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Microbiota depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432299/comparative-metaproteomics-analysis-shows-altered-fecal-microbiota-signatures-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Zhi Chen, Jie Li, Siwen Gui, Chanjuan Zhou, Jianjun Chen, Chuangchuang Yang, Zicheng Hu, Haiyang Wang, Xiaogang Zhong, Li Zeng, Ke Chen, Pengfei Li, Peng Xie
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating mental illness, which is associated with disorder of gut microbiota. However, few studies focusing on detection of the signatures of bacteria in feces of MDD patients using proteomics approach have been carried out. Here, a comparative metaproteomics analysis on the basis of an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was carried out to explore the signature of gut microbiota in patients with MDD...
February 9, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421808/pathophysiology-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-a-holistic-overview
#2
Gerald Holtmann, Ayesha Shah, Mark Morrison
Background and Summary: Traditionally, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), including functional dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are defined by more or less specific symptoms and the absence of structural or biochemical abnormalities that cause these symptoms. This concept is now considered to be outdated; if appropriate tests are applied, structural or biochemical abnormalities that explain or cause the symptoms may be found in many patients. Another feature of FGID are the highly prevalent psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407287/overview-and-systematic-review-of-studies-of-microbiome-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Tanya T Nguyen, Tomasz Kosciolek, Lisa T Eyler, Rob Knight, Dilip V Jeste
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are among the leading causes of disability, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. In addition to being serious mental illnesses, these disorders are associated with considerable systemic physiological dysfunction, including chronic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress. The advent of sophisticated sequencing techniques has led to a growing interest in the potential role of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Advances in this area have transformed our understanding of a number of medical conditions and have generated a new perspective suggesting that gut microbiota might be involved in the development and maintenance of brain/mental health...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402332/the-efficacy-and-mechanism-evaluation-of-treating-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-with-the-addition-of-co-trimoxazole-eme-tipac-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Matthew Hammond, Allan B Clark, Anthony P Cahn, Edwin R Chilvers, William Duncan Fraser, David M Livermore, Toby M Maher, Helen Parfrey, Ann Marie Swart, Susan Stirling, David Thickett, Moira Whyte, Andrew Wilson
BACKGROUND: We hypothesise, based upon the findings from our previous trial, that the addition of co-trimoxazole to standard therapy is beneficial to patients with moderate to severe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We aim to investigate this by assessing unplanned hospitalisation-free survival (defined as time from randomisation to first non-elective hospitalisation, lung transplant or death) and to determine whether any effect relates to changes in infection and/or markers of disease control and neutrophil activity...
February 5, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397391/gut-microbiome-and-depression-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-know
#5
Gal Winter, Robert A Hart, Richard P G Charlesworth, Christopher F Sharpley
Gut microbiome diversity has been strongly associated with mood-relating behaviours, including major depressive disorder (MDD). This association stems from the recently characterised bi-directional communication system between the gut and the brain, mediated by neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and sensory neural pathways. While the link between gut microbiome and depression is well supported by research, a major question needing to be addressed is the causality in the connection between the two, which will support the understanding of the role that the gut microbiota play in depression...
