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Glycerol monolaurate

Ameya R Kirtane, Meghan K Rothenberger, Abby Frieberg, Karla Nephew, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Thomas Schmidt, Thomas Reimann, Ashley T Haase, Jayanth Panyam
The human immunodeficiency virus epidemic affects millions of people worldwide. As women are more vulnerable to infection, female-controlled interventions can help control the spread of the disease significantly. Glycerol monolaurate (GML), an inexpensive and safe compound, has been shown to protect against simian immunodeficiency virus infection when applied vaginally. However, on account of its low aqueous solubility, fabrication of high-dose formulations of GML has proven difficult. We describe the development of a vaginal cream that could be loaded with up to 35% GML...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Dawei Yu, Qixing Jiang, Yanshun Xu, Wenshui Xia
A novel chitosan-based coating solution was prepared by combining glycerol monolaurate (GML) for shelf life extension of refrigerated grass carp fillets. The control and coated fillets were analyzed periodically for physicochemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value, K value, and shear force), microbiological (total viable counts (TVC), psychrophilic bacteria counts (PTC), Pseudomonads and H2S-producing bacteria) and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that chitosan-GML coated samples presented better quality preservation effects than chitosan coating alone...
August 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Leonardo Q S Lopes, Cayane G Santos, Rodrigo de Almeida Vaucher, Renata P Raffin, Aleksandro S da Silva, Dilmar Baretta, Ana Paula Maccari, Laura Caroline D D Giombelli, Andreia Volpato, Jessyka Arruda, Cecília de Ávila Scheeren, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Roberto C V Santos
Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a compound with known antimicrobial potential, however it is not much used due to its low solubility in water and high melting point. The nanoencapsulation of some drugs offers several advantages such as improved stability and solubility in water. The present study aimed to produce, characterize, and evaluate the ecotoxicity of GML nanocapsules. The nanocapsules were produced and presented a mean diameter of 210nm, polydispersity index of 0.044, and zeta potential of -23.4mV. The electron microscopy images showed the nanometric size and spherical shape...
May 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Michael S Zhang, Jon C D Houtman
Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglyceride with well characterized anti-microbial properties. Because of these properties, GML is widely used in food, cosmetics, and personal care products and currently being tested as a therapeutic for menstrual associated toxic shock syndrome, superficial wound infections, and HIV transmission. Recently, we have described that GML potently suppresses select T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling events, leading to reduced human T cell effector functions. However, how soluble host factors present in the blood and at sites of infection affect GML-mediated human T cell suppression is unknown...
2016: PloS One
Michael S Zhang, Aline Sandouk, Jon C D Houtman
Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a naturally occurring fatty acid widely utilized in food, cosmetics, and homeopathic supplements. GML is a potent antimicrobial agent that targets a range of bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses but select findings suggest that GML also has immunomodulatory functions. In this study, we have mechanistically examined if GML affects the signaling and functional output of human primary T cells. We found that GML potently altered order and disorder dynamics in the plasma membrane that resulted in reduced formation of LAT, PLC-γ, and AKT microclusters...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dalia Seleem, Emily Chen, Bruna Benso, Vanessa Pardi, Ramiro M Murata
Monolaurin (also known as glycerol monolaurate) is a natural compound found in coconut oil and is known for its protective biological activities as an antimicrobial agent. The nature of oral candidiasis and the increased antifungal resistance demand the search for novel antifungal therapeutic agents. In this study, we examine the antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms (strain ATCC:SC5314/MYA2876) in vitro and investigate whether monolaurin can alter gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, IL-1α and IL-1β...
2016: PeerJ
Leonardo Quintana Soares Lopes, Cayane Genro Santos, Rodrigo de Almeida Vaucher, Renata Platcheck Raffin, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos
Candida albicans does not only occur in the free living planktonic form but also grows in surface-attached biofilm communities. Moreover, these biofilms appear to be the most common lifestyle and are involved in the majority of human Candida infections. Nanoparticles can be used as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents and can also act as carriers for antibiotics and other drugs. In view of this, the aim of the study was develop, characterize and verify the anti-biofilm potential of GML Nanocapsules against C...
