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Microbiota depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220570/neuromicrobiology-how-microbes-influence-the-brain
#1
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
December 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208194/-gut-microbiota-and-depressive-symptoms
#2
Julie Kristine Knudsen, Zenia Funch Jensen, Alice Højer Christensen, Stig Günther, Lene Nørby Nielsen, Peter Deutscher, Sidse Arnfred
The gut microbiota is believed to affect a wide variety of mental disorders, including depression. The hypothesis involves bacterial signalling to the host through metabolic, endocrinal, immunologic and neuronal pathways. Few studies of patients with depression have shown altered microbiota profiles and increased levels of systemic endotoxin, which can be detected by leucocytes and result in expression of cytokines. Studies performed so far have lacked statistical power and provide no causal explanation for the gut-brain hypothesis...
November 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201045/functional-bowel-disorders-are-associated-with-a-central-immune-activation
#3
Per G Farup, Thor Ueland, Knut Rudi, Stian Lydersen, Knut Hestad
Background: Subjects with depression and unexplained neurological symptoms have a high prevalence of gastrointestinal comorbidity probably related to the brain-gut communication. This study explored associations between functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and inflammatory markers in subjects with these disorders. Methods: The FGID, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), were classified according to the Rome III criteria, and degree of symptoms was assessed with IBS symptom severity score (IBS-SSS)...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190117/psychobiotics-a-new-approach-for-treating-mental-illness
#4
Snigdha Misra, Debapriya Mohanty
Gut microbiomes may have a significant impact on mood and cognition, which is leading experts towards a new frontier in neuroscience. Studies have shown that increase in the amount of good bacteria in the gut can curb inflammation and cortisol level, reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety, lowers stress reactivity, improves memory and even lessens neuroticism and social anxiety. This shows that, probably the beneficial gut bacteria or probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds...
November 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168619/gut-microbes-limit-growth-in-house-sparrows-nestlings-passer-domesticus-but-not-through-limitations-in-digestive-capacity
#5
Kevin D Kohl, Antonio Brun, Seth R Bordenstein, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov
Recent research often lauds the services and beneficial effects of host-associated microbes on animals. However, hosting these microbes may come at a cost. For example, germ-free and antibiotic-treated birds generally grow faster than their conventional counterparts. In the wild, juvenile body size is correlated with survival, so hosting a microbiota may incur a fitness cost. Avian altricial nestlings represent an interesting study system in which to investigate these interactions, given that they exhibit the fastest growth rates among vertebrates, and growth is limited by their digestive capacity...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155372/gut-feeling-researchers-are-discovering-a-link-between-depression-and-gut-bacteria
#6
Mary Bates
The human gut is home to an abundant and diverse community of microbes–each of us carries roughly 100 trillion, representing more than 1,000 different species. The composition of one?s gut microbiota is individually specific, dynamic, and influenced by genetics, diet, age, metabolism, medication use, stress, and geography. These bacteria perform a range of necessary and beneficial functions, including breaking down our food and supporting our immune systems.
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147024/comparison-of-r-ketamine-and-lanicemine-on-depression-like-phenotype-and-abnormal-composition-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-social-defeat-stress-model
#7
Youge Qu, Chun Yang, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Chao Dong, Kenji Hashimoto
Accumulating evidence suggests a key role of the gut-microbiota-brain axis in the antidepressant actions of certain compounds. Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, showed rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients. In contrast, another NMDAR antagonist, lanicemine, did not exhibit antidepressant effects in such patients. (R)-ketamine, the (R)-enantiomer of ketamine, has rapid-acting and long-lasting antidepressant effects in rodent models of depression...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142203/mode-of-delivery-and-child-and-adolescent-psychological-well-being-evidence-from-hong-kong-s-children-of-1997-birth-cohort
#8
Cherry Y Leung, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
Mode of delivery (vaginal or cesarean section) is thought to affect gut microbiota, which in turn may affect psychological well-being. As such, mode of delivery is potentially a modifiable factor for psychological well-being. Here we examined the association of mode of delivery with child and adolescent psychological well-being. We used multivariable linear regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort, "Children of 1997," to examine the adjusted associations of mode of delivery with behavioral problems assessed from parent-reported Rutter score at ~7 (n = 6294) and ~11 years (n = 5598), self-esteem assessed from self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory score at ~11 years (n = 6937) and depressive symptoms assessed from self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score at ~13 years (n = 5797)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134359/anxiety-depression-and-the-microbiome-a-role-for-gut-peptides
#9
REVIEW
Gilliard Lach, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling...
