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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163454/low-molecular-weight-chitosan-supplementation-increases-the-population-of-prevotella-in-the-cecal-contents-of-weanling-pigs
#1
Ting Yu, Yu Wang, Shicheng Chen, Min Hu, Zhiling Wang, Guozhong Wu, Xianyong Ma, Zhuang Chen, Chuntian Zheng
Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC) promoted growth in weaned piglets as an alternative to feed-grade antibiotics. To investigate the influence of LC supplementation on piglets' gut microbiome and compare the differences in community composition between LC and antibiotics with ZnO addition, we assessed the cecal microbial community by 16S rRNA gene sequencing with three treatments consisting of basal diet (CTR group), basal diet with low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC group), and basal diet with antibiotic and ZnO (AZ group)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163444/progressive-colonization-of-bacteria-and-degradation-of-rice-straw-in-the-rumen-by-illumina-sequencing
#2
Yanfen Cheng, Ying Wang, Yuanfei Li, Yipeng Zhang, Tianyi Liu, Yu Wang, Thomas J Sharpton, Weiyun Zhu
The aim of this study was to improve the utilization of rice straw as forage in ruminants by investigating the degradation pattern of rice straw in the dairy cow rumen. Ground up rice straw was incubated in situ in the rumens of three Holstein cows over a period of 72 h. The rumen fluid at 0 h and the rice straw at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h were collected for analysis of the bacterial community and the degradation of the rice straw. The bacterial community and the carbohydrate-active enzymes in the rumen fluid were analyzed by metagenomics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163431/camelina-seed-supplementation-at-two-dietary-fat-levels-change-ruminal-bacterial-community-composition-in-a-dual-flow-continuous-culture-system
#3
Xiaoxia Dai, Paul J Weimer, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Virginia L N Brandao, Garret Suen, Antonio P Faciola
This experiment aimed to determine the effects of camelina seed (CS) supplementation at different dietary fat levels on ruminal bacterial community composition and how it relates to changes in ruminal fermentation in a dual-flow continuous culture system. Diets were randomly assigned to 8 fermenters (1,200-1,250 mL) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with four 10-day experimental periods that consisted of 7 days for diet adaptation and 3 days for sample collection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163424/the-bacillus-subtilis-conjugative-plasmid-pls20-encodes-two-ribbon-helix-helix-type-auxiliary-relaxosome-proteins-that-are-essential-for-conjugation
#4
Andrés Miguel-Arribas, Jian-An Hao, Juan R Luque-Ortega, Gayetri Ramachandran, Jorge Val-Calvo, César Gago-Córdoba, Daniel González-Álvarez, David Abia, Carlos Alfonso, Ling J Wu, Wilfried J J Meijer
Bacterial conjugation is the process by which a conjugative element (CE) is transferred horizontally from a donor to a recipient cell via a connecting pore. One of the first steps in the conjugation process is the formation of a nucleoprotein complex at the origin of transfer (oriT), where one of the components of the nucleoprotein complex, the relaxase, introduces a site- and strand specific nick to initiate the transfer of a single DNA strand into the recipient cell. In most cases, the nucleoprotein complex involves, besides the relaxase, one or more additional proteins, named auxiliary proteins, which are encoded by the CE and/or the host...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163411/diversity-within-italian-cheesemaking-brine-associated-bacterial-communities-evidenced-by-massive-parallel-16s-rrna-gene-tag-sequencing
#5
Marilena Marino, Nadia Innocente, Michela Maifreni, Jérôme Mounier, José F Cobo-Díaz, Emmanuel Coton, Lisa Carraro, Barbara Cardazzo
This study explored the bacterial diversity of brines used for cheesemaking in Italy, as well as their physicochemical characteristics. In this context, 19 brines used to salt soft, semi-hard, and hard Italian cheeses were collected in 14 commercial cheese plants and analyzed using a culture-independent amplicon sequencing approach in order to describe their bacterial microbiota. Large NaCl concentration variations were observed among the selected brines, with hard cheese brines exhibiting the highest values...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158587/analysis-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-plasma-short-chain-fatty-acid-profiles-in-a-spontaneous-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Kazuchika Nishitsuji, Jinzhong Xiao, Ryosuke Nagatomo, Hitomi Umemoto, Yuki Morimoto, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Koichi Inoue, Koichi Tsuneyama
Male Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) mice spontaneously develop obesity and obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Gut dysbiosis, an imbalance of gut microbiota, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but its mechanisms are unknown. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main fermentation products of gut microbiota and a link between the gut microbiota and the host's physiology. Here, we investigated a correlation among gut dysbiosis, SCFAs, and metabolic syndrome in TSOD mice. We detected enriched levels of Gram-positive bacteria and corresponding decreases in Gram-negative bacteria in 24-wk-old metabolic syndrome-affected TSOD mice compared with age-matched controls...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157901/inducible-cellulase-production-from-an-organic-solvent-tolerant-bacillus-sp-sv1-and-evolutionary-divergence-of-endoglucanase-in-different-species-of-the-genus-bacillus
#7
Lebin Thomas, Hari Ram, Ved Pal Singh
Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3...