February 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382834/metabolite-identification-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-mouse-livers-and-combined-proteomics-with-chronic-unpredictive-mild-stress-mouse-livers
#6
Bo Li, Kenan Guo, Li Zeng, Benhua Zeng, Ran Huo, Yuanyuan Luo, Haiyang Wang, Meixue Dong, Peng Zheng, Chanjuan Zhou, Jianjun Chen, Yiyun Liu, Zhao Liu, Liang Fang, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mood disorder. Gut microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression via the microbe-gut-brain axis. Liver is vulnerable to exposure of bacterial products translocated from the gut via the portal vein and may be involved in the axis. In this study, germ-free mice underwent fecal microbiota transplantation from MDD patients and healthy controls. Behavioral tests verified the depression model. Metabolomics using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry determined the influence of microbes on liver metabolism...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355696/effects-of-non-purified-and-semi-purified-commercial-diets-on-behaviors-plasma-corticosterone-levels-and-cecum-microbiome-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#7
Atsushi Toyoda, Hikari Shimonishi, Mizuho Sato, Kento Usuda, Natsuki Ohsawa, Kentaro Nagaoka
Diverse commercially available feeds are used in animal studies according to the purpose of the studies. We sought to understand the relationship between feed ingredients and their effects on animal physiology and behaviors. Here, we investigated how male laboratory mice (C57BL/6J ("B6") mice) were affected by chronic feeding with two commercially available diets, a non-purified diet (MF) and a semi-purified diet (AIN-93G). In B6 mice, both diets similarly induced spontaneous activities in the home cage and the open field box, anxiety in the elevated plus maze test, and depressive-like behaviors in tail-suspension and forced-swimming tests, and with both diets, similar data were obtained on calorie intake, water intake, body weight gain, and plasma corticosterone levels...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#8
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306937/the-effects-of-stress-and-meditation-on-the-immune-system-human-microbiota-and-epigenetics
#9
Ayman Mukerji Househam, Christine Tara Peterson, Paul J Mills, Deepak Chopra
Context • Globally, more than 25% of individuals are affected by anxiety and depression disorders. Meditation is gaining popularity in clinical settings and its treatment efficacy is being studied for a wide array of psychological and physiological ailments. An exploration of stress physiology is an essential precursor to delineation of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of meditation practices. Objective • The review outlines a model of interconnected physiological processes that might support the continued inclusion and expansion of meditation in the treatment of diverse medical conditions and to investigate the role that gut microbiota may play in realizing well-being through meditation...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278464/the-sinonasal-microbiota-neural-signaling-and-depression-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#10
Michael Hoggard, Angela Nocera, Kristi Biswas, Michael W Taylor, Richard G Douglas, Benjamin S Bleier
BACKGROUND: The complex relationships between the human microbiota, the immune system, and the brain play important roles in both health and disease, and have been of increasing interest in the study of chronic inflammatory mucosal conditions. We hypothesized that the sinonasal microbiota may act as a modifier of interkingdom neural signaling and, subsequently, mental health, in the upper respiratory inflammatory condition chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this study we investigated associations between the sinonasal microbiota; local concentrations of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); and depression severity in a cohort of 14 CRS patients and 12 healthy controls...
December 26, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276734/stress-the-gut-brain-axis-regulation-by-the-microbiome
#11
REVIEW
Jane A Foster, Linda Rinaman, John F Cryan
The importance of the gut-brain axis in regulating stress-related responses has long been appreciated. More recently, the microbiota has emerged as a key player in the control of this axis, especially during conditions of stress provoked by real or perceived homeostatic challenge. Diet is one of the most important modifying factors of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are slowly being unravelled, and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signaling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249803/possible-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-in-the-antidepressant-effects-of-r-ketamine-in-a-social-defeat-stress-model
#12
Chun Yang, Youge Qu, Yuko Fujita, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Chao Dong, Kenji Hashimoto
Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota-brain axis plays a role in the pathogenesis of depression, thereby contributing to the antidepressant actions of certain compounds. (R)-ketamine has a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effects than (S)-ketamine. Here, we investigated whether the gut microbiota plays a role in the antidepressant effects of these two ketamine enantiomers. The role of the gut microbiota in the antidepressant effects of ketamine enantiomers in a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression was examined using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples...
