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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777620/vegetation-growth-enhancement-in-urban-environments-of-the-conterminous-united-states
#1
Wenxiao Jia, Shuqing Zhao, Shuguang Liu
Cities are natural laboratories for studying vegetation responses to global environmental changes because of their climate, atmospheric, and biogeochemical conditions. However, few holistic studies have been conducted on the impact of urbanization on vegetation growth. We decomposed the overall impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth into direct (replacement of original land surfaces by impervious built-up) and indirect (urban environments) components, using a conceptual framework and remotely-sensed data for 377 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the conterminous United States (CONUS) in 2001, 2006, and 2011...
May 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775793/analysis-of-dna-methylation-at-specific-loci-in-stool-samples-detects-colorectal-cancer-and-high-grade-dysplasia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
John B Kisiel, Pasquale Klepp, Hatim T Allawi, William R Taylor, Maria Giakoumopoulos, Tamara Sander, Tracy C Yab, Bjorn A Moum, Graham P Lidgard, Stephan Brackmann, Douglas W Mahoney, Arne Roseth, David A Ahlquist
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are at increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Analyses of DNA methylation patterns in stool samples have been reported to detect CRC in patients with IBD. We sought to validate these findings in larger cohorts and assess the accuracy of analysis of DNA methylation patterns in stool for detection of CRC and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) normalized to methylation level at ZDHHC1...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775080/mindfulness-meditation-and-interprofessional-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-mixed-methods-pilot-study
#3
Diana J Kelm, Jennifer L Ridgeway, Becca L Gas, Monali Mohan, David A Cook, Darlene R Nelson, Roberto P Benzo
PROBLEM: Mindfulness training includes mindfulness meditation, which has been shown to improve both attention and self-awareness. Medical providers in the intensive care unit often deal with difficult situations with strong emotions, life-and-death decisions, and both interpersonal and interprofessional conflicts. The effect of mindfulness meditation training on healthcare providers during acute care tasks such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation remains unknown. Mindfulness meditation has the potential to improve provider well-being and reduce stress in individuals involved in resuscitation teams, which could then translate into better team communication and delivery of care under stress...
May 18, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774452/lymphedema-following-cancer-therapy-overview-and-options
#4
Michael Bernas, Saskia R J Thiadens, Betty Smoot, Jane M Armer, Paula Stewart, Jay Granzow
This summit focusing on lymphedema following cancer therapy was held during the 7th International Symposium on Cancer Metastasis through the Lymphovascular System. It was unique for the inclusion of patients with lymphedema joining physicians, therapists, healthcare professionals, and researchers to highlight what is known and more importantly what is unknown about the current state of research and treatment in the United States. The session opened with an introduction to lymphedema and then explored the incidence of multiple cancer-related lymphedemas, imaging tools and techniques useful for the diagnosis of lymphatic system abnormalities, and the new findings concerning the genetics of cancer-related lymphedema...
May 17, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773932/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-therapy-with-once-weekly-exenatide-versus-basal-insulin-among-injectable-naive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-real-world-setting-in-the-united-states
#5
Anita M Loughlin, Qing Qiao, Anthony P Nunes, Stephen M Ezzy, Laura Yochum, C Robin Clifford, Robert V Gately, David D Dore, John D Seeger
A propensity-matched cohort study compared injectable-naive patients with type 2 diabetes initiating exenatide once weekly (EQW) or basal insulin (BI), from 2012 through 2015, within a U.S. electronic health record database. A1C and weight were obtained as observed or multiply imputed values at baseline and quarterly for 1 year (Q1-Q4). Hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal symptoms were identified using diagnostic codes and clinical notes. EQW ( n = 2,008) and BI ( n = 4,016) cohorts were comparable at baseline (mean A1C and weight: EQW, 8...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773172/seleno-l-methionine-and-l-ascorbic-acid-differentiate-the-biological-activity-of-doxorubicin-and-its-metal-complexes-as-a-new-anticancer-drugs-candidate
#6
Marzena Matejczyk, Grzegorz Świderski, Renata Świsłocka, Stanisław Józef Rosochacki, Włodzimierz Lewandowski
