vascular cognitive impairment in older people, with no licensed treatment. Cerebral blood flow is reduced in small vessel disease. Tadalafil is a widely prescribed phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor that increases blood flow in other vascular territories. The aim of this trial is to test the hypothesis that tadalafil increases cerebral blood flow in older people with small vessel disease. METHODS/DESIGN: Perfusion by Arterial Spin labelling following Single dose Tadalafil In Small vessel disease (PASTIS) is a phase II randomised double-blind crossover trial...
May 22, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530848/splanchnic-thoracoabdominal-and-cerebral-blood-flow-volumes-in-healthy-children-and-young-adults-in-fasting-and-postprandial-states-determining-reference-ranges-by-using-phase-contrast-mr-imaging
#2
Prakash Muthusami, Shi-Joon Yoo, Rajiv Chaturvedi, Navjot Gill, Jonathan Windram, Daryl Schantz, Milan Prsa, Pablo Caro-Dominguez, Mike Seed, Lars Grosse-Wortmann, Simon C Ling, Govind B Chavhan
Purpose To estimate reference ranges for blood flow volume (BFV) in major splanchnic, thoracoabdominal, and neck vessels by using phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in children and young adults in fasting and postprandial states. Materials and Methods In this institutional research ethics board-approved prospective study, healthy volunteers underwent phase-contrast MR imaging in a fasting state and again after a standardized meal. BFV values were reported as medians and ranges, and postmeal to premeal BFV ratios were calculated...
May 22, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530158/analyzing-circle-of-willis-blood-flow-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-through-3d-stroke-arterial-flow-estimation
#3
Aichi Chien, Fernando Viñuela
Background The objective of ischemic stroke (IS) treatment is to achieve revascularization in cerebral arteries to restore blood flow. However, there is no available method to extract arterial flow data from clinical CTA images. We developed 3D Stroke Arterial Flow Estimation (SAFE), which provides blood flow data throughout the Circle of Willis based on 3D CTA and allows comparison of arterial flow distribution in the brain. Methods We implemented a newly developed 3D vascular reconstruction algorithm for clinical stroke CTA images...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529871/subtle-alterations-in-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-detected-by-graph-theoretical-analysis-and-not-by-the-standard-approach
#4
Carlos A Sánchez-Catasús, Gretel Sanabria-Diaz, Antoon Willemsen, Eduardo Martinez-Montes, Juan Samper-Noa, Angel Aguila-Ruiz, Ronald Boellaard, Peter De Deyn, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Lester Melie-Garcia
There is growing support that cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in response to a vasodilatory challenge, also defined as the cerebrovascular reserve, is reduced in Alzheimer's disease dementia. However, this is less clear in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The current standard analysis may not reflect subtle abnormalities in CVR. In this study, we aimed to investigate vasodilatory-induced changes in the topology of the cerebral blood flow correlation (CBFcorr) network to study possible network-related CVR abnormalities in MCI...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528845/comparison-of-3-and-7-t-asl-techniques-for-concurrent-functional-perfusion-and-bold-studies
#5
Dimo Ivanov, Anna Gardumi, Roy Am Haast, Josef Pfeuffer, Benedikt A Poser, Kâmil Uludağ
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is the primary non-invasive MRI approach to measure baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in healthy subjects and patients. ASL also allows concurrent functional BOLD signal and CBF measurements, but the latter typically suffers from low contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratio. Ultra-high-field imaging significantly boosts BOLD signal CNR. However, it is contested whether also CBF CNR benefits from increasing magnetic field strength, especially given that technical challenges related to field inhomogeneities and power deposition constraints exist...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527220/quantitative-erythrocyte-omega-3-epa-plus-dha-levels-are-related-to-higher-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-on-brain-spect
#6
Daniel G Amen, William S Harris, Parris M Kidd, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: The interrelationships between omega-3 fatty acids status, brain perfusion, and cognition are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if SPECT brain imaging of cerebral perfusion and cognition varies as a function of omega-3 fatty acid levels. METHODS: A random sample of 166 study participants was drawn from a psychiatric referral clinical for which erythrocyte quantification of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (the Omega-3 Index) was available...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527041/mechanisms-of-acupuncture-therapy-for-cerebral-ischemia-an-evidence-based-review-of-clinical-and-animal-studies-on-cerebral-ischemia
#7
REVIEW
Wen Zhu, Yang Ye, Yi Liu, Xue-Rui Wang, Guang-Xia Shi, Shuai Zhang, Cun-Zhi Liu
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. As a part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), acupuncture has been shown to be effective in promoting recovery after stroke. In this article, we review the clinical and experimental studies that demonstrated the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for cerebral ischemia. Clinical studies indicated that acupuncture activated relevant brain regions, modulated cerebral blood flow and related molecules in stroke patients. Evidence from laboratory indicated that acupuncture regulates cerebral blood flow and metabolism after the interrupt of blood supply...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526782/acute-impact-of-drinking-coffee-on-the-cerebral-and-systemic-vasculature
#8
Takuro Washio, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Shigehiko Ogoh
Previous studies have suggested that the risk of ischemic stroke increases immediately after drinking coffee. Indeed, drinking coffee, that is, caffeine, acutely increases arterial stiffness as well as blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance. On the other hand, it has been reported that arterial stiffening is associated with elevation in the pulsatility index (PI) of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which increases the risk of brain disease. However, the effect of drinking coffee on the PI of the CBF and its interaction with arterial stiffness remain unknown...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526762/exacerbation-of-thromboinflammation-by-hyperglycemia-precipitates-cerebral-infarct-growth-and-hemorrhagic-transformation
#9
Jean-Philippe Desilles, Varouna Syvannarath, Véronique Ollivier, Clément Journé, Sandrine Delbosc, Célina Ducroux, William Boisseau, Liliane Louedec, Lucas Di Meglio, Stéphane Loyau, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Louis Potier, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Mikael Mazighi, Benoit Ho-Tin-Noé
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Admission hyperglycemia is associated with a poor outcome in acute ischemic stroke. How hyperglycemia impacts the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke remains largely unknown. We investigated how preexisting hyperglycemia increases ischemia/reperfusion cerebral injury. METHODS: Normoglycemic and streptozotocin-treated hyperglycemic rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct growth and brain perfusion were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging...
