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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913996/altered-gut-microbiota-composition-and-immune-response-in-experimental-steatohepatitis-mouse-models
#1
Mitsuaki Ishioka, Kouichi Miura, Shinichiro Minami, Yoichiro Shimura, Hirohide Ohnishi
BACKGROUND: Although several types of diet have been used in experimental steatohepatitis models, comparison of gut microbiota and immunological alterations in the gut among diets has not yet been performed. AIM: We attempted to clarify the difference in the gut environment between mice administrated several experimental diets. METHODS: Male wild-type mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet, a choline-deficient amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet, and a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks...
December 2, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913170/effects-of-the-feeding-ratio-of-food-waste-on-fed-batch-aerobic-composting-and-its-microbial-community
#2
Xiaojun Wang, Songqing Pan, Zhaoji Zhang, Xiangyu Lin, Yuzhen Zhang, Shaohua Chen
To determine the suitable feeding ratio for fed-batch aerobic composting, four fermenters were operated by adding 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of food waste every day. The results showed that the 5% and 10% treatments were able to maintain continuous thermophilic conditions, while the 15% treatment performed badly in regard to composting temperature, which was probably due to the negative effects of excessive moisture on microbial activity. As composting proceeded, both the 5% and the 10% treatments reached maturity and achieved weight losses of approximately 65%...
November 22, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912797/helminth-infections-and-gut-microbiota-a-feline-perspective
#3
Ana M Duarte, Timothy P Jenkins, Maria S Latrofa, Alessio Giannelli, Elias Papadopoulos, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Matthew J Nolan, Domenico Otranto, Cinzia Cantacessi
BACKGROUND: Investigations of the relationships between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes are attracting growing interest by the scientific community, driven by the need to better understand the contribution of parasite-associated changes in the composition of the gut flora to both host malnutrition and immune modulation. These studies have however been carried out mainly in humans and experimental animals, while knowledge of the make-up of the gut commensal flora in presence or absence of infection by parasitic nematodes in domestic animals is limited...
December 3, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909745/dechlorination-of-three-tetrachlorobenzene-isomers-by-contaminated-harbor-sludge-derived-enrichment-cultures-follows-thermodynamically-favorable-reactions
#4
Yue Lu, Javier Ramiro-Garcia, Pieter Vandermeeren, Steffi Herrmann, Danuta Cichocka, Dirk Springael, Siavash Atashgahi, Hauke Smidt
Dechlorination patterns of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers, 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-TeCB, were studied in anoxic microcosms derived from contaminated harbor sludge. The removal of doubly, singly, and un-flanked chlorine atoms was noted in 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-TeCB fed microcosms, whereas only singly flanked chlorine was removed in 1,2,4,5-TeCB microcosms. The thermodynamically more favorable reactions were selectively followed by the enriched cultures with di- and/or mono-chlorobenzene as the main end products of the reductive dechlorination of all three isomers...
December 1, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908274/a-novel-approach-to-probe-host-pathogen-interactions-of-bovine-digital-dermatitis-a-model-of-a-complex-polymicrobial-infection
#5
Paolo Marcatili, Martin W Nielsen, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Tim K Jensen, Claus Schafer-Nielsen, Mette Boye, Morten Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard
BACKGROUND: Polymicrobial infections represent a great challenge for the clarification of disease etiology and the development of comprehensive diagnostic or therapeutic tools, particularly for fastidious and difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. Using bovine digital dermatitis (DD) as a disease model, we introduce a novel strategy to study the pathogenesis of complex infections. RESULTS: The strategy combines meta-transcriptomics with high-density peptide-microarray technology to screen for in vivo-expressed microbial genes and the host antibody response at the site of infection...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906133/the-plastid-genome-of-some-eustigmatophyte-algae-harbours-a-bacteria-derived-six-gene-cluster-for-biosynthesis-of-a-novel-secondary-metabolite
#6
Tatiana Yurchenko, Tereza Ševčíková, Hynek Strnad, Anzhelika Butenko, Marek Eliáš
Acquisition of genes by plastid genomes (plastomes) via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) seems to be a rare phenomenon. Here, we report an interesting case of HGT revealed by sequencing the plastomes of the eustigmatophyte algae Monodopsis sp. MarTras21 and Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202. These plastomes proved to harbour a unique cluster of six genes, most probably acquired from a bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes, with homologues in various bacteria, typically organized in a conserved uncharacterized putative operon...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902263/terrimonas-rhizosphaerae-sp-nov-isolated-from-ginseng-rhizosphere-soil
#7
Song-Ih Han, Ye-Rim Lee, Ju-Ok Kim, Kyung-Sook Whang
The novel isolate belonging to the genus Terrimonas, designated CR94T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of ginseng field in Geumsan in Korea. Cells of Strain CR94T were strictly aerobic, Gram staining negative, non-motile, non-filamentous single rods. Growth was observed at 10-37℃ (optimum 28℃) and at pH4.0-10.0 (optimum pH6.0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CR94T belonged to the genus Terrimonas, showing the highest sequence similarity to Terrimonas lutea DYT (97...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900395/microbiome-and-metabolic-disease-revisiting-the-bacterial-phylum-bacteroidetes
#8
REVIEW
Elizabeth L Johnson, Stacey L Heaver, William A Walters, Ruth E Ley
