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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649469/distinct-patterns-in-the-gut-microbiota-after-surgical-or-medical-therapy-in-obese-patients
#1
Daniel A Medina, Juan P Pedreros, Dannae Turiel, Nicolas Quezada, Fernando Pimentel, Alex Escalona, Daniel Garrido
Bariatric surgery is highly successful in improving health compared to conventional dietary treatments. It has been suggested that the gut microbiota is a relevant factor in weight loss after bariatric surgery. Considering that bariatric procedures cause different rearrangements of the digestive tract, they probably have different effects on the gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the impact of medical treatment, sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the gut microbiota from obese subjects...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646633/reclassification-of-flexibacter-tractuosus-nbrc-15981t-as-marivirga-harenae-sp-nov-in-the-family-flammeovirgaceae
#2
Yuki Muramatsu, Yuki Kamakura, Mai Takahashi, Yasuyoshi Nakagawa
Flexibacter tractuosa [Lewin, 1969] was reclassified as Marivirga tractuosa. Flexibacter tractuosus NBRC 15981T was reclassified herein by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of the strain were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, slender rods, which were motile by gliding. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 and the predominant (>5 %) cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-G-C15 : 1, C16 : 1ω7c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of a phosphatidylethanolamine, several unidentified aminolipids, glycolipids and five unidentified polar lipids...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643627/bifidobacteria-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#3
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Susana Delgado, Lorena Ruiz, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Borja Sánchez, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are members of the intestinal microbiota of mammals and other animals, and some strains are able to exert health-promoting effects. The genus Bifidobacterium belongs to the Actinobacteria phylum. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in the human intestinal microbiota, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes being predominant in adults, and Actinobacteria in breast-fed infants, where bifidobacteria can reach levels higher than 90% of the total bacterial population...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642971/high-diversity-of-bacterial-communities-in-developmental-stages-of-bactrocera-carambolae-insecta-tephritidae-revealed-by-illumina-miseq-sequencing-of-16s-rrna-gene
#4
Hoi-Sen Yong, Sze-Looi Song, Kah-Ooi Chua, Phaik-Eem Lim
Bactrocera carambolae is a highly polyphagous fruit pest of agricultural importance. This study reports the bacterial communities associated with the developmental stages of B. carambolae. The microbiota of the developmental stages were investigated by targeted 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq. At 97% similarity, there were 19 bacterial phyla and unassigned bacteria, comprising 39 classes, 86 orders, 159 families and 311 genera. The bacterial composition varied among the specimens of developmental stage and across developmental stages as well as exuviae...
June 23, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642750/non-pylori-helicobacters-nhphs-induce-shifts-in-gastric-microbiota-in-helicobacter-pylori-infected-patients
#5
Xianhui Peng, Liya Zhou, Yanan Gong, Zhiqiang Song, Lihua He, Sanren Lin, Jianzhong Zhang
To explore the effects of gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species(NHPH) on the structure and potential function of gastric microbiota, we employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 164 gastric biopsy specimens from NHPH (H. suis, H. felis, H. salomonis) /H. pylori coinfection individuals, H. pylori monoinfection individuals and healthy controls. The results demonstrated that marked structural and functional variations between H. pylori mono- and coinfection samples (HPHS, HPHF, HPHM). The changes in bacterial structure induced by NHPH are mainly attributed to their ability of gastric acid secretion inhibition as well as bacterial chemotaxis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642076/the-effect-of-initial-organic-load-of-the-kitchen-waste-on-the-production-of-vfa-and-h2-in-dark-fermentation
#6
Radoslaw Slezak, Justyna Grzelak, Liliana Krzystek, Stanislaw Ledakowicz
Dark fermentation of kitchen wastes was studied in batch bioreactors, with no pH adjustment, to evaluate the effect of the initial organic load on the process performance in terms of volatile fatty acids and H2 production. Initial organic load of the kitchen wastes ranged from 4.1 to 48.2gVS/L. Acetic and butyric acids were produced in the largest amount. At the initial organic load of 48.2KWgVS/L the highest concentration of volatile fatty acids was 9.81g/L. The maximum production yield of H2 (76.1mL/gVS) was found for the initial organic load of kitchen wastes at 14...
