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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330329/diversity-of-bacteria-and-archaea-in-the-rhizosphere-of-bioenergy-crop-jatropha-curcas
#1
Garima Dubey, Bharati Kollah, Vijay Kumar Gour, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Santosh Ranjan Mohanty
Plant-microbial interaction in rhizosphere plays vital role in shaping plant's growth and ecosystem function. Most of the rhizospheric microbial diversity studies are restricted to bacteria. In natural ecosystem, archaea also constitutes a major component of the microbial population. However, their diversity is less known compared to bacteria. Experiments were carried out to examine diversity of bacteria and archaea in the rhizosphere of bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas (J. curcas). Samples were collected from three locations varying widely in the soil physico-chemical properties...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330142/an-overview-of-physico-chemical-mechanisms-of-biogas-production-by-microbial-communities-a-step-towards-sustainable-waste-management
#2
REVIEW
Ramansu Goswami, Pritam Chattopadhyay, Arunima Shome, Sambhu Nath Banerjee, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Anil K Mathew, Shibani Chaudhury
Biogas is a combination of methane, CO2, nitrogen, H2S and traces of few other gases. Almost any organic waste can be biologically transformed into biogas and other energy-rich organic compounds through the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus helping in sustainable waste management. Although microbes are involved in each step of AD, knowledge about those microbial consortia is limited due to the lack of phylogenetic and metabolic data of predominantly unculturable microorganisms. However, culture-independent methods like PCR-based ribotyping has been successfully employed to get information about the microbial consortia involved in AD...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328972/altered-gut-microbiome-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness-causes-neuroinflammation-and-intestinal-injury-via-leaky-gut-and-tlr4-activation
#3
Firas Alhasson, Suvarthi Das, Ratanesh Seth, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Caitlin N Ryan, Luisa S Chan, Traci Testerman, James Burch, Lorne J Hofseth, Ronnie Horner, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Stephen M Lasley, Saurabh Chatterjee
Many of the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) that include neurological abnormalities, neuroinflammation, chronic fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances have been traced to Gulf War chemical exposure. Though the association and subsequent evidences are strong, the mechanisms that connect exposure to intestinal and neurological abnormalities remain unclear. Using an established rodent model of Gulf War Illness, we show that chemical exposure caused significant dysbiosis in the gut that included increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes and Tenericutes, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326074/diversity-and-biomineralization-potential-of-the-epilithic-bacterial-communities-inhabiting-the-oldest-public-stone-monument-of-cluj-napoca-transylvania-romania
#4
Adrian-Ştefan Andrei, Manuela R Păuşan, Tudor Tămaş, Nicolae Har, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Nicolae Leopold, Horia L Banciu
In this study, we investigated the biomineralization potential and diversity of the epilithic bacterial communities dwelling on the limestone statue of Saint Donatus, the oldest public monument of Cluj-Napoca city (Transylvania region, NW Romania). Their spatial distribution together with phylogenetic and metabolic diversity, as well as their capacity to precipitate calcium carbonate was evaluated by combining molecular and phenotypic fingerprinting methods with X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron-microscopy analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325732/whey-protein-effects-on-energy-balance-link-the-intestinal-mechanisms-of-energy-absorption-with-adiposity-and-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-gene-expression
#5
Kanishka N Nilaweera, Raul Cabrera-Rubio, John R Speakman, Paula M O' Connor, AnneMarie McAuliffe, Caitriona M Guinane, Elaine Lawton, Fiona Crispie, Mònica Aguilera, Maurice Stanley, Serena Boscaini, Susan Joyce, Silvia Melgar, John F Cryan, Paul D Cotter
We tested the hypothesis that dietary whey protein isolate (WPI) affects the intestinal mechanisms related to energy absorption and that the resulting energy deficit is compensated by changes in energy balance to support growth. C57BL/6 mice were provided a diet enriched with WPI with varied sucrose content, and the impact on energy balance related parameters were investigated. As part of a high sucrose diet, WPI reduced the hypothalamic expression of pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression and increased energy intake...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324102/duodenal-mucosa-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-shows-distinctive-inflammatory-profile-and-microbiota
#6
Silvia Pellegrini, Valeria Sordi, Andrea Mario Bolla, Diego Saita, Roberto Ferrarese, Filippo Canducci, Massimo Clementi, Francesca Invernizzi, Alberto Mariani, Riccardo Bonfanti, Graziano Barera, Pier Alberto Testoni, Claudio Doglioni, Emanuele Bosi, Lorenzo Piemonti
Context: Increasing evidences suggest a correlation between gut and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the gut inflammatory profile and microbiota in patients with T1D, compared to healthy controls (CTRL) and patients with celiac disease (CD) as gut inflammatory disease controls. Design/Setting/Participants: The inflammatory status and microbiome composition were evaluated in biopsies of the duodenal mucosa of patients with T1D (n=19), CD (n=19) and CTRL (n=16), recruited at San Raffaele Scientific Institute, in Milan, Italy, between 2009 and 2015...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323391/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-changes-of-the-drosophila-suzukii-microbiota-in-the-newly-colonised-regions
#7
Isabel Martinez-Sañudo, Mauro Simonato, Andrea Squartini, Nicola Mori, Laura Marri, Luca Mazzon
The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a highly polyphagous pest of a wide variety of wild or cultivated berry and stone fruit. Originating from Southeast Asia, it has recently invaded a wide range of regions in Europe and North-America. It is well known that insect microbiotas may significantly influence several aspects of the host biology and play an important role in invasive species introduction into new areas. However, in spite of the great economic importance of D...
