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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647826/numerical-simulation-of-a-glucose-sensitive-composite-membrane-closed-loop-insulin-delivery-system
#1
Shashi Bajaj Mukherjee, Debabrata Datta, Soumyendu Raha, Debnath Pal
Closed-loop insulin delivery system works on pH modulation by gluconic acid production from glucose, which in turn allows regulation of insulin release across membrane. Typically, the concentration variation of gluconic acid can be numerically modeled by a set of non-linear, non-steady state reaction diffusion equations. Here, we report a simpler numerical approach to time and position dependent diffusivity of species using finite difference and differential quadrature (DQ) method. The results are comparable to that obtained by analytical method...
June 24, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647618/genetic-and-ecological-processes-promoting-early-diversification-in-the-lowland-mesoamerican-bat-sturnira-parvidens-chiroptera-phyllostomidae
#2
Giovani Hernández-Canchola, Livia León-Paniagua
With 22 species, Sturnira is the most speciose genus of frugivorous Neotropical bats. Sturnira parvidens inhabits lowland tropical areas from Mexico to Central America. The elevation of this taxon to species level was recent, and discrepancies with respect to its geographic limits and phylogenetic position continue to exist. In order to identify genetic and ecological processes likely involved in the diversification and current distribution of S. parvidens, we evaluated relationships, researched phylogeographic and demographic history, and tested the divergence/conservatism of the climatic niche of this bat...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647366/crystal-structure-of-the-crenarchaeal-exoiii-ap-endonuclease-sisexoiii-reveals-a-conserved-disulfide-bond-endowing-the-protein-with-thermostability
#3
Zhou Yan, Zenglin Yuan, Jinfeng Ni, Lichuan Gu, Yulong Shen
AP endonuclease recognizes and cleaves apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and plays a critical role in base excision repair. Many ExoIII and EndoIV family AP endonucleases have been characterized both biochemically and structurally in Eukaryote and Bacteria. However, relatively fewer have been studied in Euryarchaeota and there is no such report on an AP endonuclease from Crenarchaeota. Here we report, for the first time, the crystal structure of a crenarchaeal ExoIII AP endonuclease, SisExoIII, from Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647163/observer-based-distributed-adaptive-fault-tolerant-containment-control-of-multi-agent-systems-with-general-linear-dynamics
#4
Dan Ye, Mengmeng Chen, Kui Li
In this paper, we consider the distributed containment control problem of multi-agent systems with actuator bias faults based on observer method. The objective is to drive the followers into the convex hull spanned by the dynamic leaders, where the input is unknown but bounded. By constructing an observer to estimate the states and bias faults, an effective distributed adaptive fault-tolerant controller is developed. Different from the traditional method, an auxiliary controller gain is designed to deal with the unknown inputs and bias faults together...
June 22, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646555/low-thrombogenic-fibrin-heparin-coating-promotes-in-vitro-endothelialization
#5
Ondřej Kaplan, Teresa Hierlemann, Stefanie Krajewski, Julia Kurz, Martina Nevoralová, Milan Houska, Tomáš Riedel, Zuzana Riedelová, Jana Zárubová, Hans P Wendel, Eduard Brynda
Long-term performance of implanted cardiovascular grafts can be ensured if living endothelium overgrows their surface. Surface modifications to implants are therefore being sought that can encourage endothelialization while preventing thrombus formation until the natural endothelium is formed. In the present study, heparin was covalently attached to a fibrin mesh grown from a PVC substrate surface by the catalytic action of surface immobilized thrombin on a fibrinogen solution. The coating prevented platelet activation, thrombin generation and clot formation, and reduced inflammatory reactions when exposed to fresh human whole blood circulating in a Chandler loop model...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646470/apobec3b-and-il-6-form-a-positive-feedback-loop-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#6
Shuran Li, Xueyang Bao, Duowei Wang, Linjun You, Xianjing Li, Hongbao Yang, Jinsong Bian, Yun Wang, Yong Yang
APOBEC3 protein families, a DNA cytidine deaminase, were up-regulated in multiple tumors. However, the relationship between Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and APOBEC3B (A3B) remains unknown. It has been confirmed that interleukin-6 (IL-6) has significant impacts on oncogenesis of HCC. Here, we reported that the expression of IL-6 was substantially up-regulated by A3B in HepG2 cells. A3B induced IL-6 expression through relocating HuR to enhance the IL-6 mRNA stability. Further analysis indicated that IL-6 also increased the expression of A3B through JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway, which formed a positive feedback to maintain the continuous expression of A3B and IL-6, and thereby promoted the prolonged non-resolving inflammation...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646348/tau-induced-ca-2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-iv-activation-aggravates-nuclear-tau-hyperphosphorylation
#7
Yu-Ping Wei, Jin-Wang Ye, Xiong Wang, Li-Ping Zhu, Qing-Hua Hu, Qun Wang, Dan Ke, Qing Tian, Jian-Zhi Wang
Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major protein component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying tau hyperphosphorylation is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously expressed wild-type human tau40 was detectable in the phosphorylated form at multiple AD-associated sites in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from HEK293 cells. Among these sites, tau phosphorylated at Thr205 and Ser214 was almost exclusively found in the nuclear fraction at the conditions used in the present study...
