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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089895/effects-of-fulvic-acid-on-growth-performance-and-intestinal-health-of-juvenile-loach-paramisgurnus-dabryanus-sauvage
#1
Yang Gao, Jie He, Zhuliu He, Zhiwei Li, Bo Zhao, Yi Mu, Jeong-Yeol Lee, Zhangjie Chu
A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary fulvic acid supplements on intestinal digestive activity (enzymatic analysis), antioxidant activity, immune enzyme activity and microflora composition of juvenile loach (initial weight of 6.2 ± 0.1 g) reared in experimental aquaria. Five test diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2% fulvic acid were randomly assigned to three aquaria, respectively. Elevated growth performance including final weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in loaches that were fed fulvic acid...
January 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088343/first-confirmed-report-of-a-bacterial-brood-disease-in-stingless-bees
#2
Jenny Lee Shanks, Anthony Mark Haigh, Markus Riegler, Robert Neil Spooner-Hart
Susceptibility to brood pathogens in eusocial stingless bees (Meliponini), alternative pollinators to honey bees, is unknown. Brood losses in managed colonies of the Australian stingless bee, Tetragonula carbonaria, were studied over 20 months. We isolated a disease-causing bacterium, Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Firmicutes, Bacillaceae), from worker and queen larvae, brood cell provisions and honey stores. Pathogenicity experiments confirmed this bacterium as the causal organism. It took 22 days from infection to first appearance of brood disease symptoms...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087899/increasing-dietary-nitrate-has-no-effect-on-cancellous-bone-loss-or-fecal-microbiome-in-ovariectomized-rats
#3
Melissa N Conley, Cooper Roberts, Thomas J Sharpton, Urszula T Iwaniec, Norman Hord
Studies suggest diets rich in fruit and vegetables reduce bone loss, although the specific compounds responsible are unknown. Substrates for endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production, including organic nitrates and dietary nitrate, may support NO production in age-related conditions, including osteoporosis. We investigated the capability of dietary nitrate to improve NO bioavailability, reduce bone turnover and loss. Six-month-old Sprague Dawley rats [30 ovariectomized (OVX) and 10 sham-operated (sham)] were randomized into 3 groups: (1) vehicle (water) control, (2) low-dose nitrate (LDN, 0...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070678/trna-misacylation-with-methionine-in-the-mouse-gut-microbiome-in-situ
#4
Michael H Schwartz, Tao Pan
Global protein mistranslation with methionine has been shown to be a conserved biological process that affords distinct functional advantages in all three domains of life. In all instances, methionine mistranslation occurs through a regulated process where low-fidelity forms of methionyl-tRNA synthetase are conditionally induced to mischarge non-methionyl-tRNAs with methionine followed by the utilization of the misacylated tRNAs in translation. In mammals, methionine mistranslation contributes to oxidative stress response; in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix, methionine mistranslation produces proteins that are better adapted to low temperature growth; in E...
January 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070487/unraveling-the-microbial-and-functional-diversity-of-coamo-thermal-spring-in-puerto-rico-using-metagenomic-library-generation-and-shotgun-sequencing
#5
Ricky Padilla-Del Valle, Luis R Morales-Vale, Carlos Ríos-Velázquez
In Puerto Rico, the microbial diversity of the thermal spring (ThS) in Coamo has never been studied using metagenomics. The focus of our research was to generate a metagenomic library from the ThS of Coamo, Puerto Rico and explore the microbial and functional diversity. The metagenomic library from the ThS waters was generated using direct DNA isolation. High molecular weight (40 kbp) DNA was end-repaired, electro eluted and ligated into a fosmid vector (pCCFOS1); then transduced into Escherichia coli EPI300-T1R using T1 bacteriophages...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070331/effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-csl2-on-the-composition-and-functional-diversity-of-the-faecal-microbiota-of-broiler-chickens-challenged-with-salmonella-gallinarum
#6
Ju Kyoung Oh, Edward Alain B Pajarillo, Jong Pyo Chae, In Ho Kim, Dong Soo Yang, Dae-Kyung Kang
BACKGROUND: The chicken gastrointestinal tract contains a diverse microbiota whose composition and structure play important roles in gut functionality. In this study, microbial shifts resulting from feed supplementation with Bacillus subtilis CSL2 were evaluated in broilers challenged and unchallenged with Salmonella Gallinarum. To analyse bacterial community composition and functionality, 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed. RESULTS: The Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline was used to analyse changes in the faecal microbiota over a 24-h period...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070087/postnatal-changes-in-the-relative-abundance-of-intestinal-lactobacillus-spp-in-newborn-calves
#7
Tadashi Takino, Yuko Kato-Mori, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Tetsuya Iida, Katsuro Hagiwara
The intestinal microbiota of newborn calves changes during the early postnatal period and influences their health and immune function. We studied the compositional changes in the intestinal microbiome of newborn calves during the first week after birth by metagenomic analysis. In feces from newborn calves, we identified 4 bacterial phyla, namely, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae significantly increased from day 1 to day 7. We evaluated Lactobacillus spp...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069180/investigation-of-the-microbiota-of-the-reproductive-tract-in-women-undergoing-a-total-hysterectomy-and-bilateral-salpingo-oopherectomy
#8
Shana M Miles, Britney L Hardy, D Scott Merrell
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pilot study to investigate the possible presence of bacteria throughout the female reproductive tract and to make a preliminary assessment of whether there are differences in the composition of the microbial communities between these body sites and/or between patients. DESIGN: Prospective pilot study followed by 16S amplification and high-throughput sequencing. SETTING: Tertiary care military hospital. PATIENT(S): A total of 10 women underwent a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy; tissue samples were collected from the vagina, resected cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries...
