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Guiping Guan, Hongbing Wang, Shuai Chen, Gang Liu, Xia Xiong, Bie Tan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jun Fang
C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Stefan Hofbauer, Georg Mlynek, Lisa Milazzo, Dominic Pühringer, Daniel Maresch, Irene Schaffner, Paul G Furtmüller, Giulietta Smulevich, Kristina Djinović-Carugo, Christian Obinger
Heme biosynthesis in Gram positive bacteria follows a recently described coproporphyrin-dependent pathway with HemQ catalyzing the decarboxylation of coproheme to heme b. Here we present the first crystal structure of a HemQ (homopentameric coproproheme-HemQ from Listeria monocytogenes) at 1.69 Å resolution and the conversion of coproheme to heme b followed by UV-vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry. The ferric 5-coordinated coproheme iron of HemQ is weakly bound by a neutral proximal histidine H174...
October 18, 2016: FEBS Journal
Dongyan Zhang, Haifeng Ji, Hui Liu, Sixin Wang, Jing Wang, Yamin Wang
The gut microbiota plays important roles in the health and well-being of animals, and high-throughput sequencing facilitates exploration of microbial populations in the animal gut. However, previous studies have focused on fecal samples instead of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we compared the microbiota diversity and composition of intestinal contents of weaned piglets treated with Lactobacillus reuteri or chlortetracycline (aureomycin) using high-throughput sequencing. Nine weaned piglets were randomly divided into three groups and supplemented with L...
October 19, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shu Zhang, Nancy Merino, Ning Wang, Ting Ruan, Xiaoxia Lu
Sediment microbial communities are responsible for many chemical biotransformation processes in the aquatic environment and play a critical role in various ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling. However, the impact of polyfluoroalkyl substances on sediment microbial communities remains unclear. These substances are increasingly being used in consumer and industrial products to replace environmentally persistent perfluoroalkyl substances. In this study, we investigated the effects of low (5mg/L) and high (15mg/L) doses of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol [6:2 FTOH, F(CF2)6CH2CH2OH] on the structure of a sediment microbial community...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
N Korsak, B Taminiau, C Hupperts, L Delhalle, C Nezer, V Delcenserie, G Daube
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological procedures and 16S rDNA metagenetics. The purpose was also to investigate the neck area to identify bacteria originating from the digestive or the respiratory tract. Twenty bovine carcasses (10 from each group) were swabbed at the slaughterhouse, where both slaughtering methods are practiced. Two swabbing areas were chosen: one "legal" zone of 1600cm(2) (composed of zones from rump, flank, brisket and forelimb) and locally on the neck area (200cm(2))...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Yanling Wei, Jun Yang, Jun Wang, Yang Yang, Juan Huang, Hao Gong, Hongli Cui, Dongfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of gut-derived infections, making it a potential therapeutic target against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) after sepsis. However, the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating this disease has been rarely investigated. METHODS: Two male patients, a 65-year-old and an 84-year-old, were initially diagnosed with cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, respectively, after admission...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Theodoric A Mattes, Jorge C Escalante-Semerena
5,6-Dimethylbenzimidazolyl-(DMB)-α-ribotide, [α-ribazole-5'-phosphate (α-RP)] is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) in many prokaryotes. In such microbes, α-RP is synthesized by nicotinate mononucleotide (NaMN):DMB phosphoribosyltransferases (CobT in S. enterica), in a reaction that is considered to be the canonical step for the activation of the base of the nucleotide present in adenosylcobamides. Some Firmicutes lack CobT-type enzymes, but have a two-protein system comprised of a transporter (i...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Chun Chen, Qiang Huang, Xiong Fu, Rui Hai Liu
This study investigated the in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from Morus alba L., the contribution of its carbohydrates to the fermentation, and the effect on the composition of gut microbiota. Over 48 h of fermentation, the pH value in the fecal culture decreased from 7.12 to 6.14, and the total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids all significantly increased. After 48 h of fermentation, 45.36 ± 1.36% of the total carbohydrates in the polysaccharide, including 35...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Virtu Solano-Collado, Mário Hüttener, Manuel Espinosa, Antonio Juárez, Alicia Bravo
Global regulators play an essential role in the adaptation of bacterial cells to specific niches. Bacterial pathogens thriving in the tissues and organs of their eukaryotic hosts are a well-studied example. Some of the proteins that recognize local DNA structures rather than specific nucleotide sequences act as global modulators in many bacteria, both Gram-negative and -positive. To this class of regulators belong the H-NS-like proteins, mainly identified in γ-Proteobacteria, and the MgaSpn-like proteins identified in Firmicutes...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Joanne E Sordillo, Yanjiao Zhou, Michael J McGeachie, John Ziniti, Nancy Lange, Nancy Laranjo, Jessica R Savage, Vincent Carey, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Robert Strunk, Leonard Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Scott T Weiss, George Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome in infancy influences immune system maturation, and may have an important impact allergic disease risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine how prenatal and early life factors impact the gut microbiome in a relatively large, ethnically diverse study population of infants at 3-6 months of age, who were enrolled in VDAART, a clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy to prevent asthma and allergies in offspring. METHODS: We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 333 infants' stool samples...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Liangliang Xiang, Błażej Poźniak, Tian-Yin Cheng
Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera...