August 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Leonardo Q S Lopes, Cayane G Santos, Rodrigo de Almeida Vaucher, Liesel Gende, Renata P Raffin, Roberto C V Santos
The American Foulbrood Disease (AFB) is a fatal larval bee infection. The etiologic agent is the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. The treatment involves incineration of all contaminated materials, leading to high losses. The Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a known antimicrobial potential compound, however its use is reduced due to its low solubility in water and high melting point. The nanoencapsulation of some drugs offers several advantages like improved stability and solubility in water. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against P...
August 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Nicola Parisi, Miguel Paz-Alvarez, Paul J Matts, Rebecca Lever, Jonathan Hadgraft, Majella E Lane
Hexamidine diisethionate (HEX D) has been used for its biocidal actions in topical preparations since the 1950s. Recent data also suggest that it plays a beneficial role in skin homeostasis. To date, the extent to which this compound penetrates the epidermis has not been reported nor how its topical delivery may be modulated. In the present work we set out to characterise the interaction of HEX D with the skin and to develop a range of simple formulations for topical targeting of the active. A further objective was to compare the skin penetration of HEX D with its corresponding dihydrochloride salt (HEX H) as the latter has more favourable physicochemical properties for skin uptake...
June 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Judith Louise Flanagan, Neeta Khandekar, Hua Zhu, Keizo Watanabe, Maria Markoulli, John Terence Flanagan, Eric Papas
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the relative lipase production of a range of ocular bacterial isolates and to assess the efficacy of glycerol monolaurate (GML) in inhibiting this lipase production in high lipase-producing bacteria without affecting bacterial cell growth. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermidis,Propionibacterium acnes, and Corynebacterium spp. were inoculated at a density of 10(6)/mL in varying concentrations of GML up to 25 μg/mL for 24 hours at 37 °C with constant shaking...
February 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Bo Kyeong Yoon, Joshua A Jackman, Min Chul Kim, Nam-Joon Cho
Medium-chain saturated fatty acids and related compounds (e.g., monoglycerides) represent one class of membrane-active surfactants with antimicrobial properties. Most related studies have been in vitro evaluations of bacterial growth inhibition, and there is limited knowledge about how the compounds in this class destabilize lipid bilayers, which are the purported target within the bacterial cell membrane. Herein, the interaction between three representative compounds in this class and a supported lipid bilayer platform was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation and fluorescence microscopy in order to examine membrane destabilization...
September 22, 2015: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Donavon J Hess, Michelle J Henry-Stanley, Carol L Wells
BACKGROUND: Bacterial biofilms are involved in a large proportion of clinical infections, including device-related infections. Unfortunately, biofilm-associated bacteria are typically less susceptible to antibiotics, and infected devices must often be removed. On the basis of a recent observation that lipid-rich biofilm matrix material is present in early biofilm formation and may protect a population of bacteria from interacting with ordinarily diffusible small molecules, we hypothesized that surfactants may be useful in preventing biofilm development...
October 2015: Surgical Infections
Ashley T Haase, Eva Rakasz, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Karla Nephew, Kimberly L Weisgrau, Cavan S Reilly, Qingsheng Li, Peter J Southern, Meghan Rothenberger, Marnie L Peterson, Patrick M Schlievert
Measures to prevent sexual mucosal transmission are critically needed, particularly to prevent transmission to young women at high risk in the microepidemics in South Africa that disproportionally contribute to the continued pandemic. To that end, microbicides containing anti-retroviral (ARV) agents have been shown to prevent transmission, but with efficacy limited both by adherence and pre-existing innate immune and inflammatory conditions in the female reproductive tract (FRT). Glycerol monolaurate (GML) has been proposed as a microbicide component to enhance efficacy by blocking these transmission-facilitating innate immune response to vaginal exposure...