Bacterial species composition in the gut has emerged as an important factor in obesity and its related metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Out of thousands of bacterial species-level phylotypes inhabiting the human gut, the majority belong to two dominant phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Members of the Bacteroidetes in particular have been associated with human metabolic diseases. However, their associations with disease are not always consistent between studies. Delving deeper into the diversity within the Bacteroidetes reveals a vast diversity in genomes and capacities, which partly explain how not all members respond equally to similar environmental conditions in their hosts...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900260/gut-microbiota-and-glucometabolic-alterations-in-response-to-recurrent-partial-sleep-deprivation-in-normal-weight-young-individuals
#9
Christian Benedict, Heike Vogel, Wenke Jonas, Anni Woting, Michael Blaut, Annette Schürmann, Jonathan Cedernaes
OBJECTIVE: Changes to the microbial community in the human gut have been proposed to promote metabolic disturbances that also occur after short periods of sleep loss (including insulin resistance). However, whether sleep loss affects the gut microbiota remains unknown. METHODS: In a randomized within-subject crossover study utilizing a standardized in-lab protocol (with fixed meal times and exercise schedules), we studied nine normal-weight men at two occasions: after two nights of partial sleep deprivation (PSD; sleep opportunity 02:45-07:00 h), and after two nights of normal sleep (NS; sleep opportunity 22:30-07:00 h)...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899923/community-metabolome-correlations-of-gut-microbiota-from-child-turcotte-pugh-of-a-and-b-patients
#10
Xiao Wei, Shan Jiang, Xiangna Zhao, Huan Li, Weishi Lin, Boxing Li, Jing Lu, Yansong Sun, Jing Yuan
The gut flora are widely involved in the cometabolism with the host and have evident effects on the metabolic phenotype of host. This study performed a metabolome analysis of the intestinal microbiota specific for liver cirrhosis. The study population included patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of A (AP, n = 5) and B (BP, n = 5), and control subjects (NM, n = 3). Metagenomic DNA from fecal microbiota was extracted followed by metagenomic sequencing through Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA regions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898681/common-lung-microbiome-identified-among-mechanically-ventilated-surgical-patients
#11
Ashley D Smith, Yan Zhang, Robert C Barber, Christian T Minshall, Ryan M Huebinger, Michael S Allen
The examination of the pulmonary microbiome in patients with non-chronic disease states has not been extensively examined. Traditional culture based screening methods are often unable to identify bacteria from bronchoalveolar lavage samples. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technologies allows for a culture-independent molecular based analysis to determine the microbial composition in the lung of this patient population. For this study, the Ion Torrent PGM system was used to assess the microbial complexity of culture negative bronchoalveolar lavage samples...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898428/beneficial-effects-of-a-dietary-weight-loss-intervention-on-human-gut-microbiome-diversity-and-metabolism-are-not-sustained-during-weight-maintenance
#12
Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Daniela Fangmann, Nike Müller, Dominik M Schulte, Malte C Rühlemann, Kathrin Türk, Ute Settgast, Wolfgang Lieb, John F Baines, Stefan Schreiber, Andre Franke, Matthias Laudes
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we examined the effect of a very low-calorie diet(VLCD)-based obesity program on human gut microbiome diversity and metabolism during weight loss and weight maintenance. METHODS: Obese subjects underwent 3 months of VLCD followed by 3 months of weight maintenance. A lean and an obese control group were included. The microbiome was characterized by performing high-throughput dual-indexed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. RESULTS: At baseline, a significant difference in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the lean and obese individuals was observed (p = 0...
November 30, 2016: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896068/metagenomic-investigation-of-the-microbial-diversity-in-a-chrysotile-asbestos-mine-pit-pond-lowell-vermont-usa
#13
Heather E Driscoll, James J Vincent, Erika L English, Elizabeth D Dolci
Here we report on a metagenomics investigation of the microbial diversity in a serpentine-hosted aquatic habitat created by chrysotile asbestos mining activity at the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG) Mine in northern Vermont, USA. The now-abandoned VAG Mine on Belvidere Mountain in the towns of Eden and Lowell includes three open-pit quarries, a flooded pit, mill buildings, roads, and > 26 million metric tons of eroding mine waste that contribute alkaline mine drainage to the surrounding watershed. Metagenomes and water chemistry originated from aquatic samples taken at three depths (0...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895627/distribution-and-classification-of-serine-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-brazilian-hospital-sewage-and-other-environmental-metagenomes-deposited-in-public-databases
#14
Adriana M Fróes, Fábio F da Mota, Rafael R C Cuadrat, Alberto M R Dávila
β-lactam is the most used antibiotic class in the clinical area and it acts on blocking the bacteria cell wall synthesis, causing cell death. However, some bacteria have evolved resistance to these antibiotics mainly due the production of enzymes known as β-lactamases. Hospital sewage is an important source of dispersion of multidrug-resistant bacteria in rivers and oceans. In this work, we used next-generation DNA sequencing to explore the diversity and dissemination of serine β-lactamases in two hospital sewage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (South Zone, SZ and North Zone, NZ), presenting different profiles, and to compare them with public environmental data available...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893543/changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-following-combination-therapy-with-fecal-microbial-transplantation-and-antibiotics-for-ulcerative-colitis
#15
Dai Ishikawa, Takashi Sasaki, Taro Osada, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Keiichi Haga, Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Keiichi Hiramatsu, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential therapeutic approach to restore normal intestinal microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), which is associated with dysbiosis; however, treatment efficacy remains unclear. Hence, we studied the impact of antibiotic pretreatment with amoxicillin, fosfomycin, and metronidazole (AFM therapy) and FMT versus AFM alone. METHODS: AFM therapy was administered to patients for 2 weeks until 2 days before FMT...