The most important problems of anti-cancer therapy include the toxicity of the drugs applied to healthy cells and the multi-drug cells resistance to chemotherapeutics. One of the most commonly used anticancer drugs is doxorubicin (DOX) used to treat certain leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, as well as bladder, breast, stomach, lung, ovarian, thyroid, multiple myeloma and other cancers. Preliminary studies showed that metal complex with DOX improve its cytostatic activity with changes in their molecular structure and distribution of electrons, resulting in a substantial change of its biological activity (including antitumor activity)...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772740/tactile-estimation-of-molded-plastic-plates-based-on-the-estimated-impulse-responses-of-mechanoreceptive-units
#7
Lisako Nobuyama, Yuta Kurashina, Kei Kawauchi, Koji Matsui, Kenjiro Takemura
This study proposes a tactile estimation method of molded plastic plates based on human tactile perception characteristics. Plastic plates are often used in consumer products. The tactile evaluation plays an important role in product development. However, physical quantities not taking into account human tactile perception have been employed in previous tactile estimation procedures. Hence, in this study, we adopted the vibrational thresholds of the mechanoreceptive units-FA I, FA II, SA I and SA II-for stimuli detection and developed a tactile estimation method for plastic plates that clarified the mechanoreceptive units related to tactile sensation...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772681/global-asbestos-disaster
#8
Sugio Furuya, Odgerel Chimed-Ochir, Ken Takahashi, Annette David, Jukka Takala
Introduction : Asbestos has been used for thousands of years but only at a large industrial scale for about 100⁻150 years. The first identified disease was asbestosis, a type of incurable pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos dust and fibres. The latest estimate of global number of asbestosis deaths from the Global Burden of Disease estimate 2016 is 3495. Asbestos-caused cancer was identified in the late 1930's but despite today's overwhelming evidence of the strong carcinogenicity of all asbestos types, including chrysotile, it is still widely used globally...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769151/real-time-automated-detection-of-ventilator-associated-events-avoiding-missed-detections-misclassifications-and-false-detections-due-to-human-error
#9
Erica S Shenoy, Eric S Rosenthal, Yu-Ping Shao, Siddharth Biswal, Manohar Ghanta, Erin E Ryan, Dolores Suslak, Nancy Swanson, Valdery Moura Junior, David C Hooper, M Brandon Westover
OBJECTIVETo validate a system to detect ventilator associated events (VAEs) autonomously and in real time.DESIGNRetrospective review of ventilated patients using a secure informatics platform to identify VAEs (ie, automated surveillance) compared to surveillance by infection control (IC) staff (ie, manual surveillance), including development and validation cohorts.SETTINGThe Massachusetts General Hospital, a tertiary-care academic health center, during January-March 2015 (development cohort) and January-March 2016 (validation cohort)...
May 17, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769106/peer-mentor-versus-teacher-delivery-of-a-physical-activity-program-on-the-effects-of-bmi-and-daily-activity-protocol-of-a-school-based-group-randomized-controlled-trial-in-appalachia
#10
Laureen H Smith, Rick L Petosa, Abigail Shoben
BACKGROUND: Rural Appalachian populations have poorer health and fewer positive health-related behaviors compared to other United States populations. Appalachians are the most sedentary U.S. population and teens are particularly sedentary. Obesity prevention through improving physical activity is a top priority in Rural Healthy People 2020. Obesity prevalence among Appalachian teens exceeds the national rates of 13.9% and has consistently been greater than 26%. Organized sports has not been effective at improving daily physical activity or health outcomes for Appalachian teens...
May 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767697/perspective-structure-function-claims-on-infant-formula
#11
John C Wallingford
In the context of a food product label, the term "claim" refers to information that attributes value to the product. The term extends to many different types of information, from product identity, descriptors of intended use, and identification of characteristic properties to the physiologic effects in the body of substances in the food, including the reduction of risk of disease. Food labeling, which includes claims, provides information that consumers want and use to improve their diets. Consumers prefer short statements on the front label claims to longer, more detailed information, including ingredients statements and a nutrition panel...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766624/quantifying-interfacial-ph-variation-at-molecular-length-scales-using-a-concurrent-non-faradaic-reaction
#12
Jaeyune Ryu, Anna Wuttig, Yogesh Surendranath
We quantify changes in the interfacial pH local to the electrochemical double layer during electrocatalysis, using a concurrent non-faradaic probe reaction. In the absence of electrocatalysis, nanostructured Pt/C surfaces mediate the reaction of H2 with cis-2-butene-1,4-diol to form a mixture of 1,4-butanediol and n-butanol with a selectivity that is linearly dependent on the bulk solution pH. We show that kinetic branching occurs from a common surface-bound intermediate, ensuring that this probe reaction is uniquely sensitive to the interfacial pH within molecular length scales of the surface...
