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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924461/short-term-external-counterpulsation-augments-cerebral-blood-flow-and-tissue-oxygenation-in-chronic-cerebrovascular-occlusive-disease
#1
Eva E Buschmann, Philipp Hillmeister, Anja Bondke Persson, David S Liebeskind, Lea Schlich, Robert Kamenzky, Andreas Busjahn, Ivo R Buschmann, Peter Bramlage, Andreas Hetzel, Matthias Reinhard
BACKGROUND: External counterpulsation improves cerebral perfusion velocity in acute stroke and may stimulate collateral artery growth. However, whether (non-acute) at-risk patients with high-grade carotid artery disease may benefit from counterpulsation needs to be validated. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (71±6.5 years, 5 women) with asymptomatic unilateral chronic severe ICA stenosis (>70%) or occlusion were randomized to receive 20 min active counterpulsation followed by sham treatment or vice versa...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923931/hypertonic-lactate-to-improve-cerebral-perfusion-and-glucose-availability-after-acute-brain-injury
#2
Laurent Carteron, Daria Solari, Camille Patet, Hervé Quintard, John-Paul Miroz, Jocelyne Bloch, Roy T Daniel, Lorenz Hirt, Philippe Eckert, Pierre J Magistretti, Mauro Oddo
OBJECTIVES: Lactate promotes cerebral blood flow and is an efficient substrate for the brain, particularly at times of glucose shortage. Hypertonic lactate is neuroprotective after experimental brain injury; however, human data are limited. DESIGN: Prospective study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01573507). SETTING: Academic ICU. PATIENTS: Twenty-three brain-injured subjects (13 traumatic brain injury/10 subarachnoid hemorrhage; median age, 59 yr [41-65 yr]; median Glasgow Coma Scale, 6 [3-7])...
June 19, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922396/effect-of-intracranial-stenosis-revascularization-on-dynamic-and-static-cerebral-autoregulation
#3
Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, Edgar A Samaniego, Amy Huang, Arjun Masurkar, Binbin Zheng-Lin, Colin P Derdeyn, David Hasan, Randolph Marshall, Nils Petersen
Introduction: Severe intracranial stenosis might lead to acute cerebral ischemia. It is imperative to better assess patients who may benefit from immediate reperfusion and blood pressure management to prevent injury to peri-infarct tissue. Methods: We assessed cerebral autoregulation using static and dynamic methods in an 81-year-old woman suffering acute cerebral ischemia from severe intracranial stenosis in the petrous segment of the left internal carotid artery (LICA)...
June 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922215/bone-morphogenetic-protein-bmp-3b-gene-depletion-causes-high-mortality-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#4
Yuko Ogawa, Masahiro Tsuji, Emi Tanaka, Mikiya Miyazato, Jun Hino
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of proteins that induce the formation of bone and the development of the nervous system. BMP-3b, also known as growth and differentiation factor 10, is a member of the BMPs that is highly expressed in the developing and adult brain. BMP-3b is therefore thought to play an important role in the brain even after physiological neurogenesis has completed. BMP-3b is induced in peri-infarct neurons in aged brains and is one of the most highly upregulated genes during the initiation of axonal sprouting...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921486/comparison-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-mrs-with-arterial-spin-labeling-asl-in-the-differentiation-between-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-plus-stroke-like-episodes-melas-and-acute-ischemic-stroke-ais
#5
Xiaodi Li, Yuzhou Wang, Zhanhang Wang, Jianjun Lu, Yan Xu, Jinlong Ye, Zuying Kuang, Bo Li, Mengqiu Pan, Wenming Chen, Shuisheng Lu, Ziyang Zhou, Lina Cheng, Honghao Wang
To compare the utility and limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in the differentiation between mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, plus stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS), a retrospective review of 17 MELAS and 26 AIS patients were performed. In all patients both MRS and ASL scans were performed within 1 week after admission. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and MR imaging data were reviewed and compared between the two groups...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29919988/amygdala-and-emotionality-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-integrative-review-of-the-neuropsychological-evidence
#6
(no author information available yet)
Parkinson\'s disease (PD) is often accompanied by significant changes in emotionality, such as apathy, anhedonia, anxiety and depression. The present review summarizes the empirical evidence, including amygdala changes and psychological changes in emotionality in people suffering with PD. Seventeen empirical full-text articles including research on both amygdala and emotionality in PD were reviewed.The changes in amygdala volumes as well as changes in binding potentials, functional connectivity, regional homogeneity and regional cerebral blood flow were found to have various impacts on emotionality in people with PD...