June 23, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646282/surgery-for-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#8
REVIEW
R Vera, L Díez, E Martín Pérez, J C Plaza, A Sanjuanbenito, A Carrato
Surgical resection is the only potentially curative option in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Preoperative radiological imaging allows to rule out the presence of metastases. Three resectability categories are established based on the radiological findings depending on the degree of contact between the tumor and the blood vessels. Histological confirmation of malignancy is only required in cases of borderline or non-resectable tumors, prior to neoadjuvant treatment initiation. Diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended in the presence of large tumors of the body or tail and in borderline tumors to explore the possibility of resection and to apply treatment with curative intent, as well as in those cases with high level of biomarkers to rule out peritoneal involvement...
June 23, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646214/structural-and-biochemical-studies-of-sulphotransferase-18-from-arabidopsis-thaliana-explain-its-substrate-specificity-and-reaction-mechanism
#9
Felix Hirschmann, Florian Krause, Petra Baruch, Igor Chizhov, Jonathan Wolf Mueller, Dietmar J Manstein, Jutta Papenbrock, Roman Fedorov
Sulphotransferases are a diverse group of enzymes catalysing the transfer of a sulfuryl group from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) to a broad range of secondary metabolites. They exist in all kingdoms of life. In Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. twenty-two sulphotransferase (SOT) isoforms were identified. Three of those are involved in glucosinolate (Gl) biosynthesis, glycosylated sulphur-containing aldoximes containing chemically different side chains, whose break-down products are involved in stress response against herbivores, pathogens, and abiotic stress...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646149/crucial-role-of-4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose-uronate-reductase-for-alginate-utilization-revealed-by-adaptive-evolution-in-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Fumiya Matsuoka, Makoto Hirayama, Takayuki Kashihara, Hideki Tanaka, Wataru Hashimoto, Kousaku Murata, Shigeyuki Kawai
In brown macroalgae, alginate and D-mannitol are promising carbohydrates for biorefinery. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a microbial cell factory, but this budding yeast is unable to utilize either alginate or D-mannitol. Alginate can be depolymerized by both endo-type and exo-type alginate lyases, yielding a monouronate, 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate (DEH), a key intermediate in the metabolism of alginate. Here, we constructed engineered two S. cerevisiae strains that are able to utilize both DEH and D-mannitol on two different strain backgrounds, and we also improved their aerobic growth in a DEH liquid medium through adaptive evolution...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646031/metabolism-and-acetylation-contribute-to-leucine-mediated-inhibition-of-cardiac-glucose-uptake
#11
Edith Renguet, Audrey Ginion, Roselle Gélinas, Laurent Bultot, Julien Auquier, Isabelle Robillard Frayne, Caroline Daneault, Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde, Christine Des Rosiers, Louis Hue, Sandrine Horman, Christophe Beauloye, Luc Bertrand
High plasma leucine levels strongly correlate with type 2 diabetes. Studies of muscle cells suggest that leucine alters the insulin response for glucose transport by activating an insulin-negative feedback loop driven by the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (mTOR/p70S6K) pathway. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism involved in leucine's action on cardiac glucose uptake. Leucine was indeed able to curb glucose uptake after insulin stimulation in both cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused hearts...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645802/comparative-effects-of-long-and-short-acting-loop-diuretics-on-mortality-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#12
Shu Kasama, Takuji Toyama, Masahiko Kurabayashi
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that the long-acting loop diuretic azosemide improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), compared with short-acting furosemide. However, its influence on mortality has not been determined. METHODS: The present study was a further analysis of our previously published study in which azosemide showed improved (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphic findings compared with furosemide in CHF patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645799/genotype-phenotype-evaluation-of-med13l-defects-in-the-light-of-a-novel-truncating-and-a-recurrent-missense-mutation
#13
Reza Asadollahi, Markus Zweier, Laura Gogoll, Raphael Schiffmann, Heinrich Sticht, Katharina Steindl, Anita Rauch
A decade after the designation of MED13L as a gene and its link to intellectual disability (ID) and dextro-looped transposition of great arteries in 2003, we previously described a recognizable syndrome due to MED13L haploinsufficiency. Subsequent reports of 22 further patients diagnosed by genome-wide testing further delineated the syndrome with expansion of the phenotypic spectrum and showed reduced penetrance for congenital heart defects. We now report two novel patients identified by whole exome sequencing, one with a de novo MED13L truncating mutation and the other with a de novo missense mutation...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645727/inhibition-of-non-canonical-hiv-1-tat-secretion-through-the-cellular-na-k-atpase-blocks-hiv-1-infection
#14
Silvia Agostini, Hashim Ali, Chiara Vardabasso, Antonio Fittipaldi, Ennio Tasciotti, Anna Cereseto, Antonella Bugatti, Marco Rusnati, Marina Lusic, Mauro Giacca
Besides its essential role in the activation of HIV-1 gene expression, the viral Tat protein has the unusual property of trafficking in and out of cells. In contrast to Tat internalization, the mechanism involved in extracellular Tat release has so far remained elusive. Here we show that Tat secretion occurs through a Golgi-independent pathway requiring binding of Tat with three short, non-consecutive intracytoplasmic loops at the C-terminus of the cellular Na(+),K(+)-ATPase pump alpha subunit. Ouabain, a pump inhibitor, blocked this interaction and prevented Tat secretion; virions produced in the presence of this drug were less infectious, consistent the capacity of virion-associated Tat to increase HIV-1 infectivity...
