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Youfa Luo, Yonggui Wu, Hu Wang, Rongrong Xing, Zhilin Zheng, Jing Qiu, Lian Yang
This comparative field study examined the responses of bacterial community structure and diversity to the revegetation of zinc (Zn) smelting waste slag with eight plant species after 5 years. The microbial community structure of waste slag with and without vegetation was evaluated using high-throughput sequencing. The physiochemical properties of Zn smelting slag after revegetation with eight plant rhizospheres for 5 years were improved compared to those of bulk slag. Revegetation significantly increased the microbial community diversity in plant rhizospheres, and at the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were notably more abundant in rhizosphere slags than those in bulk waste slag...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shuai Zhao, Jun-Jie Liu, Samiran Banerjee, Na Zhou, Zhen-Yong Zhao, Ke Zhang, Chang-Yan Tian
While saline soils account for 6.5% of the total land area globally, it comprises about 70% of the area in northwestern China. Microbiota in these saline soils are particularly important because they are critical to maintaining ecosystem services. However, little is known about the microbial diversity and community composition in saline soils. To investigate the distribution patterns and edaphic determinants of bacterial communities in saline soils, we collected soil samples across the hypersaline Ebinur Lake shoreline in northwestern China and assessed soil bacterial communities using bar-coded pyrosequencing...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Terhi Tapiainen, Niko Paalanne, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Riikola M, Katja Korpela, Tytti Pokka, Jarmo Salo, Tuula Kaukola, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko
BACKGROUND: Meconium is formed before birth and may reflect the microbiome of the fetus. To test our hypothesis, we investigated whether maternal factors during pregnancy, such as biodiversity of the living environment, influence the microbiome of the first stool more than immediate perinatal factors. METHODS: We recruited 218 consecutive newborn infants from one hospital. Regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to characterize the microbiomes of the first-pass meconium samples (N=212)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Meng-Meng Zhang, Ning Wang, Yan-Bo Hu, Guang-Yu Sun
A better understanding of tree-based intercropping effects on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community has a potential contribution to improvement of agroforestry productivity and sustainability. In this study, we investigated the effects of mulberry/alfalfa intercropping on soil physicochemical properties and soil bacterial community by MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The results showed a significant increase in the contents of available nitrogen, available phosphate, available potassium, and total carbon in the rhizosphere soil of the intercropped alfalfa...
March 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Kunal Jani, Dhiraj Dhotre, Jayashree Bandal, Yogesh Shouche, Mangesh Suryavanshi, Vinay Rale, Avinash Sharma
Kumbh Mela is one of the largest religious mass gathering events (MGE) involving bathing in rivers. The exponential rise in the number of devotees, from around 0.4 million in 1903 to 120 million in 2013, bathing in small specified sites can have a dramatic impact on the river ecosystem. Here, we present the spatiotemporal profiling of bacterial communities in Godavari River, Nashik, India, comprising five sites during the Kumbh Mela, held in 2015. Assessment of environmental parameters indicated deterioration of water quality...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Helen M Golder, Jennifer M Thomson, Stuart E Denman, Chris S McSweeney, Ian J Lean
Dairy heifers were subjected to a non-life-threatening challenge designed to induce ruminal acidosis by feeding grain and sugar. Large among animal variation in clinical signs of acidosis, rumen metabolite concentrations, and the rumen microbiome occurred. This exploratory study investigates sources of the variation by examining associations between the genome, metabolome, and microbiome, albeit with a limited population. The broader objective is to provide a rationale for a larger field study to identify markers for susceptibility to ruminal acidosis...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Yongjun Wei, Lei Zhang, Zhihua Zhou, Xing Yan