November 22, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892486/short-chain-fatty-acids-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-by-regulating-g-protein-coupled-receptors-and-gut-microbiota
#16
Yuanyuan Lu, Chaonan Fan, Ping Li, Yanfei Lu, Xuelian Chang, Kemin Qi
Elucidating the mechanisms by which short chain fatty acids (SCFA) reduce body weight may assist in the development of an effective weight control strategy. Dietary supplementation of acetate, propionate, butyrate or their admixture was shown to significantly inhibit the body weight gain induced by high-fat diet feeding. Supplementation of SCFAs caused significant changes in the expressions of G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) and GPR41 characterized by increases in the adipose tissue and reductions in the colon...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890642/protective-effect-of-quercetin-on-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice-is-mediated-by-modulating-intestinal-microbiota-imbalance-and-related-gut-liver-axis-activation
#17
David Porras, Esther Nistal, Susana Martínez-Flórez, Sandra Pisonero-Vaquero, José Luis Olcoz, Ramiro Jover, Javier González-Gallego, María Victoria García-Mediavilla, Sonia Sánchez-Campos
Gut microbiota is involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome and the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been recently suggested that the flavonoid quercetin may have the ability to modulate the intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting a prebiotic capacity which highlights a great therapeutic potential in NAFLD. The present study aims to investigate benefits of experimental treatment with quercetin on gut microbial balance and related gut-liver axis activation in a nutritional animal model of NAFLD associated to obesity...
November 24, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888459/comparative-analysis-of-bacterial-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-tomato-by-culture-dependent-and-independent-approaches
#18
Shin Ae Lee, Jiyoung Park, Bora Chu, Jeong Myeong Kim, Jae-Ho Joa, Mee Kyung Sang, Jaekyeong Song, Hang-Yeon Weon
The microbiome in the rhizosphere-the region surrounding plant roots-plays a key role in plant growth and health, enhancing nutrient availability and protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. To assess bacterial diversity in the tomato rhizosphere, we performed two contrasting approaches: culture-dependent and -independent. In the culture-dependent approach, two culture media (Reasoner's 2A agar and soil extract agar) were supplemented with 12 antibiotics for isolating diverse bacteria from the tomato rhizosphere by inhibiting predominant bacteria...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888456/soil-ph-and-electrical-conductivity-are-key-edaphic-factors-shaping-bacterial-communities-of-greenhouse-soils-in-korea
#19
Jeong Myeong Kim, An-Sung Roh, Seung-Chul Choi, Eun-Jeong Kim, Moon-Tae Choi, Byung-Koo Ahn, Sun-Kuk Kim, Young-Han Lee, Jae-Ho Joa, Seong-Soo Kang, Shin Ae Lee, Jae-Hyung Ahn, Jaekyeong Song, Hang-Yeon Weon
Soil microorganisms play an essential role in soil ecosystem processes such as organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and plant nutrient availability. The land use for greenhouse cultivation has been increasing continuously, which involves an intensive input of agricultural materials to enhance productivity; however, relatively little is known about bacterial communities in greenhouse soils. To assess the effects of environmental factors on the soil bacterial diversity and community composition, a total of 187 greenhouse soil samples collected across Korea were subjected to bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887575/the-gut-microbiota-in-young-and-middle-aged-rats-showed-different-responses-to-chicken-protein-in-their-diet
#20
Yingying Zhu, He Li, Xinglian Xu, Chunbao Li, Guanghong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Meat protein in the diet has been shown to be beneficial for the growth of Lactobacillus in the caecum of growing rats; however, it is unknown whether gut microbiota in middle-aged animals have the same responses to meat protein diets. This study compared the composition of the gut microbiota between young and middle-aged rats after being fed 17.7% chicken protein diet for 14 days. METHODS: Feces were collected on day 0 and day 14 from young rats (4 weeks old) and middle-aged rats (64 weeks old) fed with 17...
November 25, 2016: BMC Microbiology
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