May 19, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917239/sodium-nitroprusside-dilates-cerebral-vessels-and-enhances-internal-carotid-artery-flow-in-young-men
#7
Niels D Olesen, Mads Fischer, Niels H Secher
KEY POINTS: Sodium nitroprusside lowers blood pressure by vasodilation but is reported to reduce cerebral blood flow. In healthy young men sodium nitroprusside reduced blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, and arterial CO2 tension and yet cerebral blood flow was maintained with an increase in internal carotid artery blood flow and cerebrovascular conductance. Sodium nitroprusside induces both systemic and cerebral vasodilation affecting internal carotid artery more than vertebral artery flow...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917228/title-reduced-blood-volume-decreases-cerebral-blood-flow-in-preterm-piglets
#8
Yvonne A Eiby, Nicole Y Shrimpton, Ian M R Wright, Eugenie R Lumbers, Paul B Colditz, Greg J Duncombe, Barbara E Lingwood
Preterm infants often have impaired cardiovascular function that may contribute to poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study aimed to determine the effects of reduced blood volume on cardiovascular function, including cerebral blood flow in preterm and term piglets. In preterm (97/115d) and term piglets, up to 10% of the estimated blood volume was removed. Removal of blood was ceased if MAP dropped below 20 mmHg. Heart rate, cardiac contractility and relaxation, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral blood flow were measured at baseline and again after blood volume reduction...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916058/effects-of-systematic-partial-volume-errors-on-the-estimation-of-gray-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-with-arterial-spin-labeling-mri
#9
Jan Petr, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Enrico De Vita, Rebecca M E Steketee, Marion Smits, Aart J Nederveen, Frank Hofheinz, Jörg van den Hoff, Iris Asllani
OBJECTIVE: Partial volume (PV) correction is an important step in arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI that is used to separate perfusion from structural effects when computing the mean gray matter (GM) perfusion. There are three main methods for performing this correction: (1) GM-threshold, which includes only voxels with GM volume above a preset threshold; (2) GM-weighted, which uses voxel-wise GM contribution combined with thresholding; and (3) PVC, which applies a spatial linear regression algorithm to estimate the flow contribution of each tissue at a given voxel...
June 18, 2018: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915015/higher-aortic-stiffness-is-associated-with-lower-global-cerebrovascular-reserve-among-older-humans
#10
Lyndsey E DuBose, Laura L Boles Ponto, David J Moser, Emily Harlynn, Leah Reierson, Gary L Pierce
Greater aortic stiffness and pulse pressure are associated with cerebrovascular remodeling, reduced white matter microstructure, and cognitive performance with aging in humans. However, it is unclear whether aortic stiffness and pulse pressure are associated with reduced basal global cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve among older adults. Global CBF was quantified in 205 adults (range, 19-87 years; mean±SE: 30.6±1.3 years) using quantitative [15 O]water brain positron emission tomography imaging...