May 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525977/the-intracerebral-hemorrhage-acutely-decreasing-arterial-pressure-trial-ii-ich-adapt-ii-protocol
#10
Laura Gioia, Ana Klahr, Mahesh Kate, Brian Buck, Dariush Dowlatshahi, Thomas Jeerakathil, Derek Emery, Kenneth Butcher
BACKGROUND: Aggressively lowering blood pressure (BP) in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may improve outcome. Although there is no evidence that BP reduction changes cerebral blood flow, retrospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated sub-acute ischemic lesions in ICH patients. The primary aim of this study is to assess ischemic lesion development in patients randomized to two different BP treatment strategies. We hypothesize aggressive BP reduction is not associated with ischemic injury after ICH...
May 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525836/arterial-spin-labelling-shows-functional-depression-of-non-lesion-tissue-in-chronic-wernicke-s-aphasia
#11
Holly Robson, Karsten Specht, Helen Beaumont, Laura M Parkes, Karen Sage, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Roland Zahn
Behavioural impairment post-stroke is a consequence of structural damage and altered functional network dynamics. Hypoperfusion of intact neural tissue is frequently observed in acute stroke, indicating reduced functional capacity of regions outside the lesion. However, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is rarely investigated in chronic stroke. This study investigated CBF in individuals with chronic Wernicke's aphasia (WA) and examined the relationship between lesion, CBF and neuropsychological impairment. Arterial spin labelling CBF imaging and structural MRIs were collected in 12 individuals with chronic WA and 13 age-matched control participants...
November 10, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524121/-the-use-of-high-flow-extracranial-intracranial-artery-bypass-in-pathology-of-the-cerebral-and-brachiocephalic-arteries-technical-features-and-surgical-outcomes
#12
A V Dubovoy, K S Ovsyannikov, V E Guzhin, A V Cherepanov, D M Galaktionov, A M Perfil'ev, A O Sosnov
BACKGROUND: Poor outcomes of surgical treatment for complex cerebral aneurysms due to the development of cerebral ischemia were the cause to use cerebral revascularization surgery for this pathology. OBJECTIVE: the study objective was to master a high-flow extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) artery bypass technique and evaluate its application in surgical treatment of complex and giant cerebral aneurysms as well as complex lesions of the brachiocephalic arteries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty two patients underwent high-flow IC-EC bypass surgery; of these, 34 patients had complex cerebral aneurysms, and 18 patients had complex stenotic occlusive lesions of the brachiocephalic arteries...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523351/severity-specific-alterations-in-cbf-oef-and-cmro2-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#13
Gang Zheng, Hanzhang Lu, Wenkui Yu, Song Luo, Ya Liu, Wei Liu, Hui Liu, Long Wu, Lijuan Zheng, Xiang Kong, Long Jiang Zhang, Guang Ming Lu
OBJECTIVES: To assess how the severity of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) affects perfusion and metabolic changes in cirrhotic patients and the association between severity and liver disease and anemia. METHODS: The study groups comprised 31 healthy subjects and 33 cirrhotic patients who underwent MR examinations, and blood and neuropsychological tests. Of the cirrhotic patients, 14 were unaffected, and 11 had covert HE (CHE) and 8 overt HE (OHE). Global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) were noninvasively measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI...
