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Glycerol monolaurate

Gege Sun, Lingling Lei, Huanle Chen, Bin Li, YanPing Cao, Yan Li
Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-stabilized emulsions were produced and their structure was further modified by altering the oil (glycerol monolaurate, GML) and aqueous (whey protein concentrate, WPC) phases. Then, the encapsulation and release of nobiletin were evaluated. HPMC (3%) could efficiently stabilize the oil droplets with a particle size around 370 nm. When HPMC was the emulsifier, the stabilization time of nobiletin in the emulsion was prolonged, but its encapsulation amount was still maintained around 4...
May 29, 2018: Food & Function
Dawei Yu, Joe M Regenstein, Jinhong Zang, Wenshui Xia, Yanshun Xu, Qixing Jiang, Fang Yang
The study evaluated the inhibitory effects of chitosan-based coatings on endogenous enzyme activities, proteolytic degradation and texture softening of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 °C for 15 days. In general, the inhibitory effects of chitosan coating were worse than that of chitosan composite coatings, which significantly inhibited cathepsin B, B + L and calpain activities of fillets, with the most reductions of 58%, 65% and 41%, respectively when compared to the corresponding values of control fillets...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Michael S Zhang, Phuong M Tran, Alexander J Wolff, Mikaela M Tremblay, Micaela G Fosdick, Jon C D Houtman
Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglyceride with potent antimicrobial properties that suppresses T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling and T cell effector function. Actin rearrangement is needed for the interaction of T cells with antigen-presenting cells and for migration to sites of infection. Because of the critical role actin rearrangement plays in T cell effector function, we analyzed the effect of GML on the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton after TCR activation. We found that GML-treated human T cells were less adherent than untreated T cells and did not form actin ring structures but instead developed numerous inappropriate actin-mediated filopodia...
May 1, 2018: Science Signaling
Lisa M Kawakami, Bo Kyeong Yoon, Joshua A Jackman, Wolfgang Knoll, Paul S Weiss, Nam-Joon Cho
The addition of single-chain lipid amphiphiles such as antimicrobial fatty acids and monoglycerides to confined, two-dimensional phospholipid bilayers can trigger the formation of three-dimensional membrane morphologies as a passive means to regulate stress. To date, relevant experimental studies have been conducted using pure phospholipid compositions, and extending such insights to more complex, biologically relevant lipid compositions that include phospholipids and sterols is warranted because sterols are important biological mediators of membrane stress relaxation...
December 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zengliang Jiang, Minjie Zhao, Hui Zhang, Yang Li, Mengyun Liu, Fengqin Feng
SCOPE: Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is widely consumed worldwide in the food industry and is considered safe, but for chronic diseases, supporting scientific data remain sparse. This study investigates whether dietary GML induces metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: GML-induced occurrence of metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota alterations, and systemic low-grade inflammation are investigated. The results demonstrate that GML induced metabolic syndrome by significantly increasing the body weight, weight gain, food intake, body fat, fat droplet size and percentage of epididymal fat, serum triglycerides (TG), LDL, and atherogenic index, and decreasing the body muscle ratio, liver weight, and HDL, compared to the control (CON) group...
February 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Dawei Yu, Yanshun Xu, Joe M Regenstein, Wenshui Xia, Fang Yang, Qixing Jiang, Bin Wang
This study investigated the effects of chitosan-based coatings on flavor retention of refrigerated grass carp fillets by using various indicators: free amino acids (FAA), nucleotides, trimethylamine (TMA), volatile profile, sensory quality, and electronic nose analysis. The results indicated that chitosan-based coatings contributed to the significant reduction of off-flavor compounds, such as TMA, hypoxanthine (Hx) and histidine, and accumulation of inosine monophosphate (IMP) and umami-associated FAA. GC-MS analysis showed 23 volatile organic compounds, including many C5-C9 aldehydes and alcohols in the fresh fillets...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ameya R Kirtane, Meghan K Rothenberger, Abby Frieberg, Karla Nephew, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Thomas Schmidt, Thomas Reimann, Ashley T Haase, Jayanth Panyam
The human immunodeficiency virus epidemic affects millions of people worldwide. As women are more vulnerable to infection, female-controlled interventions can help control the spread of the disease significantly. Glycerol monolaurate (GML), an inexpensive and safe compound, has been shown to protect against simian immunodeficiency virus infection when applied vaginally. However, on account of its low aqueous solubility, fabrication of high-dose formulations of GML has proven difficult. We describe the development of a vaginal cream that could be loaded with up to 35% GML...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Dawei Yu, Qixing Jiang, Yanshun Xu, Wenshui Xia
A novel chitosan-based coating solution was prepared by combining glycerol monolaurate (GML) for shelf life extension of refrigerated grass carp fillets. The control and coated fillets were analyzed periodically for physicochemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value, K value, and shear force), microbiological (total viable counts (TVC), psychrophilic bacteria counts (PTC), Pseudomonads and H2 S-producing bacteria) and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that chitosan-GML coated samples presented better quality preservation effects than chitosan coating alone...