June 18, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913971/brain-activation-due-to-postoperative-pain-from-the-right-hand-measured-with-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-using-positron-emission-tomography
#11
Torsten Gordh, Bertil Vinnars, Håkan Fischer, Hans Blomberg, Jan Modig, Mats Fredrikson, Per Hartvig
Background Brain activation resulting from acute postoperative pain has to our knowledge not previously been studied using positron emission tomography, except from one case study. The aim of this study was to monitor activation in brain sensory pathways during acute pain after surgery of the hand. A secondary aim was to compare brain activation in clinical postoperative pain to that previously reported, by the same research group, for a model of experimental pain from the same body area. Increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is presumed to indicate neuronal activation and decrease in blood flow decreased neuronal firing...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912298/cocaine-decreases-spontaneous-neuronal-activity-and-increases-low-frequency-neuronal-and-hemodynamic-cortical-oscillations
#12
Wei Chen, Nora D Volkow, James Li, Yingtian Pan, Congwu Du
Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in hemodynamics assessed by fMRI reflect synchronized neuronal activities and are the basis for mapping brain function and its disruption by drugs and disease. Here we assess if cocaine disrupts coupling between neuronal and vascular LFOs by simultaneously measuring cortical field potentials (FP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) regarding their LFOs (0-1 Hz) spectral bandwidths in the somatosensory cortex of naïve and chronic cocaine-exposed rats at baseline and during cocaine intoxication...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910744/yangxue-qingnao-wan-and-silibinin-capsules-the-two-chinese-medicines-attenuate-cognitive-impairment-in-aged-ldlr-golden-syrian-hamsters-involving-protection-of-blood-brain-barrier
#13
You-Yu Gu, Ping Huang, Quan Li, Yu-Ying Liu, George Liu, Yu-Hui Wang, Ming Yi, Li Yan, Xiao-Hong Wei, Lei Yang, Bai-He Hu, Xin-Rong Zhao, Xin Chang, Kai Sun, Chun-Shui Pan, Yuan-Chen Cui, Qing-Fang Chen, Chuan-She Wang, Jing-Yu Fan, Zhi-Zhong Ma, Jing-Yan Han
The purpose of the study was to explore the effect and the underlying mechanism of YangXue QingNao Wan (YXQNW) and Silibinin Capsules (SC), the two Chinese medicines, on cognitive impairment in older people with familial hyperlipidaemia. Fourteen month-old female LDLR (+/-) golden Syrian hamsters were used with their wild type as control. YXQNW (0.5 g/kg/day), SC (0.1 g/kg/day), or YXQNW (0.5 g/kg/day) + SC (0.1 g/kg/day) were administrated orally for 30 days. To assess the effects of the two drugs on plasma lipid content and cognitive ability, plasma TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C were measured, and Y maze task was carried out both before and after administration...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909774/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-assessment-of-acute-cardiovascular-effects-of-voluntary-apnoea-in-elite-divers
#14
L Eichhorn, J Doerner, J A Luetkens, J M Lunkenheimer, R C Dolscheid-Pommerich, F Erdfelder, R Fimmers, J Nadal, B Stoffel-Wagner, H H Schild, A Hoeft, B Zur, C P Naehle
BACKGROUND: Prolonged breath holding results in hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Compensatory mechanisms help maintain adequate oxygen supply to hypoxia sensitive organs, but burden the cardiovascular system. The aim was to investigate human compensatory mechanisms and their effects on the cardiovascular system with regard to cardiac function and morphology, blood flow redistribution, serum biomarkers of the adrenergic system and myocardial injury markers following prolonged apnoea. METHODS: Seventeen elite apnoea divers performed maximal breath-hold during cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908993/priors-guided-slice-wise-adaptive-outlier-cleaning-for-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-mri
#15
Yiran Li, Sudipto Dolui, Dan-Feng Xie, Ze Wang
BACKGROUND: Due to the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and unavoidable head motions, the pairwise subtraction perfusion signal extraction process in arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI can produce extreme outliers. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We previously proposed an adaptive outlier cleaning (AOC) algorithm for ASL MRI. While it performed well even for clinical ASL data, two issues still exist. One is that if the reference is already dominated by noise, outlier cleaning using low correlation with the mean as a rejection criterion will actually reject the less noisy samples but keep the more noisy ones...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907849/does-prolonged-severe-hypercapnia-interfere-with-normal-cerebrovascular-function-in-piglets
#16
Massroor Pourcyrous, Sandeep Chilakala, Mohamad T Elabiad, Helena Parfenova, Charles W Leffler
BACKGROUND: Hypercapnia causes cerebral vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). During prolonged hypercapnia it is unknown whether cerebral vasodilation persists and whether cerebrovascular function is preserved. We investigated the effects of prolonged severe hypercapnia on pial arteriolar diameters (PAD) and cerebrovascular reactivity to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. METHODS: Piglets were anesthetized, intubated and ventilated. Closed cranial windows were implanted to measure PAD...