May 18, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522551/inhibition-of-mir-143-during-ischemia-cerebral-injury-protects-neurons-through-recovery-of-the-hexokinase-2-mediated-glucose%C3%A2-uptake
#14
Xianzhu Zeng, Na Liu, Jing Zhang, Lei Wang, Zhecheng Zhang, Ju Zhu, Qian Li, Yuwen Wang
Ischemic stroke, a major cause of death, is caused by occlusion of a blood vessel, resulting in a significant reduction in regional cerebral blood flow. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short noncoding RNAs (18 to 22 nucleotides) and bind the 3' un-translated region (UTR) of their target genes to post-transcriptionally suppress gene expression. In this study, we report miR-143 is downregulated in rat neurons but high expressed in astrocytes cells. In vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and ex vivo oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) results showed miR-143 was significantly induced by ischemia injury...
May 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521602/dynamic-alterations-in-cerebral-celiac-and-renal-flows-resulting-from-ascending-aorta-subclavian-artery-and-femoral-artery-cannulations-of-extracorporeal-devices
#15
Sahin Iscan, Habib Cakir, Bortecin Eygi, Ismail Yurekli, Koksal Donmez, Pınar Unde Ayvat, Derya Sarıkaya Pekel, Mert Kestelli
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the relationships among cardiac output, extracorporeal blood flow, cannulation site, right (RCa) and left carotid (LCa), celiac (Ca) and renal artery (Ra) flows during extracorporeal circulation. METHODS: A mock circulatory circuit was assembled, based on a compliant anatomical aortic model. The ascending aorta, right subclavian and femoral artery cannulations were created and flow was provided by a centrifugal pump (Cp); cardiac output was provided by a roller pump (Rp)...
May 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521345/superficial-temporal-artery-distal-posterior-cerebral-artery-bypass-through-the-subtemporal-approach-technical-note-and-pilot-surgical-cases
#16
Akitsugu Kawashima, Hugo Andrade-Barazarte, Behnam Rezai Jahromi, Minna Oinas, Ahmed Elsharkawy, Juri Kivelev, Yuichi Kubota, Takakazu Kawamata, Juha A Hernesniemi
BACKGROUND: Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms are rare and the majority are fusiform in shape. Proximal occlusion of PCA represents a treatment option for these lesions. However, this procedure carries a high risk of ischemic complications. OBJECTIVE: To describe the technique of trapping a fusiform PCA aneurysm and revascularization of the distal PCA using a superficial temporal artery (STA) graft through the same microsurgical approach. METHODS: From September 2012 to October 2014, we retrospectively identified 3 patients harboring a fusiform PCA aneurysm (P2 segment aneurysm) who underwent trapping of the aneurysm and reconstruction of the distal PCA through the same subtemporal approach...
June 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521048/altered-coupling-between-resting-state-cerebral-blood-flow-and-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#17
Jiajia Zhu, Chuanjun Zhuo, Lixue Xu, Feng Liu, Wen Qin, Chunshui Yu
Background: Respective changes in resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity in schizophrenia have been reported. However, their coupling alterations in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Methods: 89 schizophrenia patients and 90 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI to calculate functional connectivity strength (FCS) and arterial spin labeling imaging to compute CBF. The CBF-FCS coupling of the whole gray matter and the CBF/FCS ratio (the amount of blood supply per unit of connectivity strength) of each voxel were compared between the 2 groups...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515582/evaluation-of-mr-perfusion-abnormalities-in-organophosphorus-poisoning-and-its-correlation-with-spect
#18
K Uday Bhanu, Niranjan Khandelwal, Sameer Vyas, Paramjeet Singh, Anuj Prabhakar, B R Mittal, Ashish Bhalla
AIM: Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many imaging modalities, such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain, have been used for quantitative assessment of the acute brain insult caused by acute OP poisoning. Perfusion defects on SPECT in acutely poisoned patients with OPs have been described, however, MR perfusion abnormalities have not been described in the literature...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515434/cerebral-blood-flow-regulation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-disease
#19
REVIEW
Kassandra Kisler, Amy R Nelson, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation is essential for normal brain function. The mammalian brain has evolved a unique mechanism for CBF control known as neurovascular coupling. This mechanism ensures a rapid increase in the rate of CBF and oxygen delivery to activated brain structures. The neurovascular unit is composed of astrocytes, mural vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, and endothelia, and regulates neurovascular coupling. This Review article examines the cellular and molecular mechanisms within the neurovascular unit that contribute to CBF control, and neurovascular dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease...
May 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513626/fabrication-of-cerebral-aneurysm-simulator-with-a-desktop-3d-printer
#20
Yu Liu, Qing Gao, Song Du, ZiChen Chen, JianZhong Fu, Bing Chen, ZhenJie Liu, Yong He
Now, more and more patients are suffering cerebral aneurysm. However, long training time limits the rapid growth of cerebrovascular neurosurgeons. Here we developed a novel cerebral aneurysm simulator which can be better represented the dynamic bulging process of cerebral aneurysm The proposed simulator features the integration of a hollow elastic vascular model, a skull model and a brain model, which can be affordably fabricated at the clinic (Fab@Clinic), under $25.00 each with the help of a low-cost desktop 3D printer...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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