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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150503/carbon-amendments-alter-microbial-community-structure-and-net-mercury-methylation-potential-in-sediments
#1
Geoff A Christensen, Anil C Somenahally, James G Moberly, Carrie M Miller, Andrew J King, Cynthia C Gilmour, Steven D Brown, Mircea Podar, Craig C Brandt, Scott C Brooks, Anthony V Palumbo, Judy D Wall, Dwayne A Elias
Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) is produced by anaerobic Bacteria and Archaea possessing the genes hgcAB, but it is unknown how organic substrate and electron acceptor availability impact the distribution and abundance of these organisms. We evaluated the impact of organic substrate amendments on mercury (Hg) methylation rates, microbial community structure, and the distribution of hgcAB(+) microbes with sediments. Sediment slurries were amended with short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, or a polysaccharide. Minimal increases in MeHg were observed following lactate, ethanol and methanol amendments while a significant decrease (∼70%) was observed with cellobiose incubations...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149744/bacterial-community-structure-along-the-subtidal-sandy-sediment-belt-of-a-high-arctic-fjord-kongsfjorden-svalbard-islands
#2
Conte Antonella, Papale Maria, Amalfitano Stefano, Mikkonen Anu, Rizzo Carmen, De Domenico Emilio, Michaud Luigi, Lo Giudice Angelina
Open fjords are subject to contrasting environmental conditions, owing to meltwater glacial inputs, terrestrial runoff, and marine water mass exchanges, which are exacerbated by anthropogenic and climate perturbations. Following a slope-dependent water circulation, the subtidal sandy sediment belt regulates the convergent transport of nutrients downward the fjord depths, and the effective entrapment of suspended particles and microorganisms. In this study, we aimed at testing how glacial and seawater inputs may influence the bacterial community structure of subtidal sand deposits in the Kongsfjorden...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149029/kappaphycus-alvarezii-as-a-food-supplement-prevents-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#3
Stephen Wanyonyi, Ryan du Preez, Lindsay Brown, Nicholas A Paul, Sunil K Panchal
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w) dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147865/changes-of-gut-microbiota-structure-and-morphology-in-weaned-piglets-treated-with-fresh-fermented-soybean-meal
#4
Zhengjun Xie, Luansha Hu, Yuan Li, Shijie Geng, Saisai Cheng, Xiongfeng Fu, Shoumei Zhao, Xinyan Han
This study investigated the effects of dietary fresh fermented soybean meal (FSM) on the intestinal microbiota and metabolites, bacterial enzyme activity and intestinal morphology of weaning piglets. A total of 64 weaned piglets were randomly allocated into two treatments. A corn-soybean-based diet was used as the control and other treatment was fed the same basal diet containing 15% fresh FSM. The feeding trial lasted for 21 days. Bacterial community structure and diversity in the cecum and colon were assessed using pyrosequencing-based analysis...
November 16, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146311/microbial-communities-involved-in-biogas-production-exhibit-high-resilience-to-heat-shocks
#5
Christian Abendroth, Sarah Hahnke, Claudia Simeonov, Michael Klocke, Sonia Casani-Miravalls, Patrice Ramm, Christoph Bürger, Olaf Luschnig, Manuel Porcar
We report here the impact of heat-shock treatments (55 and 70 °C) on the biogas production within the acidification stage of a two-stage reactor system for anaerobic digestion and biomethanation of grass. The microbiome proved both taxonomically and functionally very robust, since heat shocks caused minor community shifts compared to the controls, and biogas yield was not decreased. The strongest impact on the microbial profile was observed with a combination of heat shock and low pH. Since no transient reduction of microbial diversity occured after the shock, biogas keyplayers, but also potential pathogens, survived the treatment...
October 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145477/the-abundance-of-health-associated-bacteria-is-altered-in-pah-polluted-soils-implications-for-health-in-urban-areas
#6
Anirudra Parajuli, Mira Grönroos, Sari Kauppi, Tomasz Płociniczak, Marja I Roslund, Polina Galitskaya, Olli H Laitinen, Heikki Hyöty, Ari Jumpponen, Rauni Strömmer, Martin Romantschuk, Nan Hui, Aki Sinkkonen
Long-term exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been connected to chronic human health disorders. It is also well-known that i) PAH contamination alters soil bacterial communities, ii) human microbiome is associated with environmental microbiome, and iii) alteration in the abundance of members in several bacterial phyla is associated with adverse or beneficial human health effects. We hypothesized that soil pollution by PAHs altered soil bacterial communities that had known associations with human health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143827/digestion-under-saliva-simulated-gastric-and-small-intestinal-conditions-and-fermentation-in-vitro-of-polysaccharides-from-the-flowers-of-camellia-sinensis-induced-by-human-gut-microbiota
#7
Dan Chen, Guijie Chen, Peng Wan, Bing Hu, Ligen Chen, Shiyi Ou, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Hong Ye
In the present study, digestion under saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from the flowers of Camellia sinensis (TFPS) by human gut microbiota were investigated. The results indicated that human saliva and simulated gastric and intestinal juices had no effect on TFPS, while TFPS could be utilized by human fecal microbiota, which was proved from the decreased molecular weight and lower content of total or reducing sugars after fermentation under anaerobic conditions...