January 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068568/ecogenomic-responses-of-benthic-communities-under-multiple-stressors-along-the-marine-and-adjacent-riverine-areas-of-northern-bohai-sea-china
#9
Yuwei Xie, Seongjin Hong, Seonjin Kim, Xiaowei Zhang, Jianghua Yang, John P Giesy, Tieyu Wang, Yonglong Lu, Hongxia Yu, Jong Seong Khim
Benthic communities in the aquatic ecosystem are influenced by both natural and anthropogenic stressors. To understand the ecogenomic responses of sediment communities to the multiple stressors of polluted environments, the bacteria, protistan and metazoan communities in sediments from marine and adjacent riverine areas of North Bohai Sea were characterized by environmental DNA meta-systematics, and their associations with environmental variables were assessed by multiple statistical approaches. The bacterial communities were dominated by Firmicutes (mean 22...
December 26, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067829/the-cause-of-death-of-a-child-in-the-18th-century-solved-by-bone-microbiome-typing-using-laser-microdissection-and-next-generation-sequencing
#10
Valeria D'Argenio, Marielva Torino, Vincenza Precone, Giorgio Casaburi, Maria Valeria Esposito, Laura Iaffaldano, Umberto Malapelle, Giancarlo Troncone, Iolanda Coto, Paolina Cavalcanti, Gaetano De Rosa, Francesco Salvatore, Lucia Sacchetti
The history of medicine abounds in cases of mysterious deaths, especially by infectious diseases, which were probably unresolved because of the lack of knowledge and of appropriate technology. The aim of this study was to exploit contemporary technologies to try to identify the cause of death of a young boy who died from a putative "infection" at the end of the 18th century, and for whom an extraordinarily well-preserved minute bone fragment was available. After confirming the nature of the sample, we used laser microdissection to select the most "informative" area to be examined...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067296/gut-microbiota-mediates-protection-against-enteropathy-induced-by-indomethacin
#11
Xue Xiao, Geicho Nakatsu, Ye Jin, Sunny Wong, Jun Yu, James Y W Lau
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause significant small bowel injuries. The role of gut microbiota in this NSAID-induced enteropathy is poorly understood. We studied the dynamic changes in gut microbiota following indomethacin administration in mice, and investigated the effects of these adaptive changes on subsequent NSAID-induced enteropathy. The changes in gut microbiota were studied using 16S rRNA sequencing, and the effects of such changes were investigated using antibiotics and a faecal transplantation model...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063008/association-study-of-demodex-bacteria-and-facial-dermatoses-based-on-dgge-technique
#12
YaE Zhao, Fan Yang, RuiLing Wang, DongLing Niu, Xin Mu, Rui Yang, Li Hu
The role of bacteria is unclear in the facial skin lesions caused by Demodex. To shed some light on this issue, we conducted a case-control study comparing cases with facial dermatoses with controls with healthy skin using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. The bacterial diversity, composition, and principal component were analyzed for Demodex bacteria and the matched facial skin bacteria. The result of mite examination showed that all 33 cases were infected with Demodex folliculorum (D...