Polyketides (PKs) and nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are widely applied as drugs in use today, and one potential source for novel PKs and NRPs is the marine sediment microbes. However, the diversities of microbes and their PKs and NRPs biosynthetic genes in the marine sediment are rarely reported. In this study, 16S rRNA gene fragments of the Yellow Sea sediment were analyzed, demonstrating that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounted for 62% of all the bacterial species and Actinobacteria bacteria which were seen as the typical PKs and NRPs producers only accounted for 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Diego Moreno-Pérez, Carlo Bressa, María Bailén, Safa Hamed-Bousdar, Fernando Naclerio, Manuel Carmona, Margarita Pérez, Rocío González-Soltero, Maria Gregoria Montalvo-Lominchar, Claudia Carabaña, Mar Larrosa
Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes to improve performance and physical recovery. Protein supplements fulfill this function by improving performance and increasing muscle mass; however, their effect on other organs or systems is less well known. Diet alterations can induce gut microbiota imbalance, with beneficial or deleterious consequences for the host. To test this, we performed a randomized pilot study in cross-country runners whose diets were complemented with a protein supplement (whey isolate and beef hydrolysate) ( n = 12) or maltodextrin (control) ( n = 12) for 10 weeks...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Williams Turpin, Larbi Bedrani, Osvaldo Espin-Garcia, Wei Xu, Mark S Silverberg, Michelle I Smith, David S Guttman, Anne Griffiths, Paul Moayyedi, Remo Panaccione, Hien Huynh, Hillary Steinhart, Guy Aumais, Konstantin Shestopaloff, Levinus A Dieleman, Dan Turner, Andrew D Paterson, Kenneth Croitoru
Heritability analysis of the microbiota has demonstrated the importance of host genotype in defining the human microbiota. The alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase 2 encoded by FUT2 is involved in the formation of the H antigen and the SNP, rs601338 is associated with ABO histo-blood group antigen secretion in the intestinal mucosa. Previous studies have provided non replicated results for the association of this polymorphism with the composition and inferred function of intestinal microbiota. We aimed to assess this relationship in a large cohort of 1,190 healthy individuals...
March 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
Lijuan Yan, Petri Penttinen, Anu Mikkonen, Kristina Lindström
We investigated bacterial community dynamics in response to used motor oil contamination and perennial crop cultivation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing in a 4-year field study. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes were the major bacterial phyla, and Rhodococcus was the most abundant genus. Initially, oil contamination decreased the overall bacterial diversity. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were sensitive to oil contamination, exhibiting clear succession with time...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bing Dong, Shaoshuai Liu, Chunlin Wang, Yunhe Cao
Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of an Aspergillus sulphureus xylanase expressed in Pichia pastoris on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and gut microbes in weanling pigs. Methods: A total of 180 weanling pigs (initial body weights were 8.47 ± 1.40 kg) were assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments. Each treatment had 6 replicates with 6 pigs per replicate. The experimental diets were wheat based with supplementation of 0, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 U xylanase/kg...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
A S Varela-Stokes, S H Park, J V Stokes, N A Gavron, S I Lee, G M Moraru, S C Ricke
Our objective of this study was to explore the bacterial microbiome in fresh or fresh-frozen adult Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast ticks) using extracts enriched for microbial DNA. We collected 100 questing adult A. maculatum, surface disinfected them, and extracted DNA from individual ticks collected the same day or after storage at -80 °C. Because only extracts with microbial DNA concentrations above 2 ng/μL were considered suitable for individual analysis, we expected fewer samples to meet these requirements...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Jizhou Xia, Cuiyuan Jin, Zihong Pan, Liwei Sun, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Lead (Pb) is one of the most prevalent toxic, nonessential heavy metals that can contaminate food and water. In this study, effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of Pb on metabolism and gut microbiota were evaluated in mice. It was observed that exposure of mice to 0.1mg/L Pb, supplied via drinking water, for 15weeks increased hepatic TG and TCH levels. The levels of some key genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver increased significantly in Pb-treated mice. For the gut microbiota, at the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes changed obviously in the feces and the cecal contents of mice exposed to 0...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