November 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142301/alteration-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-characterizes-preclinical-inflammatory-arthritis-in-mice-and-its-modulation-attenuates-established-arthritis
#8
Rebecca Rogier, Heather Evans-Marin, Julia Manasson, Peter M van der Kraan, Birgitte Walgreen, Monique M Helsen, Liduine A van den Bersselaar, Fons A van de Loo, Peter L van Lent, Steven B Abramson, Wim B van den Berg, Marije I Koenders, Jose U Scher, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz
Perturbations of the intestinal microbiome have been observed in patients with new-onset and chronic autoimmune inflammatory arthritis. However, it is currently unknown whether these alterations precede the development of arthritis or are rather a consequence of disease. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by oral antibiotics or germ-free condition can prevent arthritis in mice. Yet, the therapeutic potential of modulation of the microbiota after the onset of arthritis is not well characterized. We here show that the intestinal microbial community undergoes marked changes in the preclinical phase of collagen induced arthritis (CIA)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142211/the-microbiota-protects-against-respiratory-infection-via-gm-csf-signaling
#9
Rebecca L Brown, Richard P Sequeira, Thomas B Clarke
The microbiota promotes resistance to respiratory infection, but the mechanistic basis for this is poorly defined. Here, we identify members of the microbiota that protect against respiratory infection by the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We show that the microbiota enhances respiratory defenses via granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which stimulates pathogen killing and clearance by alveolar macrophages through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141969/cardiovascular-and-antiobesity-effects-of-resveratrol-mediated-through-the-gut-microbiota
#10
REVIEW
Julia K Bird, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Weber, Robert E Steinert
Encouraging scientific research into the health effects of dietary bioactive resveratrol has been confounded by its rapid first-pass metabolism, which leads to low in vivo bioavailability. Preliminary studies have shown that resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function. In rodents, resveratrol can modify the relative Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and reverse the gut microbial dysbiosis caused by a high-fat diet...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141231/molecular-mechanism-by-which-prominent-human-gut-bacteroidetes-utilize-mixed-linkage-beta-glucans-major-health-promoting-cereal-polysaccharides
#11
Kazune Tamura, Glyn R Hemsworth, Guillaume Déjean, Theresa E Rogers, Nicholas A Pudlo, Karthik Urs, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Eric C Martens, Harry Brumer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139350/nemorella-caseinilytica-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-forest-soil
#12
Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Ram Hari Dahal, Jaisoo Kim
Two novel strains, J116-2(T) and J116-1, were isolated from forest soil and were taxonomically characterized by a polyphasic approach. Both strains were yellow-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacteria. The strains were non-sporulating, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Strains J116-2(T) and J116-1 were able to grow at 20-32 °C, pH 6.0-8.5, and 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strains J116-2(T) and J116-1 formed a distinct lineage within the family Chitinophagaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and were closely related to genera Taibaiella (89...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138906/influence-of-polyaluminum-chloride-on-microbial-characteristics-in-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactors-for-sludge-digestion
#13
Wanlin Zheng, Zhiyong Yu, Yu Xia, Xianghua Wen
In this study, two parallel lab-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), one of which was dosed with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) for membrane fouling control, were operated for treating excess activated sludge collected from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The AnMBRs were inoculated with anaerobic digested sludge collected from an anaerobic digester of another WWTP. The microbial community of digested sludge and cake layer in AnMBRs, as well as that of excess sludge, was analyzed through polymerase chain reaction coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and Illumina MiSeq...
November 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136941/enhanced-granulation-and-methane-recovery-at-low-load-by-downflow-sludge-circulation-in-anaerobic-treatment-of-domestic-wastewater
#14
Yangyang Liu, Lihui Huang, Guihua Dong, Gaofeng Liu, Xueyuan Wu, Chuang Wang, Xiaowei Liu, Lisha Wang
The effects of downflow sludge circulation on granulation and methane recovery at low load were investigated for domestic wastewater treatment in a modified anaerobic reactor. Compared with conventional upflow anaerobic reactors, enhanced granulation with shortened start-up time was achieved and stable granules were successfully cultivated only after 58 days operations. The introduction of downflow sludge circulation resulted in reverse wastewater-sludge flow and uniform sludge distribution in the reaction zone, which contributed to enhanced wastewater-sludge mass transfer and satisfactory performance with a high soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) removal efficiency of 94...