March 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323134/effect-of-operating-temperature-on-anaerobic-digestion-of-the-brazilian-waterweed-egeria-densa-and-its-microbial-community
#8
Keiko Watanabe, Mitsuhiko Koyama, Junko Ueda, Syuhei Ban, Norio Kurosawa, Tatsuki Toda
To develop an effective treatment for the globally invasive Brazilian waterweed Egeria densa, anaerobic digestion was observed at 37 °C, 55 °C, and 65 °C. The average methane production rate at 55 °C was 220 mL L(-1) day(-1), which was two-fold that at 37 °C and 65 °C. Volatile fatty acid accumulation was detected under thermophilic conditions; however, although there was methane production, the system did not shutdown. The microbial communities differed between mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C and 65 °C) conditions...
March 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320885/identification-of-the-lyso-form-n-acyl-intramolecular-transferase-in-low-gc-firmicutes
#9
Krista M Armbruster, Timothy C Meredith
Bacterial lipoproteins are embedded in the cell membrane of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria where they serve numerous functions central to cell envelope physiology. Lipoproteins are tethered to the membrane by an N-acyl-S-(mono/di)-acyl-glyceryl-cysteine anchor that is variably acylated depending on genera. In several low-GC Gram-positive Firmicutes, a monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine with an N-terminal fatty acid (known as the lyso form) has been reported, though how it is formed is unknown. Here, through an intergenic complementation rescue assay in Escherichia coli, we report the identification of a common orthologous transmembrane protein in both Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus capable of forming lyso-form lipoproteins...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320221/rice-or-pork-based-diets-with-similar-calorie-and-content-result-in-different-rat-gut-microbiota
#10
Xiaozhe Qi, Wentao Xu, Mingzhang Guo, Siyuan Chen, Yifei Liu, Xiaoyun He, Kunlun Huang
Rice is the most important food crop, and pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world. In this study, we compared the gut microbiota of the rats fed with rice or pork mixed diets, which have similar caloric contents. The physiological indices (body weights, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology) of two groups were all within the normal range. Two diets did not induce difference in the diversity of gut bacteria. However, Firmicutes were significantly higher in rice diet group, while Bacteroidetes were enriched in pork diet group...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317568/oral-bacterial-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Glendee Reynolds-Campbell, Alison Nicholson, Camille-Ann Thoms-Rodriguez
The human oral cavity contains more than 500 different bacterial species. These organisms belong to several phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Tenericutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Chlamydiae, and Spirochaetes. Many of these have the ability to colonize the gingival crevices and the outer surface of the tooth forming biofilms often leading to dental plaque formation. These bacteria produce acid that erode teeth causing cavities or infections. The diagnosis of these infections is often clinical and antibiotics are used empirically to treat some infections or as prophylaxis...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316597/insights-of-phage-host-interaction-in-hypersaline-ecosystem-through-metagenomics-analyses
#12
Amir Mohaghegh Motlagh, Ananda S Bhattacharjee, Felipe H Coutinho, Bas E Dutilh, Sherwood R Casjens, Ramesh K Goel
Bacteriophages, as the most abundant biological entities on Earth, place significant predation pressure on their hosts. This pressure plays a critical role in the evolution, diversity, and abundance of bacteria. In addition, phages modulate the genetic diversity of prokaryotic communities through the transfer of auxiliary metabolic genes. Various studies have been conducted in diverse ecosystems to understand phage-host interactions and their effects on prokaryote metabolism and community composition. However, hypersaline environments remain among the least studied ecosystems and the interaction between the phages and prokaryotes in these habitats is poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316049/structure-and-function-of-the-bacterial-communities-during-rhizoremediation-of-hexachlorobenzene-in-constructed-wetlands
#13
Cuiping Zhang, Bei Wang, Xiaoyan Dai, Shuying Li, Guangqiu Lu, Yuanqing Zhou
Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF CWs) are considered to be effective for treating organic pollutants. The rhizosphere of macrophytes such as Phragmites sp., Typha sp. serves as an active and dynamic zone for the microbial degradation of organic pollutants. However, it is still not clear how soil bacterial communities respond to macrophytes and pollutants during the process. For this purpose, the seedlings of Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia were planted respectively in the VF CWs added with HCB at a dose of 2 mg/kg...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315049/antihypertensive-effects-of-probiotics
#14
REVIEW
