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Microbiota depression

Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Danielle Macedo, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, João Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre Júnior, David Freitas de Lucena
OBJECTIVES: The first drug repurposed for the treatment of depression was the tuberculostatic iproniazid. At present, drugs belonging to new classes of antidepressants still have antimicrobial effects. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota was implicated in the development or exacerbation of mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). Based on the current interest in the gut-brain axis, the focus of this narrative review is to compile the available studies regarding the influences of gut microbiota in behavior and depression and to show the antimicrobial effect of antidepressant drugs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Siyang Yan, Amanda C Kentner
Exposure to painful procedures and/or stressors during the early neonatal period can reprogram the underlying neurocircuitry involved in nociception and neuropathic pain perception. The reprogramming of these systems can result in an enduring elevation in sensitivity towards mechanical and thermal stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to mild inflammatory mediators during the neonatal period can induce similar pain responses in both adolescent and adult rats. Therefore, we sought to profile changes in the expression of several genes across brain areas involved in the active modulation of nociception and neuropathic pain using a well-recognized model of neonatal inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes, however the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience
Ping Lin, Bingyu Ding, Chunyan Feng, Shuwei Yin, Ting Zhang, Xin Qi, Huiying Lv, Xiaokui Guo, Ke Dong, Yongzhang Zhu, Qingtian Li
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of major depression disorder (MDD) and other mental disorders were depended on some subjective survey scales. There are confirmed relationship between the gut flora and the mental states of MDD patients. METHODS: The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was extracted from the fecal microbial communities in MDD patients, PCR amplified and sequenced on the Illumina Miseq platform. RESULTS: More phylum Firmicutes, less Bacteroidetes, and more genus Prevotella, Klebsiella, Streptococcus and Clostridium XI were found in MDD patients...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Rebecca F Slykerman, John Thompson, Karen E Waldie, Rinki Murphy, Clare Wall, Edwin A Mitchell
AIM: There may be a link between disruption to the gut microbiota in early life and later neurocognitive outcomes. We hypothesised that antibiotic use in early life is associated with a detrimental effect on later neurocognitive outcomes. METHODS: 871 European mothers and their children enrolled in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study at birth. Information on antibiotic use during the first year of life and between 12 months and 3.5 years of age was gathered via maternal interview...
October 4, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Stephanie L Schnorr, Harriet A Bachner
Over the past decade, research has shown that diet and gut health affects symptoms expressed in stress related disorders, depression, and anxiety through changes in the gut microbiota. Psycho-behavioral function and somatic health interaction have often been ignored in health care with resulting deficits in treatment quality and outcomes. While mental health care requires the professional training in counseling, psychotherapy and psychiatry, complimentary therapeutic strategies, such as attention to a nutritional and diverse diet and supplementation of probiotic foods, may be integrated alongside psychotherapy treatment models...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Duo-Chen Jin, Hai-Long Cao, Meng-Que Xu, Si-Nan Wang, Yu-Ming Wang, Fang Yan, Bang-Mao Wang
Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin transporter (SERT) have earned a tremendous amount of attention regarding the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Considering that enteric 5-HT is responsible for the secretion, motility and perception of the bowel, the involvement of altered enteric 5-HT metabolism in the pathogenesis of IBS has been elucidated. Higher 5-HT availability is commonly associated with depressed SERT mRNA in patients with IBS compared with healthy controls. The expression difference of SERT between IBS patients and healthy controls might suggest that SERT plays an essential role in IBS pathogenesis, and SERT was expected to be a novel therapeutic target for IBS...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Charlotte D'Mello, Mark G Swain
A growing body of evidence now highlights a key role for inflammation in mediating sickness behaviors and depression. Systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic liver disease have high comorbidity with depression. How the periphery communicates with the brain to mediate changes in neurotransmission and thereby behavior is not completely understood. Traditional routes of communication between the periphery and the brain involve neural and humoral pathways with TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 being the three main cytokines that have primarily been implicated in mediating signaling via these pathways...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Moses Rodriguez, Bharath Wootla, George Anderson
BACKGROUND: Alterations in gut microbiota, coupled to increased gut permeability are now widely recognized as having a role in the etiology, course and treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: In this review, the role that such gut changes play over the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is detailed. RESULTS: Given the wide array of biological factors and processes that have been shown to be altered in MS, including changes in the gut, this allows for a better integration of the diverse array of pathophysiological processes linked to MS...