October 15, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Karima Bouzerzour, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Olivia Ménard, Laurence Le Normand, Cécile Perrier, Cindy Le Bourgot, Julien Jardin, Claire Bourlieu, Thomas Carton, Pascale Le Ruyet, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Bonhomme, Didier Dupont
PURPOSE: Although composition of infant formula has been significantly improved during the last decade, major differences with the composition and structure of breast milk still remain and might affect nutrient digestion and gut biology. We hypothesized that the incorporation of dairy fat in infant formulas could modify their physiological impacts by making their composition closer to that of human milk. The effect of milk fat and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments in infant formulas on gut digestion, mucosal immunity and microbiota composition was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Else Marie Fykse, Tone Aarskaug, Elisabeth H Madslien, Marius Dybwad
High-throughput amplicon sequencing of six biomass samples from a full-scale anaerobic reactor at a Norwegian wood and pulp factory using Biothane Biobed Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) technology during start-up and first year of operation was performed. A total of 106,166 16S rRNA gene sequences (V3-V5 region) were obtained. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranged from 595 to 2472, and a total of 38 different phyla and 143 families were observed. The predominant phyla were Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes...
September 30, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Baisuo Zhao, Jie Liu, Craig Frear, Mark Holtzapple, Shulin Chen
This study employed mixed-culture consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) to digest microalgal biomass in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). The primary objectives are to evaluate the impact of hydraulic residence time (HRT) on the productivity of carboxylic acids and to characterize the bacterial community. HRT affects the production rate and patterns of carboxylic acids. For the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentation, a 12-day HRT was selected because it offered the highest productivity of carboxylic acids and it synthesized longer chains...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Ping Lin, Bingyu Ding, Chunyan Feng, Shuwei Yin, Ting Zhang, Xin Qi, Huiying Lv, Xiaokui Guo, Ke Dong, Yongzhang Zhu, Qingtian Li
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of major depression disorder (MDD) and other mental disorders were depended on some subjective survey scales. There are confirmed relationship between the gut flora and the mental states of MDD patients. METHODS: The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was extracted from the fecal microbial communities in MDD patients, PCR amplified and sequenced on the Illumina Miseq platform. RESULTS: More phylum Firmicutes, less Bacteroidetes, and more genus Prevotella, Klebsiella, Streptococcus and Clostridium XI were found in MDD patients...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Rinki Murphy, Peter Tsai, Mia Jüllig, Amy Liu, Lindsay Plank, Michael Booth
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether specific gut microbiota is associated with remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) after distinct types of bariatric surgery. AIMS: The aim of this study is to examine gut microbiota changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surgery in obese patients with T2D. METHODS: Whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of DNA fragments using Illumina HiSeq2000 was obtained from stool samples collected from 14 obese T2D patients pre-operatively (while on very low calorie diet) and 1 year after randomisation to laparoscopic SG (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7)...
October 13, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Kjartan Østbye, Robert Wilson, Knut Rudi
Knowledge about the factors shaping the rumen microbiota in wild animals is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the microbiota from the three cervid species moose (Alces alces, n = 5), red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 4) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 12), sharing the same habitat. Using deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we found that the largest species moose had the highest number of unique Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Furthermore, red deer and moose, shared more of the microbiota, compared with the smallest species, roe deer, with Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota being significantly overrepresented for the shared microbiota...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Sabine A Ragot, Michael A Kertesz, Éva Mészáros, Emmanuel Frossard, Else K Bünemann
Alkaline phosphatases such as PhoD and PhoX are important genes in organic phosphorus cycling in soil. We identified the key organisms harboring the phoD and phoX gene in soil and explored the relationships between environmental factors and the phoD- and phoX-harboring community structures across three land-uses located in arid to temperate climates on two continents using 454-sequencing. phoD was investigated using recently published primers, and new primers were designed to study phoX in soil. phoD was found in 1 archaeal, 13 bacterial and 2 fungal phyla, and phoX in 1 archaeal and 16 bacterial phyla...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Letícia Maria Menezes Nóbrega, Francisco Montagner, Adriana Costa Ribeiro, Márcia Alves Pinto Mayer, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida Gomes
The aim of this study was to explore the bacterial diversity of 10 root canals with acute apical abscess using clonal analysis. Samples were collected from 10 patients and submitted to bacterial DNA isolation, 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning, and sequencing. A bacterial genomic library was constructed and bacterial diversity was estimated. The mean number of taxa per canal was 15, ranging from 11 to 21. A total of 689 clones were analyzed and 76 phylotypes identified, of which 47 (61.84%) were different species and 29 (38...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Daniela Numberger, Daniel P R Herlemann, Klaus Jürgens, Guido Dehnhardt, Heide Schulz-Vogt
The gut microbiota has many beneficial effects on host metabolism and health, and its composition is determined by numerous factors. It is also assumed that there was a co-evolution of mammals and the bacteria inhabiting their gut. Current knowledge of the mammalian gut microbiota mainly derives from studies on humans and terrestrial animals, whereas those on marine mammals are sparse. However, they could provide additional information on influencing factors, such as the role of diet and co-evolution with the host...
October 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
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