June 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645374/reconstituted-system-for-the-examination-of-repair-dna-synthesis-in-homologous-recombination
#15
Youngho Kwon, James M Daley, Patrick Sung
In homologous recombination (HR), DNA polymerase δ-mediated DNA synthesis occurs within the displacement loop (D-loop) that is made by the recombinase Rad51 in conjunction with accessory factors. We describe in this chapter the reconstitution of the D-loop and repair DNA synthesis reactions using purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae HR (Rad51, RPA, and Rad54) and DNA replication (PCNA, RFC, and DNA polymerase δ) proteins and document the role of the Pif1 helicase in DNA synthesis via a migrating DNA bubble intermediate...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644975/a-neural-blood-pressure-marker-for-bioelectronic-medicines-for-treatment-of-hypertension
#16
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Johannes J Struijk
A novel therapeutic approach for treating resistant hypertension could be the use of bioelectronic medicines to achieve blood pressure (BP) control in implanted patients by closed-loop stimulation of the left vagus nerve (LVN). However, such a technology would require an implantable BP marker, which is not available yet. As it is known that the LVN conducts afferent BP-related signals, this study aimed to investigate if such signals could be recorded with implantable means and used to derive BP markers. The present experiments were performed in anesthetized pigs subjected to a transient or stable BP increase induced by adrenaline administration...
June 17, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644896/how-fast-is-a-collective-bacterial-state-established
#17
Mikkel Lindstrøm Sørensen, Peter Dahl, Thomas Sams
Bacteria in a biofilm colony have the capacity to monitor the size and growth conditions for the colony and modify their phenotypical behaviour to optimise attacks, defence, migration, etc. The quorum sensing systems controlling this involve production and sensing of diffusive signal molecules. Frequently, quorum sensing systems carry a positive feedback loop which produces a switch at a threshold size of the colony. This all-or-none switch can be beneficial to create a sudden attack, leaving a host little time to establish a defence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644796/design-of-an-autonomous-social-orienting-training-system-asots-for-young-children-with-autism
#18
Zhi Zheng, Qiang Fu, Huan Zhao, Amy R Swanson, Amy S Weitlauf, Zachary E Warren, Nilanjan Sarkar
Social communication is among the core areas of impairment for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The training of social orientation is important for improving social communication of children with ASD. In recent years, technology-assisted ASD intervention had gained momentum due to its potential advantages in terms of precision, sustainability, flexibility and cost. In this paper, we propose a closed-loop autonomous computer system, named ASOTS, for training social orientation skills to young children with ASD...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644713/an-unstructured-loop-that-is-critical-for-interactions-of-the-stalk-domain-of-drp1-with-saturated-phosphatidic-acid
#19
Yoshihiro Adachi, Miho Iijima, Hiromi Sesaki
Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is a dynamin superfamily GTPase, which drives membrane constriction during mitochondrial division. To mediate mitochondrial division, Drp1 is recruited to the mitochondrial outer membrane and is assembled into the division machinery. We previously showed that Drp1 interacts with phosphatidic acid (PA) and saturated phospholipids in the mitochondrial membrane, and this interaction restrains Drp1 in initiating the constriction of mitochondria. Here, we show that the role of saturated acyl chains of phospholipids is independent of their contribution to the membrane curvature or lipid packing suggesting their direct interaction with Drp1...
June 23, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644651/rescattering-effects-in-the-hadronic-light-by-light-contribution-to-the-anomalous-magnetic-moment-of-the-muon
#20
Gilberto Colangelo, Martin Hoferichter, Massimiliano Procura, Peter Stoffer
We present a first model-independent calculation of ππ intermediate states in the hadronic-light-by-light (HLBL) contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g-2)_{μ} that goes beyond the scalar QED pion loop. To this end, we combine a recently developed dispersive description of the HLBL tensor with a partial-wave expansion and demonstrate that the known scalar-QED result is recovered after partial-wave resummation. Using dispersive fits to high-statistics data for the pion vector form factor, we provide an evaluation of the full pion box a_{μ}^{π box}=-15...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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