November 6, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152632/a-combination-of-quercetin-and-resveratrol-reduces-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats-by-modulation-of-gut-microbiota
#8
Le Zhao, Qi Zhang, Weini Ma, Feng Tian, Hongyi Shen, Mingmei Zhou
Resveratrol and quercetin, widely found in foods and vegetables, are plant polyphenols reported to have a wide range of biological activities. Despite their limited bioavailabilities, both resveratrol and quercetin are known to exhibit anti-inflammation and anti-obesity effects. We hypothesized that gut microbiota may be a potential target for resveratrol and quercetin to prevent the development of obesity. The aim of this research was to confirm whether a combination of quercetin and resveratrol (CQR) could restore the gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD)...
November 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151980/synbiotic-effects-of-%C3%AE-glucans-from-cauliflower-mushroom-and-lactobacillus-fermentum-on-metabolic-changes-and-gut-microbiome-in-estrogen-deficient-rats
#9
Seong-Yeop Jeong, Suna Kang, Cao Shi Hua, Zhang Ting, Sunmin Park
Background: We investigated whether the long-term consumption of a symbiotic formulation with Lactobacillus fermentum (probiotic) and β-glucan from cauliflower mushroom (prebiotic) would delay the progression of post-menopausal symptoms in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and explored their mechanisms of action, including changes in gut microbiota. Methods: OVX rats were fed with high-fat diets containing 1% dextrin (control), 1% lyophilized cauliflower mushroom extract (CFM), 0...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151162/enrichment-of-lignocellulose-degrading-microbial-communities-from-natural-and-engineered-methanogenic-environments
#10
Emine Gozde Ozbayram, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Marcell Nikolausz, Bahar Ince, Orhan Ince
The aim of this study was to develop an effective bioaugmentation concept for anaerobic digesters treating lignocellulosic biomass such as straw. For that purpose, lignocellulose-degrading methanogenic communities were enriched on wheat straw from cow and goat rumen fluid as well as from a biogas reactor acclimated to lignocellulosic biomass (sorghum as mono-substrate). The bacterial communities of the enriched cultures and the different inocula were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes while the methanogenic archaeal communities were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of the mcrA gene...
November 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150503/carbon-amendments-alter-microbial-community-structure-and-net-mercury-methylation-potential-in-sediments
#11
Geoff A Christensen, Anil C Somenahally, James G Moberly, Carrie M Miller, Andrew J King, Cynthia C Gilmour, Steven D Brown, Mircea Podar, Craig C Brandt, Scott C Brooks, Anthony V Palumbo, Judy D Wall, Dwayne A Elias
Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) is produced by anaerobic Bacteria and Archaea possessing the genes hgcAB, but it is unknown how organic substrate and electron acceptor availability impact the distribution and abundance of these organisms. We evaluated the impact of organic substrate amendments on mercury (Hg) methylation rates, microbial community structure, and the distribution of hgcAB(+) microbes with sediments. Sediment slurries were amended with short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, or a polysaccharide. Minimal increases in MeHg were observed following lactate, ethanol and methanol amendments while a significant decrease (∼70%) was observed with cellobiose incubations...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149744/bacterial-community-structure-along-the-subtidal-sandy-sediment-belt-of-a-high-arctic-fjord-kongsfjorden-svalbard-islands
#12
Conte Antonella, Papale Maria, Amalfitano Stefano, Mikkonen Anu, Rizzo Carmen, De Domenico Emilio, Michaud Luigi, Lo Giudice Angelina
Open fjords are subject to contrasting environmental conditions, owing to meltwater glacial inputs, terrestrial runoff, and marine water mass exchanges, which are exacerbated by anthropogenic and climate perturbations. Following a slope-dependent water circulation, the subtidal sandy sediment belt regulates the convergent transport of nutrients downward the fjord depths, and the effective entrapment of suspended particles and microorganisms. In this study, we aimed at testing how glacial and seawater inputs may influence the bacterial community structure of subtidal sand deposits in the Kongsfjorden...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149709/performance-and-microbial-communities-in-a-combined-bioelectrochemical-and-sulfur-autotrophic-denitrification-system-at-low-temperature
#13
Dan Chen, Hongyu Wang, Kai Yang, Fang Ma
Combined bioelectrochemical and sulfur autotrophic denitrification (CBSAD) system had proven to be feasible for nitrate removal at low temperature. This system obtained excellent denitrification efficiency 96.55% at 10 ± 2 °C long term operation. Nitrate removal efficiency presented increased tendency with applied current increased from 50 to 200 mA and then decreased when the applied current was further increased to 300 mA. The CBSAD system owned the most abundant and rich communities at current 200 mA, and the community structures of the microbial samples at different current conditions were clearly different from each other...
