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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454001/bacterial-community-shift-and-improved-performance-induced-by-in-situ-preparing-dual-graphene-modified-bioelectrode-in-microbial-fuel-cell
#1
Junfeng Chen, Yongyou Hu, Lihua Zhang, Wantang Huang, Jian Sun
Dual graphene modified bioelectrode (D-GM-BE) was prepared by in situ microbial-induced reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and polarity reversion in microbial fuel cell (MFC). Next Generation Sequencing technology was used to elucidate bacterial community shift in response to improved performance in D-GM-BE MFC. The results indicated an increase in the relative ratio of Proteobacteria, but a decrease of Firmicutes was observed in graphene modified bioanode (GM-BA); increase of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were observed in graphene modified biocathode (GM-BC)...
April 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448583/characterization-of-the-fecal-microbiome-during-neonatal-and-early-pediatric-development-in-puppies
#2
Blake C Guard, Hanna Mila, Jörg M Steiner, Claire Mariani, Jan S Suchodolski, Sylvie Chastant-Maillard
Limited information is available describing the development of the neonatal fecal microbiome in dogs. Feces from puppies were collected at 2, 21, 42, and 56 days after birth. Feces were also collected from the puppies' mothers at a single time point within 24 hours after parturition. DNA was extracted from fecal samples and 454-pyrosequencing was used to profile 16S rRNA genes. Species richness continued to increase significantly from 2 days of age until 42 days of age in puppies. Furthermore, microbial communities clustered separately from each other at 2, 21, and 42 days of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447266/in-depth-characterization-of-bacterial-and-archaeal-communities-present-in-the-abandoned-kettara-pyrrhotite-mine-tailings-morocco
#3
Odile Bruneel, N Mghazli, R Hakkou, I Dahmani, A Filali Maltouf, L Sbabou
In Morocco, pollution caused by closed mines continues to be a serious threat to the environment, like the generation of acid mine drainage. Mine drainage is produced by environmental and microbial oxidation of sulfur minerals originating from mine wastes. The fundamental role of microbial communities is well known, like implication of Fe-oxidizing and to a lesser extent S-oxidizing microorganism in bioleaching. However, the structure of the microbial communities varies a lot from one site to another, like diversity depends on many factors such as mineralogy, concentration of metals and metalloids or pH, etc...
April 26, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446906/stratified-bacterial-diversity-along-physico-chemical-gradients-in-high-altitude-modern-stromatolites
#4
Diego M Toneatti, Virginia H Albarracín, Maria R Flores, Lubos Polerecky, María E Farías
At an altitude of 3,570 m, the volcanic lake Socompa in the Argentinean Andes is presently the highest site where actively forming stromatolite-like structures have been reported. Interestingly, pigment and microsensor analyses performed through the different layers of the stromatolites (50 mm-deep) showed steep vertical gradients of light and oxygen, hydrogen sulfide and pH in the porewater. Given the relatively good characterization of these physico-chemical gradients, the aim of this follow-up work was to specifically address how the bacterial diversity stratified along the top six layers of the stromatolites which seems the most metabolically important and diversified zone of the whole microbial community...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446880/shifts-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-due-to-depleted-bone-marrow-beta-adrenergic-signaling-are-associated-with-suppressed-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-the-mouse-colon
#5
Tao Yang, Niousha Ahmari, Jordan T Schmidt, Ty Redler, Rebeca Arocha, Kevin Pacholec, Kacy L Magee, Wendi Malphurs, Jennifer L Owen, Gregory A Krane, Eric Li, Gary P Wang, Thomas W Vickroy, Mohan K Raizada, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jasenka Zubcevic
The brain-gut axis plays a critical role in the regulation of different diseases, many of which are characterized by sympathetic dysregulation. However, a direct link between sympathetic dysregulation and gut dysbiosis remains to be illustrated. Bone marrow (BM)-derived immune cells continuously interact with the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis in the host. Their function is largely dependent upon the sympathetic nervous system acting via adrenergic receptors present on the BM immune cells. In this study, we utilized a novel chimera mouse that lacks the expression of BM beta1/2 adrenergic receptors (b1/2-ARs) to investigate the role of the sympathetic drive to the BM in gut and microbiota homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446519/cationic-polystyrene-resolves-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders-by-promoting-eubiosis-of-gut-microbiota-and-decreasing-endotoxemia
#6
Airu Zhu, Jingjing Chen, Pengfei Wu, Mei Luo, Yilan Zeng, Han Zheng, Li Zhang, Zishou Cheng, Qun Sun, Wenwen Li, Yixiang Duan, Danmei Su, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Li Bei, Xiaohui Zhang, Zhongyuan Ju, Richard Hu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
A pandemic of metabolic diseases, consisting of type-2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and obesity, has imposed critical challenges for societies worldwide, prompting investigation of underlying mechanisms and exploration of low cost and effective treatment. In this report, we demonstrate that metabolic disorders in mice generated by feeding with a high-fat diet without dietary vitamin D (HD) can be prevented by oral administration of polycationic amine resin. Oral administration of cholestyramine , but not the control uncharged polystyrene, was able to sequester negatively charged bacterial endotoxin in the gut, leading to (1) reducing plasma endotoxin levels, (2) resolving systemic inflammation and hepatic steatohepatitis,and (3) improving insulin sensitivity...