September 15, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Meysam Pirbaglou, Joel Katz, Russell J de Souza, Jennifer C Stearns, Mehras Motamed, Paul Ritvo
Gastrointestinal microbiota, consisting of microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract, play an important role in digestive, metabolic, and immune functioning. Preclinical studies on rodents have linked behavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system with deficits or alterations in these bacterial communities. Moreover, probiotic supplementation in rodents has been shown to markedly change behavior, with correlated changes in central neurochemistry. While such studies have documented behavioral and mood-related supplementation effects, the significance of these effects in humans, especially in relation to anxiety and depression symptoms, are relatively unknown...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Daniel J Davis, Patrick M Hecht, Eldin Jasarevic, David Q Beversdorf, Matthew J Will, Kevin Fritsche, Catherine H Gillespie
Dietary supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to have a beneficial effect on reducing the symptoms associated with several neuropsychiatric conditions including anxiety and depression. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain largely unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that the vast repertoire of commensal bacteria within the gut plays a critical role in regulating various biological processes in the brain and may contribute to neuropsychiatric disease risk...
September 9, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
George Anderson, M Seo, M Berk, A F Carvalho, M Maes
BACKGROUND: Increased gut permeability (leaky gut) and alterations in gut microbiota are now widely accepted as relevant to the etiology, course and treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Although a wide array of data on the biological underpinnings of PD has not yet been linked to such gut-associated changes, increased gut permeability and dysregulated microbiota alter many pathways germane to PD. METHODS: In this article we review and integrate these wider biological changes in PD, including increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, immune-inflammatory processes, tryptophan catabolites and alterations in serotoninergic and melatoninergic pathways...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, Marco Solmi, Krista L Lanctôt, André F Carvalho
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive disorder manifested by gradual memory loss and subsequent impairment in mental and behavioral functions. Though the primary risk factor for AD is advancing age, other factors such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity, vascular factors and depression play a role in its pathogenesis. The human gastrointestinal tract has a diverse commensal microbial population, which has bidirectional interactions with the human host that are symbiotic in health, and in addition to nutrition, digestion, plays major roles in inflammation and immunity...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Raeesah Maqsood, Trevor W Stone
Gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota and the 'gut-brain axis' are proving to be increasingly relevant to early brain development and the emergence of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the influence of the GI tract on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its relationship with receptors for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR), as these are believed to be involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. NMDAR may be associated with the development of schizophrenia and a range of other psychopathologies including neurodegenerative disorders, depression and dementias...
August 23, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Kevin D Kohl, M Denise Dearing
The microbial communities inhabiting the alimentary tracts of mammals, particularly those of herbivores, are estimated to be one of the densest microbial reservoirs on Earth. The significance of these gut microbes in influencing the physiology, ecology and evolution of their hosts is only beginning to be realized. To understand the microbiome of herbivores with a focus on nutritional ecology, while evaluating the roles of host evolution and environment in sculpting microbial diversity, we have developed an experimental system consisting of the microbial communities of several species of herbivorous woodrats (genus Neotoma) that naturally feed on a variety of dietary toxins...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
John R Kelly, Yuliya Borre, Ciaran O' Brien, Elaine Patterson, Sahar El Aidy, Jennifer Deane, Paul J Kennedy, Sasja Beers, Karen Scott, Gerard Moloney, Alan E Hoban, Lucinda Scott, Patrick Fitzgerald, Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, function and behaviour. The pathophysiology of depression involves neuroimmune-neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the extent to which changes in gut microbiota composition and function mediate the dysregulation of these pathways is unknown...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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