November 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131365/gut-microbiota-and-body-composition-in-anorexia-nervosa-inpatients-in-comparison-to-athletes-overweight-obese-and-normal-weight-controls
#10
Sabrina Mörkl, Sonja Lackner, Wolfram Müller, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Karl Kashofer, Andreas Oberascher, Annamaria Painold, Anna Holl, Peter Holzer, Andreas Meinitzer, Harald Mangge, Sandra Holasek
OBJECTIVES: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a heterogeneous eating disorder associated with alterations of body structure and the gut microbiome. We aimed to investigate the gut microbiota composition of a large female cohort including different BMI groups and activity levels along with body composition parameters. METHOD: 106 female participants were included in this cross-sectional study: AN patients (n = 18), athletes (n = 20), normal weight (n = 26), overweight (n = 22), and obese women (n = 20)...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130724/probiotics-for-fibromyalgia-study-design-for-a-pilot-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Pablo Roman, Ángeles F Estévez, Nuria Sánchez-Labraca, Fernando Cañadas, Alonso Miras, Diana Cardona
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, generalized and diffuse pain disorder accompanied by other symptoms such as emotional and cognitive deficits. The FMS patients show a high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Recently it has been found that microbes in the gut may regulate brain processes through the gut-microbiota-brain axis, modulating thus affection, motivation and higher cognitive functions. Therefore, the use of probiotics might be a new treatment that could improve the physical, psychological and cognitive state in FMS; however, no evidence about this issue is available...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129233/low-fermentable-oligo-di-mono-saccharides-and-polyol-diet-in-the-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Dania Schumann, Petra Klose, Romy Lauche, Gustav Dobos, Jost Langhorst, Holger Cramer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to systematically assess and meta-analyze the effects of a low fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet (LFD) on the severity of symptoms, quality of life, and safety in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: The MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were screened through January 19, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared LFD to other diets were included if they assessed symptoms of IBS or abdominal pain in patients with IBS...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103706/alterations-in-ruminal-bacterial-populations-at-induction-and-recovery-from-diet-induced-milk-fat-depression-in-dairy-cows
#13
D W Pitta, N Indugu, B Vecchiarelli, D E Rico, K J Harvatine
Ten ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a crossover design that investigated changes in ruminal bacterial populations in response to induction and recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD). Further, the effect on the ruminal microbiota of the cows with diet-induced milk fat depression inoculated with rumen contents from non-milk fat-depressed donor cows was evaluated. Milk fat depression was induced during the first 10 d of each period by feeding a low-fiber, high-starch, and high-polyunsaturated fatty acid diet (26...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055387/the-colon-revisited-or-the-key-to-wellness-health-and-disease
#14
C A Gonzalez-Correa, E Mulett-Vásquez, D A Miranda, C H Gonzalez-Correa, P A Gómez-Buitrago
The hypothesis being advanced in this paper is that there is a new medical paradigm emerging from the biomedical research carried out in this century, mainly due to the explosion of the so called "omics" and associated techniques. The main idea is that there is a common pathway from wellbeing and health to chronic disease ("chronopathy") and even to death, which comprises following steps: 1) unhealthy diet, sedentary life style and permanent exposition to xenobiotics and all kinds of noxious stimuli;→2) intestinal dysbiosis;→3) alteration of the intestinal mucus layer (especially that of the colon);→4) disruption of the endothelial tight junctions;→5) metabolic endotoxemia+bacterial translocation;→6) inflammation;→7) exacerbation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and consequent maladaptation and malfunctioning of the colon;→8) epigenetic manifestations;→9) "chronopathy" and premature death...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031410/harnessing-gut-microbes-for-mental-health-getting-from-here-to-there
#15
REVIEW
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