I J Salfer, C Staley, H E Johnson, M J Sadowsky, M D Stern
Dual-flow continuous-culture fermenters are commonly used to study rumen fermentation in vitro. Research using culture-based and oligonucleotide techniques have shown that certain microbial populations within fermenters may be maintained at abundances similar to those observed in vivo. In this study, the bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen of dairy cattle and in a dual-flow continuous culture fermentation system were compared using high-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Matthew H Foley, Eric C Martens, Nicole M Koropatkin
The Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron starch utilization system (Sus) is a model system for nutrient acquisition by gut Bacteroidetes, a dominant phylum of gut bacteria. The Sus includes SusCDEFG, which assemble on the cell surface to capture, degrade and import starch. While SusD is an essential starch-binding protein, the precise role(s) of the partially homologous starch-binding proteins SusE and SusF has remained elusive. We previously reported that a non-binding version of SusD (SusD*) supports growth on starch when other members of the multi-protein complex are present...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Michael Hemkemeyer, Anja B Dohrmann, Bent T Christensen, Christoph C Tebbe
Genetic fingerprinting demonstrated in previous studies that differently sized soil particle fractions (PSFs; clay, silt, and sand with particulate organic matter (POM)) harbor microbial communities that differ in structure, functional potentials and sensitivity to environmental conditions. To elucidate whether specific bacterial or archaeal taxa exhibit preference for specific PSFs, we examined the diversity of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes by high-throughput sequencing using total DNA extracted from three long-term fertilization variants (unfertilized, fertilized with minerals, and fertilized with animal manure) of an agricultural loamy sand soil and their PSFs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ganyu Gu, Andrea Ottesen, Samantha Bolten, Padmini Ramachandran, Elizabeth Reed, Steve Rideout, Yaguang Luo, Jitendra Patel, Eric Brown, Xiangwu Nou
Fresh produce, like spinach, harbors diverse bacterial populations, including spoilage and potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study examined the effects of produce washing in chlorinated water and subsequent storage on the microbiota of spinach. Baby spinach leaves from a commercial fresh-cut produce processor were assessed before and after washing in chlorinated water, and then after one week's storage at 4, 10, and 15 °C. Microbial communities on spinach were analyzed by non-selective plating, qPCR, and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Lora J Kasselman, Nicholas A Vernice, Joshua DeLeon, Allison B Reiss
Cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and autoimmunity is the leading cause of death in these populations and significant residual risk remains despite current treatment approaches. Obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are linked to chronic inflammation, and subjects with these disorders have characteristic shifts in their gut microbiome composition. Recent data suggest that alterations in gut microbial and metabolic composition may be responsible, in part, for induction of chronic inflammation, thus promoting cardiovascular disease...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Gregory Poi, Esmaeil Shahsavari, Arturo Aburto-Medina, Puah Chum Mok, Andrew S Ball
Bioaugmentation or the addition of microbes to contaminated sites has been widely used to treat contaminated soil or water; however this approach is often limited to laboratory based studies. In the present study, large scale bioaugmentation has been applied to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum facility. Initial TPH concentrations of 1564 mg L-1 in the field were reduced to 89 mg L-1 over 32 days. This reduction was accompanied by improved ecotoxicity, as shown by Brassica rapa germination numbers that increased from 52 at day 0 to 82% by the end of the treatment...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Georg Hölzl, Christian Sohlenkamp, Miguel Angel Vences-Guzmán, Nicolas Gisch
Amino acid-containing acyloxyacyl lipids are composed of a 3-hydroxy fatty acid amide-bound to the α-amino group of an amino acid. A second fatty acid is ester-linked to the 3-hydroxy group of the first fatty acid. Most commonly, ornithine is the headgroup of these lipids, but glycine, serineglycine, glutamine and lysine have also been described in bacteria. Ornithine lipids (OL) can be synthesized by about 50% of the sequenced bacterial species, and several covalent modifications of its basic structure have been described...
March 7, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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