December 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246029/the-role-of-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-schizophrenia-and-major-depressive-disorder-and-the-possibility-of-targeting-microbiota-as-a-treatment-option
#13
REVIEW
Fengli Lv, Suling Chen, Lina Wang, Ronghuan Jiang, Hongjun Tian, Jie Li, Yudong Yao, Chuanjun Zhuo
The importance of interactions between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract has been increasingly recognized in recent years. It has been proposed that dysregulation and abnormalities in the brain-gut axis contribute to the etiology of a variety of central nervous system disorders. Particularly, dysbiosis, or impaired microbiota, has been implicated in multiple neurological and psychological disorders. The present paper reviews current evidence and theories concerning the possible mechanisms by which microbiota dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243233/finding-the-needle-in-the-haystack-systematic-identification-of-psychobiotics
#14
REVIEW
Aisling Bambury, Kiran Sandhu, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis is increasingly viewed as a novel paradigm in neuroscience with the capacity to generate innovative therapies for patients with psychiatric illnesses. Psychobiotics, defined as live bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts confer mental health benefits, are increasingly of interest, as pre-clinical trials continue to show promising results. Particularly in stress related, anxiety and depressive disorders, there is potential for psychobiotics to deliver new therapies. The question of which microbes may prove to be the most promising psychobiotic in delivering such therapies at clinical level is of great importance...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220570/neuromicrobiology-how-microbes-influence-the-brain
#15
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
December 28, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208194/-gut-microbiota-and-depressive-symptoms
#16
Julie Kristine Knudsen, Zenia Funch Jensen, Alice Højer Christensen, Stig Günther, Lene Nørby Nielsen, Peter Deutscher, Sidse Arnfred
The gut microbiota is believed to affect a wide variety of mental disorders, including depression. The hypothesis involves bacterial signalling to the host through metabolic, endocrinal, immunologic and neuronal pathways. Few studies of patients with depression have shown altered microbiota profiles and increased levels of systemic endotoxin, which can be detected by leucocytes and result in expression of cytokines. Studies performed so far have lacked statistical power and provide no causal explanation for the gut-brain hypothesis...
November 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201045/functional-bowel-disorders-are-associated-with-a-central-immune-activation
#17
Per G Farup, Thor Ueland, Knut Rudi, Stian Lydersen, Knut Hestad
Background: Subjects with depression and unexplained neurological symptoms have a high prevalence of gastrointestinal comorbidity probably related to the brain-gut communication. This study explored associations between functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and inflammatory markers in subjects with these disorders. Methods: The FGID, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), were classified according to the Rome III criteria, and degree of symptoms was assessed with IBS symptom severity score (IBS-SSS)...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190117/psychobiotics-a-new-approach-for-treating-mental-illness
#18
Snigdha Misra, Debapriya Mohanty
Gut microbiomes may have a significant impact on mood and cognition, which is leading experts towards a new frontier in neuroscience. Studies have shown that increase in the amount of good bacteria in the gut can curb inflammation and cortisol level, reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety, lowers stress reactivity, improves memory and even lessens neuroticism and social anxiety. This shows that, probably the beneficial gut bacteria or probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds...
November 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168619/gut-microbes-limit-growth-in-house-sparrows-nestlings-passer-domesticus-but-not-through-limitations-in-digestive-capacity
#19
Kevin D Kohl, Antonio Brun, Seth R Bordenstein, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov
Recent research often lauds the services and beneficial effects of host-associated microbes on animals. However, hosting these microbes may come at a cost. For example, germ-free and antibiotic-treated birds generally grow faster than their conventional counterparts. In the wild, juvenile body size is correlated with survival, so hosting a microbiota may incur a fitness cost. Avian altricial nestlings represent an interesting study system in which to investigate these interactions, given that they exhibit the fastest growth rates among vertebrates, and growth is limited by their digestive capacity...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155372/gut-feeling-researchers-are-discovering-a-link-between-depression-and-gut-bacteria
#20
Mary Bates
The human gut is home to an abundant and diverse community of microbes–each of us carries roughly 100 trillion, representing more than 1,000 different species. The composition of one?s gut microbiota is individually specific, dynamic, and influenced by genetics, diet, age, metabolism, medication use, stress, and geography. These bacteria perform a range of necessary and beneficial functions, including breaking down our food and supporting our immune systems.
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
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