There has been an explosion of interest in the study of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) and their impact on host health and physiology. Accumulating data suggest that altered communication between gut microbiota and host systems could participate in disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune disorders as well as neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, anxiety, and major depressive disorders. The conceptual development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has facilitated understanding of the complex and bidirectional networks between gastrointestinal microbiota and their host, highlighting potential mechanisms through which this environment influences central nervous system physiology...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024170/steroids-stress-and-the-gut-microbiome-brain-axis
#16
REVIEW
Marc J Tetel, Geert J de Vries, Roberto C Melcangi, GianCarlo Panzica, Siobhain M O'Mahony
It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota, and in turn how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how perturbations in the gut microbiota can alter the stress axis and behavior. In addition, human studies on the possible role of gut microbiota in depression and anxiety are examined. Finally, we present some of the challenges and important questions that need to be addressed by future research in this exciting new area at the intersection of steroids, stress, gut-brain axis and human health...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016169/the-microbiome-as-a-novel-paradigm-in-studying-stress-and-mental-health
#17
Richard T Liu
At the intersection between neuroscience, microbiology, and psychiatry, the enteric microbiome has potential to become a novel paradigm for studying the psychobiological underpinnings of mental illness. Several studies provide support for the view that the enteric microbiome influences behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Moreover, recent findings are suggestive of the possibility that dysregulation of the enteric microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) and associated bacterial translocation across the intestinal epithelium may be involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders, particularly depression...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992428/inflammatory-mediators-in-mood-disorders-therapeutic-opportunities
#18
Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Ménard, Scott J Russo
Mood disorders such as depression are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States, but they are inadequately treated in a substantial proportion of patients. Accordingly, neuropsychiatric research has pivoted from investigation of monoaminergic mechanisms to exploration of novel mediators, including the role of inflammatory processes. Subsets of mood disorder patients exhibit immune-related abnormalities, including elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, monocytes, and neutrophils in the peripheral circulation; dysregulation of neuroglia and blood-brain barrier function; and disruption of gut microbiota...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968660/innate-immune-response-and-outcome-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-are-dependent-on-fecal-bacterial-composition-in-the-aged-host
#19
Jae Hyun Shin, Yingnan Gao, John H Moore, David T Bolick, Glynis L Kolling, Martin Wu, Cirle A Warren
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious threat for an aging population. Using an aged mouse model, we evaluated the effect of age and the roles of innate immunity and intestinal microbiota.Aged (18 months) and young (8 weeks) mice were infected with C. difficile and disease severity, immune response, and intestinal microbiome were compared. The same experiment was repeated with intestinal microbiota exchange between aged and young mice before infection. Higher mortality was observed in aged mice with weaker neutrophilic mobilization in blood and intestinal tissue and depressed pro-inflammatory cytokines in early infection...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964773/effects-of-gut-microbiota-disturbance-induced-in-early-life-on-the-expression-of-extrasynaptic-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-subunits-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-rats
#20
Liang Liang, Heng Zhou, Shiying Zhang, Jingping Yuan, Hao Wu
Previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota disturbance significantly increases the risk of emotional disorders via the gut-brain axis, but the mechanism is unclear. Furthermore, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits were reported to be implicated in the development of depression and amnesia, but the alterations in the GABA-A receptor subunits that are involved in the pathogenetic process have not been fully elucidated. This study used juvenile rats that were fed ampicillin-Na to establish degree III dysbiosis of the intestinal flora and examined emotional change via the tail suspension test, forced swim test and Morris water maze...
September 28, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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