June 19, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641593/preliminary-evidence-for-an-association-between-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-cognitive-function-in-neurologically-healthy-older-adults
#7
Lisa Manderino, Ian Carroll, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Amber Rochette, Leslie Heinberg, Christine Peat, Kristine Steffen, James Mitchell, John Gunstad
OBJECTIVES: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is implicated in numerous human health conditions. Animal studies have linked microbiome disruption to changes in cognitive functioning, although no study has examined this possibility in neurologically healthy older adults. METHODS: Participants were 43 community-dwelling older adults (50-85 years) that completed a brief cognitive test battery and provided stool samples for gut microbiome sequencing. Participants performing≥1 SD below normative performance on two or more tests were compared to persons with one or fewer impaired scores...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641173/population-dynamics-of-electrogenic-microbial-communities-in-microbial-fuel-cells-started-with-three-different-inoculum-sources
#8
Shun'ichi Ishii, Shino Suzuki, Yuko Yamanaka, Angela Wu, Kenneth H Nealson, Orianna Bretschger
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are one of the bioelectrochemical systems that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to degrade organic matters and recover energy as electric power. Here, we explored how the established electrogenic microbial communities were influenced by three different inoculum sources; anaerobic sludge of the wastewater plant, rice paddy field soil, and coastal lagoon sediment. We periodically characterized both electricity generation with sucrose consumption and 16S rRNA-basis microbial community composition...
June 15, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640897/impact-of-selected-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-pharmaceuticals-on-microbial-community-assembly-and-activity-in-sequencing-batch-reactors
#9
Cong Jiang, Jinju Geng, Haidong Hu, Haijun Ma, Xingsheng Gao, Hongqiang Ren
This study covers three widely detected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals (NSAIDs), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP) and naproxen (NPX), as NSAIDs pollutants. The objective is to evaluate the impact of NSAIDs at their environmental concentrations on microbial community assembly and activity. The exposure experiments were conducted under three conditions (5 μg L-1 DCF, 5 μg L-1 DCF+5 μg L-1 IBP and 5 μg L-1 DCF+5 μg L-1 IBP+ 5 μg L-1 NPX) in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for 130 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639601/faecal-microbiota-of-healthy-adults-in-south-india-comparison-of-a-tribal-a-rural-population
#10
Balamurugan Ramadass, B Sandya Rani, Srinivasan Pugazhendhi, K R John, Balakrishnan S Ramakrishna
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The relevance of the gut microbiota to human health is increasingly appreciated. The objective of this study was to compare the gut microbiota of a group of adult tribals with that of healthy adult villagers in Tamil Nadu, India. METHODS: Faeces were collected from 10 healthy tribal adults (TAs) in the Jawadhi hills and from 10 healthy villagers [rural adults (RAs)] in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. DNA was extracted, and 456 bp segments comprising hypervariable regions 3 and 4 of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified, barcoded and 454 sequenced...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638057/the-variation-in-the-rhizosphere-microbiome-of-cotton-with-soil-type-genotype-and-developmental-stage
#11
Qinghua Qiao, Furong Wang, Jingxia Zhang, Yu Chen, Chuanyun Zhang, Guodong Liu, Hui Zhang, Changle Ma, Jun Zhang
Plant roots and soil microorganisms interact with each other mainly in the rhizosphere. Changes in the community structure of the rhizosphere microbiome are influenced by many factors. In this study, we determined the community structure of rhizosphere bacteria in cotton, and studied the variation of rhizosphere bacterial community structure in different soil types and developmental stages using TM-1, an upland cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Hai 7124, a sea island cotton cultivar (G. barbadense L...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637485/the-development-of-lower-respiratory-tract-microbiome-in-mice
#12
Nisha Singh, Asheema Vats, Aditi Sharma, Amit Arora, Ashwani Kumar
BACKGROUND: Although culture-independent methods have paved the way for characterization of the lung microbiome, the dynamic changes in the lung microbiome from neonatal stage to adult age have not been investigated. RESULTS: In this study, we tracked changes in composition and diversity of the lung microbiome in C57BL/6N mice, starting from 1-week-old neonates to 8-week-old mice. Towards this, the lungs were sterilely excised from mice of different ages from 1 to 8 weeks...