October 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135334/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-its-consequence-on-the-gut-microbiome-a-rat-model
#15
Phyllis E Mann, Kevin Huynh, Giovanni Widmer
The biological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal include shifts in hormonal regulation in preparation for parturition and lactation, and changes in energy metabolism. In women, studies have also shown that during pregnancy there is a reduction in bacterial species richness in the gut. In the current experiment rats were used to model the interaction of diet, reproductive status, and intestinal bacterial microbiota during pregnancy and lactation. In Experiment 1 rats were exposed to either standard chow or high-fat chow (60%) and were divided into two groups: unmated (NULL) or mated (RE)...
November 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134451/seasonal-variations-in-bacterioplankton-community-structures-in-two-small-rivers-in-the-himi-region-of-central-japan-and-their-relationships-with-environmental-factors
#16
Daisuke Tanaka, Toyo Takahashi, Yoko Yamashiro, Hitoshi Tanaka, Yuzuru Kimochi, Masaki Nishio, Akihiro Sakatoku, Shogo Nakamura
The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of seasonal variations and the effects of physicochemical conditions on the bacterioplankton communities in two small rivers, the Moo and Nakayachi Rivers in the Himi region of central Japan. These rivers are inhabited by unionid freshwater mussels, which are used for oviposition by the endangered Itasenpara bitterling (Acheilognathus longipinnis). Water samples were collected every month between March 2011 and February 2012. Changes in bacterioplankton community structures were analysed using an approach that did not require cultivating the bacteria and involved PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis...
November 13, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134144/composition-diversity-and-function-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-at-different-culture-stages
#17
Shenzheng Zeng, Zhijian Huang, Dongwei Hou, Jian Liu, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He
Intestinal microbiota is an integral component of the host and plays important roles in host health. The pacific white shrimp is one of the most profitable aquaculture species commercialized in the world market with the largest production in shrimp consumption. Many studies revealed that the intestinal microbiota shifted significantly during host development in other aquaculture animals. In the present study, 22 shrimp samples were collected every 15 days from larval stage (15 day post-hatching, dph) to adult stage (75 dph) to investigate the intestinal microbiota at different culture stages by targeting the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, and the microbial function prediction was conducted by PICRUSt...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133882/discovery-of-an-expansive-bacteriophage-family-that-includes-the-most-abundant-viruses-from-the-human-gut
#18
Natalya Yutin, Kira S Makarova, Ayal B Gussow, Mart Krupovic, Anca Segall, Robert A Edwards, Eugene V Koonin
Metagenomic sequence analysis is rapidly becoming the primary source of virus discovery (1-3) . A substantial majority of the currently available virus genomes come from metagenomics, and some of these represent extremely abundant viruses, even if never grown in the laboratory. A particularly striking case of a virus discovered via metagenomics is crAssphage, which is by far the most abundant human-associated virus known, comprising up to 90% of sequences in the gut virome (4) . Over 80% of the predicted proteins encoded in the approximately 100 kilobase crAssphage genome showed no significant similarity to available protein sequences, precluding classification of this virus and hampering further study...
November 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133078/enteric-delivery-of-regenerating-family-member-3-alpha-alters-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-controls-inflammation-in-mice-with-colitis
#19
Marion Darnaud, Alexandre Dos Santos, Patrick Gonzalez, Sandrine Augui, Claire Lacoste, Christophe Desterke, Gert De Hertogh, Emma Valentino, Emilie Braun, Jinzi Zheng, Raphael Boisgard, Christel Neut, Laurent Dubuquoy, Franck Chiappini, Didier Samuel, Patricia Lepage, Francesca Guerrieri, Joel Doré, Christian Bréchot, Nicolas Moniaux, Jamila Faivre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter...
November 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128951/insights-from-the-genomes-of-microbes-thriving-in-uranium-enriched-sediments
#20
Brodie Sutcliffe, Anthony A Chariton, Andrew J Harford, Grant C Hose, Sarah Stephenson, Paul Greenfield, David J Midgley, Ian T Paulsen
Elevated uranium dose (4 g kg(-1)) causes a shift in billabong sediment communities that result in the enrichment of five bacterial species. These taxa include Geobacter, Geothrix and Dyella species, as well as a novel-potentially predatory-Bacteroidetes species, and a new member of class Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi). Additionally, a population of methanogenic Methanocella species was also identified. Genomic reconstruction and metabolic examination of these taxa reveal a host of divergent life strategies and putative niche partitioning...
November 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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