May 28, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907848/cerebral-blood-flow-and-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-in-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#17
Mohammed S El Shimy, Nehal M El-Raggal, Rania A El-Farrash, Hebatallah A Shaaban, Hanan E Mohamed, Noha M Barakat, Ahmed S Farag, Abeer K El Zohiery, Menat Allah A Shaaban, Dina H Salama
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sepsis leads to systemic inflammatory response with cerebral blood flow (CBF) alteration and blood-brain barrier disruption that contribute to sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). We aimed to evaluate cord blood neuron-specific enolase (cNSE) and CBF in early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) as predictors of SAE and to define short-term neurodevelopmental outcomes among survivors. METHODS: cNSE was measured in 200 neonates with antenatal risk factors for EONS, stratified into two groups: sepsis (n = 96) and no-sepsis (n = 104)...
May 26, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906796/regional-tissue-oxygen-extraction-and-severity-of-anemia-in-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-a-pilot-nirs-analysis
#18
Jonathan P Mintzer, Boriana Parvez, Edmund F La Gamma
OBJECTIVE:  Anemia causes blood flow redistribution and altered tissue metabolic behavior to sustain homeostatic oxygen consumption. We hypothesized that anemia severity would correlate with increased regional fractional tissue oxygen extraction among premature neonates. STUDY DESIGN:  Regional oxygen extraction was calculated using pulse oximetry and near-infrared spectroscopy data among neonates <1,250 g during their first 10 postnatal days. Oxygen extraction was assessed for correlations with raw hematocrit levels and following grouping into hematocrit quartiles...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906575/sodium-fluorescein-video-angiography-fl-vag-as-an-adjunct-to-resection-of-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformations
#19
Serrano-Rubio Alejandro, Ruiz-Treviño Armando S, Orenday-Barraza Jose M, Vázquez-Gregorio Rafael, Lee Angel, Nathal Edgar
OBJECT: The use of intraoperative fluorescence has proven to be a useful tool in multiple neurosurgical procedures with a potential utility in treating arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The aim of this study was to characterize dynamic changes of an AVM using a microscope-integrated technique at the moment of performing an intraoperative Sodium fluorescein videoangiography (FL-VAG) at each of the resection phases. METHODS: Our study at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery-Mexico City, prospectively recruited twelve patients harboring an AVM, using FL-VAG as an ancillary technique for the resection of the lesion...
June 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903733/t-cells-prevent-hemorrhagic-transformation-in-ischemic-stroke-by-p-selectin-binding
#20
Angélica Salas-Perdomo, Francesc Miró-Mur, Xabier Urra, Carles Justicia, Mattia Gallizioli, Yashu Zhao, Vanessa H Brait, Carlos Laredo, Raúl Tudela, Andrés Hidalgo, Ángel Chamorro, Anna M Planas
OBJECTIVE: Hemorrhagic transformation is a serious complication of ischemic stroke after recanalization therapies. This study aims to identify mechanisms underlying hemorrhagic transformation after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used wild-type mice and Selplg-/- and Fut7-/- mice defective in P-selectin binding and lymphopenic Rag2-/- mice. We induced 30-minute or 45-minute ischemia by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and assessed hemorrhagic transformation at 48 hours with a hemorrhage grading score, histological means, brain hemoglobin content, or magnetic resonance imaging...
June 14, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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