June 21, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633514/metagenomic-smrt-sequencing-based-exploration-of-novel-lignocellulose-degrading-capability-in-wood-detritus-from-torreya-nucifera-in-bija-forest-on-jeju-island
#13
Han Na Oh, Tae Kwon Lee, Jae Wan Park, Jee Hyun No, Dockyu Kim, Woo Jun Sul
Lignocellulose, mostly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin generated through secondary growth of woody plant, is considered as promising resources for bio-fuel. In order to use lignocellulose as a biofuel, the biodegradation besides high-cost chemical treatments were applied, but its knowledge on decomposition of lignocellulose occurring in a natural environment were insufficient. We analyzed 16S rRNA gene and metagenome to understand how the lignocellulose are decomposed naturally in decayed Torreya nucifera (L) of Bija forest (Bijarim) in Gotjawal, an ecologically distinct environment...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630804/diversity-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-osteoporosis-and-osteopenia-patients
#14
Jihan Wang, Yangyang Wang, Wenjie Gao, Biao Wang, Heping Zhao, Yuhong Zeng, Yanhong Ji, Dingjun Hao
Some evidence suggests that bone health can be regulated by gut microbiota. To better understand this, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to analyze the intestinal microbial diversity in primary osteoporosis (OP) patients, osteopenia (ON) patients and normal controls (NC). We observed an inverse correlation between the number of bacterial taxa and the value of bone mineral density. The diversity estimators in the OP and ON groups were increased compared with those in the NC group. Beta diversity analyses based on hierarchical clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) could discriminate the NC samples from OP and ON samples...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630461/antrodia-cinnamomea-reduces-obesity-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#15
C-J Chang, C-C Lu, C-S Lin, J Martel, Y-F Ko, D M Ojcius, T-R Wu, Y-H Tsai, T-S Yeh, J-J Lu, H-C Lai, J D Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, disrupted intestinal barrier and chronic inflammation. Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, anti-obesity treatments that are safe, effective and widely available would be beneficial. We examined whether the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea may reduce obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for eight weeks to induce obesity and chronic inflammation...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628991/bacterial-community-composition-in-rainwater-associated-with-synoptic-weather-in-an-area-downwind-of-the-asian-continent
#16
Wei Hu, Kotaro Murata, Yuka Horikawa, Ayumi Naganuma, Daizhou Zhang
Bacteria are abundant in atmospheric waters and can be disseminated by precipitation to the surface of the Earth, potentially influencing ecosystems, public health and climate. However, data on bacterial communities in rainwater, especially on the association with weather, are very limited. In this study, rainwater was collected at the coastal city Kumamoto, southwestern Japan, in 2015. The bacterial communities in fourteen samples were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and compared according to the rain types at the synoptic scale, i...
June 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618864/gut-microbiota-composition-strongly-correlates-to-peripheral-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-men-but-not-in-women
#17
J Most, G H Goossens, D Reijnders, E E Canfora, J Penders, E E Blaak
Gut microbiota composition may play an important role in the development of obesity-related comorbidities. However, only few studies have investigated gender-differences in microbiota composition and gender-specific associations between microbiota or microbial products and insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry), systemic inflammatory markers and microbiota composition (PCR) were determined in male (n=15) and female (n=14) overweight and obese subjects...
June 16, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618237/effect-of-sweetened-dried-cranberry-consumption-on-urinary-proteome-and-fecal-microbiome-in-healthy-human-subjects
#18
Nell Bekiares, Christian G Krueger, Jennifer J Meudt, Dhanansayan Shanmuganayagam, Jess D Reed
The relationship among diet, human health, and disease is an area of growing interest in biomarker research. Previous studies suggest that the consumption of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) could beneficially influence urinary and digestive health. The present study sought to determine if daily consumption of sweetened dried cranberries (SDC) changes the urinary proteome and fecal microbiome, as determined in a prospective sample of 10 healthy individuals. Baseline urine and fecal samples were collected from the subjects in the fasted (8-12 h) state...
June 15, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611761/different-types-of-dietary-fibers-trigger-specific-alterations-in-composition-and-predicted-functions-of-colonic-bacterial-communities-in-balb-c-mice
#19
Yuheng Luo, Ling Zhang, Hua Li, Hauke Smidt, André-Denis G Wright, Keying Zhang, Xuemei Ding, Qiufeng Zeng, Shiping Bai, Jianping Wang, Jian Li, Ping Zheng, Gang Tian, Jingyi Cai, Daiwen Chen
Soluble dietary fibers (SDF) are fermented more than insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), but their effect on colonic bacterial community structure and function remains unclear. Thus, bacterial community composition and function in the colon of BALB/c mice (n = 7) fed with a high level (approximately 20%) of typical SDF, oat-derived β-glucan (G), microcrystalline cellulose (M) as IDF, or their mixture (GM), were compared. Mice in group G showed a lowest average feed intake (p < 0.05) but no change on the average body weight gain (p > 0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610999/changes-in-faecal-bacteria-during-fattening-in-finishing-swine
#20
Tomomi Ban-Tokuda, Sakiko Maekawa, Takehiro Miwa, Sou Ohkawara, Hiroki Matsui
Body fat accumulation in mice and human is linked to the percentage of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, two bacterial phyla dominant in the large intestine. However, little is known about the relationship between the composition of the gut microbiota and fattening in pig. This study aimed to investigate the abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Bacteroides, which is the major genus within Bacteroidetes, in porcine faeces during fattening. Ten 4-month-old crossbred pigs were given free access to commercial feed for fattening and water for 14 weeks...
June 10, 2017: Anaerobe
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