August 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Leonardo Q S Lopes, Cayane G Santos, Rodrigo de Almeida Vaucher, Renata P Raffin, Aleksandro S da Silva, Dilmar Baretta, Ana Paula Maccari, Laura Caroline D D Giombelli, Andreia Volpato, Jessyka Arruda, Cecília de Ávila Scheeren, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Roberto C V Santos
Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a compound with known antimicrobial potential, however it is not much used due to its low solubility in water and high melting point. The nanoencapsulation of some drugs offers several advantages such as improved stability and solubility in water. The present study aimed to produce, characterize, and evaluate the ecotoxicity of GML nanocapsules. The nanocapsules were produced and presented a mean diameter of 210nm, polydispersity index of 0.044, and zeta potential of -23.4mV. The electron microscopy images showed the nanometric size and spherical shape...
May 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Michael S Zhang, Jon C D Houtman
Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglyceride with well characterized anti-microbial properties. Because of these properties, GML is widely used in food, cosmetics, and personal care products and currently being tested as a therapeutic for menstrual associated toxic shock syndrome, superficial wound infections, and HIV transmission. Recently, we have described that GML potently suppresses select T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling events, leading to reduced human T cell effector functions. However, how soluble host factors present in the blood and at sites of infection affect GML-mediated human T cell suppression is unknown...
2016: PloS One
Michael S Zhang, Aline Sandouk, Jon C D Houtman
Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a naturally occurring fatty acid widely utilized in food, cosmetics, and homeopathic supplements. GML is a potent antimicrobial agent that targets a range of bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses but select findings suggest that GML also has immunomodulatory functions. In this study, we have mechanistically examined if GML affects the signaling and functional output of human primary T cells. We found that GML potently altered order and disorder dynamics in the plasma membrane that resulted in reduced formation of LAT, PLC-γ, and AKT microclusters...
July 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dalia Seleem, Emily Chen, Bruna Benso, Vanessa Pardi, Ramiro M Murata
Monolaurin (also known as glycerol monolaurate) is a natural compound found in coconut oil and is known for its protective biological activities as an antimicrobial agent. The nature of oral candidiasis and the increased antifungal resistance demand the search for novel antifungal therapeutic agents. In this study, we examine the antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms (strain ATCC:SC5314/MYA2876) in vitro and investigate whether monolaurin can alter gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, IL-1α and IL-1β...
2016: PeerJ
Leonardo Quintana Soares Lopes, Cayane Genro Santos, Rodrigo de Almeida Vaucher, Renata Platcheck Raffin, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos
Candida albicans does not only occur in the free living planktonic form but also grows in surface-attached biofilm communities. Moreover, these biofilms appear to be the most common lifestyle and are involved in the majority of human Candida infections. Nanoparticles can be used as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents and can also act as carriers for antibiotics and other drugs. In view of this, the aim of the study was develop, characterize and verify the anti-biofilm potential of GML Nanocapsules against C...
August 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Leonardo Q S Lopes, Cayane G Santos, Rodrigo de Almeida Vaucher, Liesel Gende, Renata P Raffin, Roberto C V Santos
The American Foulbrood Disease (AFB) is a fatal larval bee infection. The etiologic agent is the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. The treatment involves incineration of all contaminated materials, leading to high losses. The Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a known antimicrobial potential compound, however its use is reduced due to its low solubility in water and high melting point. The nanoencapsulation of some drugs offers several advantages like improved stability and solubility in water. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against P...