April 26, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442259/microbial-community-structure-and-diversity-in-a-municipal-solid-waste-landfill
#7
Xiaolin Wang, Aixin Cao, Guozhu Zhao, Chuanbin Zhou, Rui Xu
Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are the most prevalent waste disposal method and constitute one of the largest sources of anthropogenic methane emissions in the world. Microbial activities in disposed waste play a crucial role in greenhouse gas emissions; however, only a few studies have examined metagenomic microbial profiles in landfills. Here, the MiSeq high-throughput sequencing method was applied for the first time to examine microbial diversity of the cover soil and stored waste located at different depths (0-150cm) in a typical MSW landfill in Yangzhou City, East China...
April 22, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441394/maternal-obese-type-gut-microbiota-differentially-impact-cognition-anxiety-and-compulsive-behavior-in-male-and-female-offspring-in-mice
#8
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, R Leigh Townsend, Claudia Kruger, Richard Carmouche, Susan Newman, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438359/impact-of-selectively-enriched-microbial-communities-on-long-term-fermentative-biohydrogen-production
#9
R Kanniah Goud, Kotakonda Arunasri, Dileep Kumar Yeruva, K Vamshi Krishna, Shikha Dahiya, S Venkata Mohan
The effect of selectively enriched inoculum for biohydrogen production and shifts in microbial communities was observed using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR). Significantly, combined pretreatment using acid and iodopropane resulted 3 fold increase in H2 production (8.65mol/kgCODR) over untreated control (2.63mol/kgCODR). Pretreatment showed significant shifts in the microbial communities which are thus accounted for enhanced H2 production. The high-throughput pyrosequence analysis depicted shifts in phylum Firmicutes and Proteobacteria...
March 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437480/variation-of-bacterial-communities-in-water-and-sediments-during-the-decomposition-of-microcystis-biomass
#10
Dayong Zhao, Xinyi Cao, Rui Huang, Jin Zeng, Qinglong L Wu
The bacterial community composition in water and sediment samples during the decomposition of Microcystis biomass were analyzed using the 454 pyrosequencing technique. We found dramatic shifts in the bacterial community composition of water and sediments after the addition of Microcystis biomass. Among all the detected phyla, only Firmicutes was found to be dominant in both water and sediment samples. The genus Clostridium sensu stricto was the absolutely dominant group in Firmicutes and showed drastic variations with incubation time during the decomposition process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436820/srna-mediated-activation-of-gene-expression-by-inhibition-of-5-3-exonucleolytic-mrna-degradation
#11
Sylvain Durand, Frédérique Braun, Anne-Catherine Helfer, Pascale Romby, Ciarán Condon
Post-transcriptional control by small regulatory RNA (sRNA) is critical for rapid adaptive processes. sRNAs can directly modulate mRNA degradation in Proteobacteria without interfering with translation. However, Firmicutes have a fundamentally different set of ribonucleases for mRNA degradation and whether sRNAs can regulate the activity of these enzymes is an open question. We show that Bacillus subtilis RoxS, a major trans-acting sRNA shared with Staphylococus aureus, prevents degradation of the yflS mRNA, encoding a malate transporter...
