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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938792/gastrointestinal-microbial-population-of-turkey-meleagris-gallopavo-affected-by-hemorrhagic-enteritis-virus
#1
Sara D'Andreano, Armand Sànchez Bonastre, Olga Francino, Anna Cuscó Martí, Cristina Lecchi, Guido Grilli, Davide Giovanardi, Fabrizio Ceciliani
Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) is an acute viral disease that affects avian species, particularly turkeys, compromising their commercial production and having a negative effect on animal welfare. Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), is the main causal agent of the disease. In this study, we considered 3 groups of turkeys to achieve 2 purposes: 1) A preliminary investigation on the microbiota content in the 4 parts of healthy turkey's intestine (group A), namely duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca was done; 2) an investigation on the relationship between natural infections with TAdV-3 and the intestinal microbiota in the jejunum, where HE mostly develops, comparing group A with animals with molecular positivity for the virus and with clinical signs of HE (group B) and animals with molecular positivity for the virus but without clinical signs (group C)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936677/prokaryotic-assemblages-in-the-maritime-antarctic-lake-limnopolar-byers-peninsula-south-shetland-islands
#2
M Papale, C Rizzo, J A Villescusa, C Rochera, A Camacho, L Michaud, A Lo Giudice
The potentially metabolically active components within the prokaryotic assemblages inhabiting the Antarctic Lake Limnopolar (Byers Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica) were investigated by a polyphasic approach which included culture-dependent and culture-independent methods (based on RNA molecules). Results support previous observations on the Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominance, followed by Actinobacteria, in Antarctic lakes. In particular, Alpha-, Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were mainly detected by CARD-FISH and cDNA cloning, whereas Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated within the cultivable fraction...
September 21, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935866/mulberry-leaf-alleviates-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-by-attenuating-nefa-signaling-and-modulating-intestinal-microflora
#3
Yao Sheng, Shujuan Zheng, Tianshi Ma, Chuanhai Zhang, Xiaoqun Ou, Xiaoyun He, Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang
Improvement of hyperglycemia through dietotherapy/herbal remedy is an effective approach to treating diabetes. In this study, mulberry leaf, famous for silkworm's special food and therapeutic value without any side effects, alleviated diabetes by attenuating NEFA signaling and modulating intestinal microflora. Mulberry leaf treatment significantly reduce fasting blood-glucose and HbA1c, ameliorate the blood lipid profile and improve insulin resistance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Mechanistically, we found that mulberry leaf inhibited NEFA signaling by reducing downstream signaling in the NEFA pathway, further verified by reduced PKC and improved cellular energy homeostasis based on restored expression of PGC-1α, AK2, OXPHOS and adiponectin...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935288/the-potential-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-pancreatic-disease-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Robert Memba, Sinead N Duggan, Hazel M Ni Chonchubhair, Oonagh M Griffin, Yasir Bashir, Donal B O'Connor, Anne Murphy, Jean McMahon, Yuri Volcov, Barbara M Ryan, Kevin C Conlon
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a link between microbiota imbalance and some gastrointestinal, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. However, the role in pancreatic diseases remain unclear. To evaluate the available evidence for pancreatic diseases, we undertook a systematic review. METHODS: OVID Medline (1946-2017), EMBASE (1980-2017) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 3, 2017) were searched for studies on microbiota in pancreatic disease...
September 6, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934260/characterization-of-the-nasal-and-oral-microbiota-of-detection-dogs
#5
Anitha Isaiah, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann, Russ Kelley, Paul Mundell, Jörg M Steiner, Jan S Suchodolski
Little is known about physiological factors that affect the sense of olfaction in dogs. The objectives of this study were to describe the canine nasal and oral microbiota in detection dogs. We sought to determine the bacterial composition of the nasal and oral microbiota of a diverse population of detection canines. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from healthy dogs (n = 81) from four locations-Alabama, Georgia, California, and Texas. Nasal and oral swabs were also collected from a second cohort of detection canines belonging to three different detection job categories: explosive detection dogs (SP-E; n = 22), patrol and narcotics detection dogs (P-NDD; n = 15), and vapor wake dogs (VWD-E; n = 9)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932201/the-placental-microbiota-is-altered-among-subjects-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-pilot-study
#6
Jia Zheng, Xinhua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Lili Mao, Miao Yu, Jianping Xu, Tong Wang