August 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Nicola Parisi, Miguel Paz-Alvarez, Paul J Matts, Rebecca Lever, Jonathan Hadgraft, Majella E Lane
Hexamidine diisethionate (HEX D) has been used for its biocidal actions in topical preparations since the 1950s. Recent data also suggest that it plays a beneficial role in skin homeostasis. To date, the extent to which this compound penetrates the epidermis has not been reported nor how its topical delivery may be modulated. In the present work we set out to characterise the interaction of HEX D with the skin and to develop a range of simple formulations for topical targeting of the active. A further objective was to compare the skin penetration of HEX D with its corresponding dihydrochloride salt (HEX H) as the latter has more favourable physicochemical properties for skin uptake...
June 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Judith Louise Flanagan, Neeta Khandekar, Hua Zhu, Keizo Watanabe, Maria Markoulli, John Terence Flanagan, Eric Papas
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the relative lipase production of a range of ocular bacterial isolates and to assess the efficacy of glycerol monolaurate (GML) in inhibiting this lipase production in high lipase-producing bacteria without affecting bacterial cell growth. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermidis,Propionibacterium acnes, and Corynebacterium spp. were inoculated at a density of 10(6)/mL in varying concentrations of GML up to 25 μg/mL for 24 hours at 37 °C with constant shaking...
February 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Bo Kyeong Yoon, Joshua A Jackman, Min Chul Kim, Nam-Joon Cho
Medium-chain saturated fatty acids and related compounds (e.g., monoglycerides) represent one class of membrane-active surfactants with antimicrobial properties. Most related studies have been in vitro evaluations of bacterial growth inhibition, and there is limited knowledge about how the compounds in this class destabilize lipid bilayers, which are the purported target within the bacterial cell membrane. Herein, the interaction between three representative compounds in this class and a supported lipid bilayer platform was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation and fluorescence microscopy in order to examine membrane destabilization...
September 22, 2015: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Donavon J Hess, Michelle J Henry-Stanley, Carol L Wells
BACKGROUND: Bacterial biofilms are involved in a large proportion of clinical infections, including device-related infections. Unfortunately, biofilm-associated bacteria are typically less susceptible to antibiotics, and infected devices must often be removed. On the basis of a recent observation that lipid-rich biofilm matrix material is present in early biofilm formation and may protect a population of bacteria from interacting with ordinarily diffusible small molecules, we hypothesized that surfactants may be useful in preventing biofilm development...
October 2015: Surgical Infections
Ashley T Haase, Eva Rakasz, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Karla Nephew, Kimberly L Weisgrau, Cavan S Reilly, Qingsheng Li, Peter J Southern, Meghan Rothenberger, Marnie L Peterson, Patrick M Schlievert
Measures to prevent sexual mucosal transmission are critically needed, particularly to prevent transmission to young women at high risk in the microepidemics in South Africa that disproportionally contribute to the continued pandemic. To that end, microbicides containing anti-retroviral (ARV) agents have been shown to prevent transmission, but with efficacy limited both by adherence and pre-existing innate immune and inflammatory conditions in the female reproductive tract (FRT). Glycerol monolaurate (GML) has been proposed as a microbicide component to enhance efficacy by blocking these transmission-facilitating innate immune response to vaginal exposure...
2015: PloS One
Christopher Poulsen, Leslie A Mehalick, Carol L Fischer, Emily A Lanzel, Amber M Bates, Katherine S Walters, Joseph E Cavanaugh, Janet M Guthmiller, Georgia K Johnson, Philip W Wertz, Kim A Brogden
Long-chain bases are present in the oral cavity. Previously we determined that sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and phytosphingosine have potent antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. Here, we determined the cytotoxicities of long-chain bases for oral cells, an important step in considering their potential as antimicrobial agents for oral infections. This information would clearly help in establishing prophylactic or therapeutic doses. To assess this, human oral gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes, oral gingival fibroblasts (GF), and dendritic cells (DC) were exposed to 10...
August 19, 2015: Toxicology Letters
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