April 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434745/hot-topic-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-reveals-the-microbiome-of-the-virgin-and-pregnant-bovine-uterus
#12
S G Moore, A C Ericsson, S E Poock, P Melendez, M C Lucy
We tested the hypothesis that the uterus of virgin heifers and pregnant cows possessed a resident microbiome by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the virgin and pregnant bovine uterus. The endometrium of 10 virgin heifers in estrus and the amniotic fluid, placentome, intercotyledonary placenta, cervical lumen, and external cervix surface (control) of 5 pregnant cows were sampled using aseptic techniques. The DNA was extracted, the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, and amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology (Illumina Inc...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434085/exploring-the-oral-microflora-of-preschool-children
#13
Wen Ren, Qun Zhang, Xuenan Liu, Shuguo Zheng, Lili Ma, Feng Chen, Tao Xu, Baohua Xu
The oral cavity is one of the most important and complicated habitats in our body and supports diverse microbial communities. In this study, we aimed to determine the bacterial diversity and composition of various oral micro-niches. Samples were collected from supragingival plaque, saliva, and tongue coating from 10 preschool children (30 samples total). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing dataset generated 314,639 clean reads with an average of 10,488 ± 2,787 reads per sample. The phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria were predominant, accounting for more than 90% of the total sequences...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432991/characteristics-of-adapted-hydrogenotrophic-community-during-biomethanation
#14
Lydia Rachbauer, Reinhard Beyer, Günther Bochmann, Werner Fuchs
The results presented in this study were carried out as concomitant experiments during the start-up and operation of a biomethanation unit to evaluate the effect of process parameters on carbon conversion, product formation (methane and acetate) and community composition. For that, two different samples were withdrawn from a trickle-bed reactor with immobilized enrichment culture of hydrogenotrophic methanogens adapted from sewage sludge. One sample was taken from the recirculation liquid during start-up phase while the other was withdrawn directly from the carrier material in the reactor...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432442/smokeless-tobacco-products-harbor-diverse-bacterial-microbiota-that-differ-across-products-and-brands
#15
Eoghan M Smyth, Prachi Kulkarni, Emma Claye, Stephen Stanfill, Robert Tyx, Cynthia Maddox, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Amy R Sapkota
Smokeless tobacco products contain numerous chemical compounds, including known human carcinogens. Other smokeless tobacco constituents, including bacteria, may also contribute to adverse health effects among smokeless tobacco users. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial constituents of smokeless tobacco. Our goal was to characterize the bacterial microbiota of different smokeless tobacco products and evaluate differences across product types and brands. DNA was extracted from 15 brands of smokeless tobacco products (including dry snuff, moist snuff, snus, and Swedish snus) and 6 handmade products (e...
April 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432307/arsenic-metabolism-in-high-altitude-modern-stromatolites-revealed-by-metagenomic-analysis
#16
Daniel Kurth, Ariel Amadio, Omar F Ordoñez, Virginia H Albarracín, Wolfgang Gärtner, María E Farías
Modern stromatolites thrive only in selected locations in the world. Socompa Lake, located in the Andean plateau at 3570 masl, is one of the numerous extreme Andean microbial ecosystems described over recent years. Extreme environmental conditions include hypersalinity, high UV incidence, and high arsenic content, among others. After Socompa's stromatolite microbial communities were analysed by metagenomic DNA sequencing, taxonomic classification showed dominance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and a remarkably high number of unclassified sequences...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431497/effect-of-ensiled-mulberry-leaves-and-sun-dried-mulberry-fruit-pomace-on-the-fecal-bacterial-community-composition-in-finishing-steers
#17
Yan Li, Qingxiang Meng, Bo Zhou, Zhenming Zhou
BACKGROUND: Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP) on fecal bacterial communities in Simmental crossbred finishing steers. To this end, the steers were reared on a standard TMR diet, standard diet containing EML, and standard diet containing SMFP. The protein and energy levels of all the diets were similar. Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative real-time PCR were used to analyze and detect the fecal bacterial community...
April 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431359/reconstruction-of-microbial-community-structures-as-evidences-for-soil-redox-coupled-reductive-dechlorination-of-pcp-in-a-mangrove-soil
#18
Yan Xu, Yan He, Xianjin Tang, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
The aim was to investigate the influence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the soil microbial communities and the coupled mechanism between PCP reductive dechlorination and soil redox under anaerobic condition. Accordingly, a slurry incubation experiment was carried out in which bacterial and archaeal communities were detected by MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The original microbial community balance was gradually disrupted and new microbial structure was reconstructed subsequently through self-regulation and acclimation during PCP transformation, coupling with the changes of soil biogeochemical redox dynamics...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431310/characterization-of-bacterial-communities-of-donkey-milk-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#19
Maria de Los Dolores Soto Del Rio, Alessandra Dalmasso, Tiziana Civera, Maria Teresa Bottero
The interest in donkey milk (DM) is growing because of its functional properties and nutritional value, especially for children with allergies and food intolerances. However, most of the available reports of DM microbiota are based on culture-dependent methods to investigate food safety issues and the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this study was to determine the composition of DM bacterial communities using a high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach. Bulk milk samples from Italian donkey dairy farms from two consecutive years were analysed using the MiSeq Illumina platform...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431143/characterisation-of-the-gill-mucosal-bacterial-communities-of-four-butterflyfish-species-a-reservoir-of-bacterial-diversity-in-coral-reefs-ecosystems
#20
Miriam Reverter, Pierre Sasal, N Tapissier-Bontemps, D Lecchini, Suzuki M
While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7 - 5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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