Iñaki Robles-Vera, Marta Toral, Miguel Romero, Rosario Jiménez, Manuel Sánchez, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Juan Duarte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314726/global-distribution-patterns-and-pangenomic-diversity-of-the-candidate-phylum-latescibacteria-ws3
#15
Ibrahim F Farag, Noha H Youssef, Mostafa S Elshahed
We investigated the global distribution patterns and pangenomic diversity of the candidate phylum "Latescibacteria" (WS3) in 16S rRNA gene as well as metagenomic datasets. We document distinct distribution patterns for various "Latescibacteria" orders in 16S rRNA gene datasets, with prevalence of orders sediment_1 in terrestrial, PBSIII_9 in groundwater and temperate freshwater, and GN03 in pelagic marine, saline-hypersaline, and wastewater habitats. Using a fragment recruitment approach, we identified 68.9 Mb of "Latescibacteria"-affiliated contigs in publicly available metagenomic datasets comprising 73,079 proteins...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303827/characterisation-of-the-human-oral-microbiome-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-using-next-generation-sequencing-of-16srrna-amplicons
#16
Thangam Menon, Sathya Narayanan Gopalakrishnan, Rayvathy Balasubramanian, Stalin Roy Justin
INTRODUCTION: Oral health is suspected to be linked to heart disease since species of bacteria that cause periodontitis and dental caries have been found in the atherosclerotic plaque in arteries in the heart. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the oral microbiome in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in a patient with dental caries (DC) without any clinical symptoms of CAD. METHODS: DNA was extracted from the oral swabs collected from the patients and sequencing was performed by next generation sequencing method using Illumina (MiSeq) platform...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303622/morphology-and-phylogeny-of-the-soil-ciliate-metopus-yantaiensis-n-sp-ciliophora-metopida-with-identification-of-the-intracellular-bacteria
#17
Atef Omar, Qianqian Zhang, Songbao Zou, Jun Gong
The morphology and infraciliature of a new ciliate, Metopus yantaiensis n. sp., discovered in coastal soil of northern China, were investigated. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following features: nuclear apparatus situated in the preoral dome; 18-21 somatic ciliary rows, of which three extend onto the preoral dome (dome kineties); three to five distinctly elongated caudal cilia, and 21-29 adoral polykinetids. The 18S rRNA genes of this new species and two congeners, M. contortus and M...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302207/-a-preliminary-analysis-of-changes-in-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-during-infancy-using-polymerase-chain-reaction-denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis
#18
Shan-Shan Li, Jun-Jie Miao, Zi-Xi Wu, Jian-Rong Yao, Ming Li, Qian Yu, Fang He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the composition of bacteria in the stools of infants and the colonization of intestinal microbiota during infancy. METHODS: Fresh stools were collected from 15 healthy infants at 0, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, and 28 days and 3, 6, and 12 months after birth. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to analyze the composition of intestinal microbiota, perform sequencing of dominant bacteria, and to analyze the changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota during infancy...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301954/the-role-of-bacillithiol-in-gram-positive-firmicutes
#19
Pete Chandrangsu, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann, John D Helmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Since the discovery and structural characterization of bacillithiol (BSH), the biochemical functions of BSH-biosynthesis enzymes (BshA/B/C) and BSH-dependent detoxification enzymes (FosB, Bst, GlxA/B) have been explored in Bacillus and Staphylococcus species. It was shown that BSH plays an important role in detoxification of reactive oxygen and electrophilic species, alkylating agents, toxins and antibiotics. Recent Advances: More recently, new functions of BSH were discovered in metal homeostasis (Zn buffering, FeS-cluster and copper homeostasis) and virulence control in Staphylococcus aureus...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301489/comparative-analysis-of-fecal-microbial-communities-in-cattle-and-bactrian-camels
#20
Liang Ming, Li Yi, Siriguleng, Surong Hasi, Jing He, Le Hai, Zhaoxia Wang, Fucheng Guo, Xiangyu Qiao, Jirimutu
Bactrian camels may have a unique gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome because of their distinctive digestive systems, unique eating habits and extreme living conditions. However, understanding of the microbial communities in the Bactrian camel GI tract is still limited. In this study, microbial communities were investigated by comparative analyses of 16S rRNA hypervariable region V4 sequences of fecal bacteria sampled from 94 animals in four population groups: Inner Mongolian cattle (IMG-Cattle), Inner Mongolian domestic Bactrian camels (IMG-DBC), Mongolian domestic Bactrian camels (MG-DBC), and Mongolian wild Bactrian camels (MG-WBC)...
2017: PloS One
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