November 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149029/kappaphycus-alvarezii-as-a-food-supplement-prevents-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#14
Stephen Wanyonyi, Ryan du Preez, Lindsay Brown, Nicholas A Paul, Sunil K Panchal
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w) dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147865/changes-of-gut-microbiota-structure-and-morphology-in-weaned-piglets-treated-with-fresh-fermented-soybean-meal
#15
Zhengjun Xie, Luansha Hu, Yuan Li, Shijie Geng, Saisai Cheng, Xiongfeng Fu, Shoumei Zhao, Xinyan Han
This study investigated the effects of dietary fresh fermented soybean meal (FSM) on the intestinal microbiota and metabolites, bacterial enzyme activity and intestinal morphology of weaning piglets. A total of 64 weaned piglets were randomly allocated into two treatments. A corn-soybean-based diet was used as the control and other treatment was fed the same basal diet containing 15% fresh FSM. The feeding trial lasted for 21 days. Bacterial community structure and diversity in the cecum and colon were assessed using pyrosequencing-based analysis...
November 16, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146862/complete-genome-sequence-of-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-isolated-from-the-gut-of-a-healthy-indian-adult
#16
Satyabrata Bag, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Bhabatosh Das
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant (~4%) member of the phylum Firmicutes found in the colon of healthy humans. It is a strict anaerobe and plays an important role in intestinal homeostasis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of F. prausnitzii strain Indica.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146311/microbial-communities-involved-in-biogas-production-exhibit-high-resilience-to-heat-shocks
#17
Christian Abendroth, Sarah Hahnke, Claudia Simeonov, Michael Klocke, Sonia Casani-Miravalls, Patrice Ramm, Christoph Bürger, Olaf Luschnig, Manuel Porcar
We report here the impact of heat-shock treatments (55 and 70 °C) on the biogas production within the acidification stage of a two-stage reactor system for anaerobic digestion and biomethanation of grass. The microbiome proved both taxonomically and functionally very robust, since heat shocks caused minor community shifts compared to the controls, and biogas yield was not decreased. The strongest impact on the microbial profile was observed with a combination of heat shock and low pH. Since no transient reduction of microbial diversity occured after the shock, biogas keyplayers, but also potential pathogens, survived the treatment...
October 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146258/screening-of-tropically-derived-multi-trait-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-and-evaluation-of-corn-and-soybean-colonization-ability
#18
Bruna Durante Batista, Paulo Teixeira Lacava, Andrea Ferrari, Natalia Sousa Teixeira-Silva, Maria Letícia Bonatelli, Sarina Tsui, Mateus Mondin, Elliot Watanabe Kitajima, José Odair Pereira, João Lúcio Azevedo, Maria Carolina Quecine
The present study assessed the plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and diversity of culturable rhizobacteria associated with guarana (Paullinia cupana), a typical tropical plant. Ninety-six bacteria were isolated, subjected to biochemical tests, and identified by partial or total 16S rDNA sequencing. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant rhizospheric phyla found, and Burkholderia and Bacillus were the most abundant genera. Thirteen strains exhibited the four PGP traits evaluated, and most of them belonged to the genus Burkholderia...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143827/digestion-under-saliva-simulated-gastric-and-small-intestinal-conditions-and-fermentation-in-vitro-of-polysaccharides-from-the-flowers-of-camellia-sinensis-induced-by-human-gut-microbiota
#19
Dan Chen, Guijie Chen, Peng Wan, Bing Hu, Ligen Chen, Shiyi Ou, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Hong Ye
In the present study, digestion under saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from the flowers of Camellia sinensis (TFPS) by human gut microbiota were investigated. The results indicated that human saliva and simulated gastric and intestinal juices had no effect on TFPS, while TFPS could be utilized by human fecal microbiota, which was proved from the decreased molecular weight and lower content of total or reducing sugars after fermentation under anaerobic conditions...
November 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142301/alteration-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-characterizes-preclinical-inflammatory-arthritis-in-mice-and-its-modulation-attenuates-established-arthritis
#20
Rebecca Rogier, Heather Evans-Marin, Julia Manasson, Peter M van der Kraan, Birgitte Walgreen, Monique M Helsen, Liduine A van den Bersselaar, Fons A van de Loo, Peter L van Lent, Steven B Abramson, Wim B van den Berg, Marije I Koenders, Jose U Scher, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz
Perturbations of the intestinal microbiome have been observed in patients with new-onset and chronic autoimmune inflammatory arthritis. However, it is currently unknown whether these alterations precede the development of arthritis or are rather a consequence of disease. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by oral antibiotics or germ-free condition can prevent arthritis in mice. Yet, the therapeutic potential of modulation of the microbiota after the onset of arthritis is not well characterized. We here show that the intestinal microbial community undergoes marked changes in the preclinical phase of collagen induced arthritis (CIA)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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