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has significant implications for the future health of the mother and child. However, the associations between human placental microbiota and GDM are poorly understood. We aimed to profile the placental microbiota of GDM and further define whether or not certain placental microbiota taxon correlates with specific clinical characteristics. Placenta were collected from GDM women and women with normal pregnancies (n = 10, in each group) consecutively recruited at Peking Union Medical College Hospital...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928728/comparative-analysis-of-the-gut-microbiota-composition-between-captive-and-wild-forest-musk-deer
#7
Yimeng Li, Xiaolong Hu, Shuang Yang, Juntong Zhou, Tianxiang Zhang, Lei Qi, Xiaoning Sun, Mengyuan Fan, Shanghua Xu, Muha Cha, Meishan Zhang, Shaobi Lin, Shuqiang Liu, Defu Hu
The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928719/the-green-berry-consortia-of-the-sippewissett-salt-marsh-millimeter-sized-aggregates-of-diazotrophic-unicellular-cyanobacteria
#8
Elizabeth G Wilbanks, Verena Salman-Carvalho, Ulrike Jaekel, Parris T Humphrey, Jonathan A Eisen, Daniel H Buckley, Stephen H Zinder
Microbial interactions driving key biogeochemical fluxes often occur within multispecies consortia that form spatially heterogeneous microenvironments. Here, we describe the "green berry" consortia of the Sippewissett salt marsh (Falmouth, MA, United States): millimeter-sized aggregates dominated by an uncultured, diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium of the order Chroococcales (termed GB-CYN1). We show that GB-CYN1 is closely related to Crocosphaera watsonii (UCYN-B) and "Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa" (UCYN-A), two groups of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria that play an important role in marine primary production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927227/enteric-microbiome-profiles-during-a-randomized-phase-2-clinical-trial-of-surotomycin-versus-vancomycin-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#9
Kristine Cannon, Brendan Byrne, Jennifer Happe, Kaiyu Wu, Linda Ward, Laurent Chesnel, Thomas Louie
Objectives: The effects of surotomycin (CB-183,315, MK-4261), a bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide, and vancomycin, the current standard-of-care for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), on intestinal pathogens and microbiota were evaluated parallel to a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Methods: The single-centre cohort included 26 patients receiving surotomycin [125 or 250 mg twice daily ( n  =   9 each)] or oral vancomycin [125 mg four times daily ( n  =   8)] for 10 days...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922800/changes-in-fibre-adherent-and-fluid-associated-microbial-communities-and-fermentation-profiles-in-the-rumen-of-cattle-fed-diets-differing-in-hay-quality-and-concentrate-amount
#10
Fenja Klevenhusen, Renee M Petri, Maria-Theresia Kleefisch, Ratchaneewan Khiaosa-Ard, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Qendrim Zebeli
The rumen microbiota enable important metabolic functions to the host cattle. Feeding of starch-rich concentrate feedstuffs to cattle has been demonstrated to increase the risk of metabolic disorders and to significantly alter the rumen microbiome. Thus, alternative feeding strategies like the use of high-quality hay, rich in sugars, as an alternative energy source need to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in rumen microbial abundances in the liquid and solid-associated fraction of cattle fed two hay qualities differing in sugar content with graded amounts of starchy concentrate feeds using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921475/legacy-effects-of-continuous-chloropicrin-fumigation-for-3-years-on-soil-microbial-community-composition-and-metabolic-activity
#11
Shuting Zhang, Xiaojiao Liu, Qipeng Jiang, Guihua Shen, Wei Ding
Chloropicrin is widely used to control ginger wilt in China, which have an enormous impact on soil microbial diversity. However, little is known on the possible legacy effects on soil microbial community composition with continuous fumigation over different years. In this report, we used high throughput Illumina sequencing and Biolog ECO microplates to determine the bacterial community and microbial metabolic activity in ginger harvest fields of non-fumigation (NF), chloropicrin-fumigation for 1 year (F_1) and continuous chloropicrin-fumigation for 3 years (F_3)...
September 18, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920855/pfma-a-novel-quorum-quenching-n-acylhomoserine-lactone-acylase-from-pseudoalteromonas-flavipulchra
#12
Na Liu, Min Yu, Youbin Zhao, Jingguang Cheng, Ke An, Xiao-Hua Zhang
Many bacteria, such as Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, use N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum-sensing (QS) signal molecules for communication. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs, such as AHL acylase and AHL lactonase, can degrade AHLs (quorum quenching, QQ) to attenuate or disarm the virulence of pathogens. QQ is confirmed to be common in marine bacterial communities. Many genes encoding AHL acylases are found in marine bacteria and metagenomic collections, but only a few of these have been characterized in detail...