2015: PloS One
Christopher Poulsen, Leslie A Mehalick, Carol L Fischer, Emily A Lanzel, Amber M Bates, Katherine S Walters, Joseph E Cavanaugh, Janet M Guthmiller, Georgia K Johnson, Philip W Wertz, Kim A Brogden
Long-chain bases are present in the oral cavity. Previously we determined that sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and phytosphingosine have potent antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. Here, we determined the cytotoxicities of long-chain bases for oral cells, an important step in considering their potential as antimicrobial agents for oral infections. This information would clearly help in establishing prophylactic or therapeutic doses. To assess this, human oral gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes, oral gingival fibroblasts (GF), and dendritic cells (DC) were exposed to 10...
August 19, 2015: Toxicology Letters
Elizabeth A Mueller, Patrick M Schlievert
BACKGROUND: Skin and surgical infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are causes of patient morbidity and increased healthcare costs. These organisms grow planktonically and as biofilms, and many strains exhibit antibiotic resistance. This study examines the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of glycerol monolaurate (GML), as solubilized in a non-aqueous vehicle (5% GML Gel), as a novel, broadly-active topical antimicrobial. The FDA has designated GML as generally recognized as safe for human use, and the compound is commonly used in the cosmetic and food industries...
2015: PloS One
Satoshi Wakisaka, Takahisa Nishimura, Shoichi Gohtani
We investigated how phase behavior changes by replacing water with glycerol in water/mixture of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and hexaglycerol monolaurate (HGML) /vegetable oil system, and studied the effect of glycerol on o/w nano-emulsion formation using an isothermal low-energy method. In the phase behavior study, the liquid crystalline phase (Lc) + the sponge phase (L3) expanded toward lower surfactant concentration when water was replaced with glycerol in a system containing surfactant HLP (a mixture of PGPR and HGML)...
2015: Journal of Oleo Science
Donavon J Hess, Michelle J Henry-Stanley, Carol L Wells
Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a natural surfactant with antimicrobial properties. At ∼0.3 mM, both GML and its component lauric acid were bactericidal for antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. With the use of MICs of antibiotics obtained from planktonic cells, GML and lauric acid acted synergistically with gentamicin and streptomycin, but not ampicillin or vancomycin, to eliminate detectable viable biofilm bacteria. Images of GML-treated biofilms suggested that GML may facilitate antibiotic interaction with matrix-embedded bacteria...
November 2014: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
X M Wang, K C Yee, N Hazeki-Taylor, J Li, H Y Fu, M L Huang, G Y Zhang
The present study was designed to explore the existence of oral Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), its relationship in the oral cavity to the success rate of eradication of the gastric H. pylori infection, and to determine if the mouthwash solution contained lysine (0.4%) and glycerol monolaurate (0.2%) (LGM) could eliminate oral H. pylori, as well as using the saliva H. pylori culture to confirm the existence of oral H. pylori. A total of 159 symptomatic individuals with stomach pain and 118 asymptomatic individuals with no stomach complaints, were recruited and tested using the saliva H...
August 2014: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Joseph A Merriman, Kimberly A Nemeth, Patrick M Schlievert
Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, cause serious human illnesses through combinations of surface virulence factors and secretion of exotoxins. Our prior studies using the protein synthesis inhibitor clindamycin and signal transduction inhibitors glycerol monolaurate and α-globin and β-globin chains of hemoglobin indicate that their abilities to inhibit exotoxin production by S. aureus are separable from abilities to inhibit growth of the organism. Additionally, our previous studies suggest that inhibition of exotoxin production, in absence of ability to kill S...
2014: PloS One
M Wieland, B K Weber, A Hafner-Marx, C Sauter-Louis, J Bauer, G Knubben-Schweizer, M Metzner
Beginning in the fall of 2010, an increasing and alarming number of cases of calves suffering from liver dystrophy were reported in the south of Germany. An epidemiological investigation was carried out by the authors between November 2010 and July 2011, leading to the implication of a commercial dietary supplement as the potential cause for this outbreak. The components of this product were first tested in a cell culture model and two of them (dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate) showed a cytotoxic effect...
February 2015: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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