January 6, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062969/distinct-bacterial-communities-across-a-gradient-of-vegetation-from-a-preserved-brazilian-cerrado
#13
Ademir Sergio Ferreira de Araujo, Walderly Melgaço Bezerra, Vilma Maria Dos Santos, Sandra Mara Barbosa Rocha, Nilza da Silva Carvalho, Maria do Carmo Catanho Pereira de Lyra, Marcia do Vale Barreto Figueiredo, Ângela Celis de Almeida Lopes, Vania Maria Maciel Melo
The Cerrado biome in the Sete Cidades National Park, an Ecological Reserve in Northeastern Brazil, has conserved its native biodiversity and presents a variety of plants found in other savannas in Brazil. Despite this finding the soil microbial diversity and community structure are poorly understood. Therefore, we described soil bacterial diversity and distribution along a savanna vegetation gradient taking into account the prevailing environmental factors. The bacterial composition was retrieved by sequencing a fragment of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
January 6, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061817/the-rumen-microbial-metaproteome-as-revealed-by-sds-page
#14
Timothy J Snelling, R John Wallace
BACKGROUND: Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies...
January 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060858/fermented-papaya-preparation-restores-age-related-reductions-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-cytolytic-activity-in-tube-fed-patients
#15
Yuhzo Fujita, Haruo Tsuno, Jiro Nakayama
Tube-fed elderly patients are generally supplied with the same type of nutrition over long periods, resulting in an increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary polyphenols promote immunity and have anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Carica papaya Linn. is rich in several polyphenols; however, these polyphenols are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract in their original polymerized form. Therefore, we determined the molecular components of a fermented Carica papaya Linn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058599/epiphytic-bacterial-communities-of-the-alga-fucus-vesiculosus-in-oil-contaminated-water-areas-of-the-barents-sea
#16
D V Pugovkin, A Liaimer, J B Jensen
Taxonomic compositions of epiphytic bacterial communities in water areas differing in levels of oil pollution were revealed. In total, 82 bacterial genera belonging to 16 classes and 11 phyla were detected. All detected representatives of epiphytic bacterial communities belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Fusobacteria and candidate division TM7. The ratio of the phyla in the communities varied depending on the levels of oil pollution...
November 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052072/microbial-response-to-soil-liming-of-damaged-ecosystems-revealed-by-pyrosequencing-and-phospholipid-fatty-acid-analyses
#17
Ramya Narendrula-Kotha, Kabwe K Nkongolo
AIMS: To assess the effects of dolomitic limestone applications on soil microbial communities' dynamics and bacterial and fungal biomass, relative abundance, and diversity in metal reclaimed regions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted in reclaimed mining sites and metal uncontaminated areas. The limestone applications were performed over 35 years ago. Total microbial biomass was determined by Phospholipid fatty acids. Bacterial and fungal relative abundance and diversity were assessed using 454 pyrosequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050858/thermophilic-bacteria-are-potential-sources-of-novel-rieske-non-heme-iron-oxygenases
#18
Joydeep Chakraborty, Chiho Suzuki-Minakuchi, Kazunori Okada, Hideaki Nojiri
Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases, which have a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster and a non-heme catalytic iron center, are an important family of oxidoreductases involved mainly in regio- and stereoselective transformation of a wide array of aromatic hydrocarbons. Though present in all domains of life, the most widely studied Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases are found in mesophilic bacteria. The present study explores the potential for isolating novel Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases from thermophilic sources. Browsing the entire bacterial genome database led to the identification of 45 homologs from thermophilic bacteria distributed mainly among Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus and Firmicutes...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049922/comparison-of-fecal-microbiota-of-three-captive-carnivore-species-inhabiting-korea
#19
Choa An, Yumiko Okamoto, Siyu Xu, Kyung Yeon Eo, Junpei Kimura, Naomichi Yamamoto
This study aimed at characterizing fecal microbiota of three captive carnivore species of leopard cats Prionailurus bengalensis, Eurasian otters Lutra lutra and raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides. We used DNA barcoding sequencing to analyze 16S rRNA genes of uncultured bacteria in the feces collected in the Seoul Zoo. The sequencing analyses revealed that: 1) Firmicutes was the most dominant phylum for all three animals; 2) bacterial genus-rank compositions were distinct across species of the animals; and 3) bacterial community memberships were different across species of the studied animals...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041738/epimural-bacterial-community-structure-in-the-rumen-of-holstein-cows-with-different-responses-to-a-long-term-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-diet-challenge
#20
S U Wetzels, E Mann, P Pourazad, M Qumar, B Pinior, B U Metzler-Zebeli, M Wagner, S Schmitz-Esser, Q Zebeli
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a prevalent metabolic disorder in cattle, characterized by intermittent drops in ruminal pH. This study investigated the effect of a gradual adaptation and continuously induced long-term SARA challenge diet on the epimural bacterial community structure in the rumen of cows. Eight rumen-cannulated nonlactating Holstein cows were transitioned over 1 wk from a forage-based baseline feeding diet (grass silage-hay mix) to a SARA challenge diet, which they were fed for 4 wk. The SARA challenge diet consisted of 60% concentrates (dry matter basis) and 40% grass silage-hay mix...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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