September 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920414/metagenomic-analysis-of-bacterial-community-structure-and-diversity-of-lignocellulolytic-bacteria-in-vietnamese-native-goat-rumen
#13
Huyen Thi Do, Khoa Trong Dao, Viet Khanh Hoang Nguyen, Giang Ngoc Le, Phuong Thi Mai Nguyen, Lam Tung Le, Nguyet Thu Phung, Nico van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Hai Nam Truong
Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen was conducted to elucidate a role of bacterial structure for effective degradation of plant materials. Methods: The metagenomic data had been subjected into Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTX) algorithm and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (NR) sequence database...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919891/moderate-intensity-exercise-affects-gut-microbiome-composition-and-influences-cardiac-function-in-myocardial-infarction-mice
#14
Zuheng Liu, Hai-Yue Liu, Haobin Zhou, Qiong Zhan, Wenyan Lai, Qingchun Zeng, Hao Ren, Dingli Xu
Physical exercise is commonly regarded as protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies have reported that exercise alters the gut microbiota and that modification of the gut microbiota can influence cardiac function. Here, we focused on the relationships among exercise, the gut microbiota and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exercised on a treadmill for 4 weeks before undergoing left coronary artery ligation. Cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916564/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery
#15
Yan Guo, Zhi-Ping Huang, Chao-Qian Liu, Lin Qi, Yuan Sheng, Da-Jin Zou
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is recommended for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence suggested a strong connection between gut microbiota and bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: The PubMed and OVID Embase were used and articles concerning bariatric surgery and gut microbiota were screened. The main outcome measures were alterations of gut microbiota after bariatric surgery and correlations between gut microbiota and host metabolism...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916375/bacterial-community-in-ancient-permafrost-alluvium-at-the-mammoth-mountain-eastern-siberia
#16
Anatoli Brouchkov, Marsel Kabilov, Svetlana Filippova, Olga Baturina, Victor Rogov, Valery Galchenko, Andrey Mulyukin, Oksana Fursova, Gennady Pogorelko
Permanently frozen (approx. 3.5Ma) alluvial Neogene sediments exposed in the Aldan river valley at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia) are unique, ancient, and poorly studied permafrost environments. So far, the structure of the indigenous bacterial community has remained unknown. Use of 16S metagenomic analysis with total DNA isolation using DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MO-Bio) and QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) has revealed the major and minor bacterial lineages in the permafrost alluvium sediments. In sum, 61 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) with 31,239 reads (Qiagen kit) and 15,404 reads (Mo-Bio kit) could be assigned to the known taxa...
September 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912759/seasonality-affects-the-diversity-and-composition-of-bacterioplankton-communities-in-dongjiang-river-a-drinking-water-source-of-hong-kong
#17
Wei Sun, Chunyu Xia, Meiying Xu, Jun Guo, Guoping Sun
Water quality ranks the most vital criterion for rivers serving as drinking water sources, which periodically changes over seasons. Such fluctuation is believed associated with the state shifts of bacterial community within. To date, seasonality effects on bacterioplankton community patterns in large rivers serving as drinking water sources however, are still poorly understood. Here we investigated the intra-annual bacterial community structure in the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source of Hong Kong, using high-throughput pyrosequencing in concert with geochemical property measurements during dry, and wet seasons...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912574/distinct-gut-microbiome-patterns-associate-with-consensus-molecular-subtypes-of-colorectal-cancer
#18
Rachel V Purcell, Martina Visnovska, Patrick J Biggs, Sebastian Schmeier, Frank A Frizelle
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease and recent advances in subtype classification have successfully stratified the disease using molecular profiling. The contribution of bacterial species to CRC development is increasingly acknowledged, and here, we sought to analyse CRC microbiomes and relate them to tumour consensus molecular subtypes (CMS), in order to better understand the relationship between bacterial species and the molecular mechanisms associated with CRC subtypes. We classified 34 tumours into CRC subtypes using RNA-sequencing derived gene expression and determined relative abundances of bacterial taxonomic groups using 16S rRNA amplicon metabarcoding...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904412/bio-prospecting-bacterial-diversity-of-hot-springs-in-northern-himalayan-region-of-india-for-laccases
#19
Vijaya Gupta, Naveen Gupta, Neena Capalash, Prince Sharma
Bacterial diversity of hot springs of northern Himalayan region of India was studied and explored for laccases, the multicopper enzymes applicable in a large number of industries due to their ability to utilize a wide range of substrates. 220 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) out of 5551 sequence reads for bacterial diversity and 3 OTUs out of 19 sequence reads for Laccase like multicopper oxidases (LMCOs) diversity were generated. Bacteroidetes (74.28%) was the most abundant phylum including genus Paludibacter (66...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900257/subtle-shifts-in-microbial-communities-occur-alongside-the-release-of-carbon-induced-by-drought-and-rewetting-in-contrasting-peatland-ecosystems
#20
Caitlin Potter, Chris Freeman, Peter N Golyshin, Gail Ackermann, Nathalie Fenner, James E McDonald, Abdassalam Ehbair, Timothy G Jones, Loretta M Murphy, Simon Creer
Peat represents a globally significant pool of sequestered carbon. However, peatland carbon stocks are highly threatened by anthropogenic climate change, including drought, which leads to a large release of carbon dioxide. Although the enzymatic mechanisms underlying drought-driven carbon release are well documented, the effect of drought on peatland microbial communities has been little studied. Here, we carried out a replicated and controlled drought manipulation using intact peat 'mesocosm cores' taken from bog and fen habitats, and used a combination of community fingerprinting and sequencing of marker genes to identify community changes associated with drought...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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