May 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765759/crystal-structures-of-5-12-dimethyl-1-4-8-11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane-cobalt-iii-mono-phenyl-acetyl-ide-and-bis-phenyl-acetyl-ide
#13
Benjamin M Oxley, Brandon Mash, Matthias Zeller, Susannah Banziger, Tong Ren
Reported in this contribution are the synthesis and crystal structures of new mono- and bis-phenyl-acetyl-ides based on CoIII (DMC) (DMC is 5,12-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-deca-ne). Chlorido-(5,12-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-deca-ne)(phenyl-ethyn-yl)cobalt(III) chloride-aceto-nitrile-methanol (1/1/1), [Co(C8 H5 )Cl(C12 H28 N4 )]Cl·CH3 CN·CH3 OH, 1 , and (5,12-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-deca-ne)bis-(phenyl-ethyn-yl)cobalt(III) tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate-di-chloro-methane (2/1), [Co(C8 H5 )2 (C12 H28 N4 )]2 (CF3 SO3 )2 ·CH2 Cl2 , 2 , were prepared under weak-base conditions in satisfactory yields...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765629/reliability-modelling-and-analysis-of-a-multi-state-element-based-on-a-dynamic-bayesian-network
#14
Zhiqiang Li, Tingxue Xu, Junyuan Gu, Qi Dong, Linyu Fu
This paper presents a quantitative reliability modelling and analysis method for multi-state elements based on a combination of the Markov process and a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), taking perfect repair, imperfect repair and condition-based maintenance (CBM) into consideration. The Markov models of elements without repair and under CBM are established, and an absorbing set is introduced to determine the reliability of the repairable element. According to the state-transition relations between the states determined by the Markov process, a DBN model is built...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763813/age-and-gymnastic-experience-effects-on-sensory-reweighting-processes-during-quiet-stand
#15
Albert Busquets, Silvia Aranda-Garcia, Blai Ferrer-Uris, Michel Marina, Rosa Angulo-Barroso
BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of sensory inputs to control balance while standing is dynamically adjusted. These sensory reweighting processes could be impacted by age and sport expertise capabilities, especially when the sport emphasizes equilibrium like artistic gymnastics. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to explore the sensory reweighting processes to adjust standing posture in children and adults with different gymnastic expertise (gymnasts, G, and non-gymnast, NG)...
May 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763459/the-benefit-of-combining-a-deep-neural-network-architecture-with-ideal-ratio-mask-estimation-in-computational-speech-segregation-to-improve-speech-intelligibility
#16
Thomas Bentsen, Tobias May, Abigail A Kressner, Torsten Dau
Computational speech segregation attempts to automatically separate speech from noise. This is challenging in conditions with interfering talkers and low signal-to-noise ratios. Recent approaches have adopted deep neural networks and successfully demonstrated speech intelligibility improvements. A selection of components may be responsible for the success with these state-of-the-art approaches: the system architecture, a time frame concatenation technique and the learning objective. The aim of this study was to explore the roles and the relative contributions of these components by measuring speech intelligibility in normal-hearing listeners...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762670/hens-ranked-as-highly-feed-efficient-have-an-improved-albumen-quality-profile-and-increased-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-the-yolk
#17
Y Akter, S Greenhalgh, M R Islam, C Hutchison, C J O'Shea
The shelf-life of eggs which contain elevated levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is compromised due to the relative instability and therefore greater potential for lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (FA). Poultry that are highly feed efficient (HFE) exhibit higher systemic levels of antioxidant enzymes, and therefore may produce eggs with improved albumen quality and favorable FA profiles that are stable over time. We tested the hypothesis that HFE laying hens produce eggs with improved internal egg quality and a favorable yolk FA profile prior to and following storage...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762332/extended-release-liposomal-bupivacaine-injection-exparel-for-early-postoperative-pain-control-following-palatoplasty
#18
Kristopher M Day, Narayanan M Nair, Larry A Sargent
INTRODUCTION: Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) is a long-acting local anesthetic reported to decrease postoperative pain in adults. The authors demonstrate the safe use of LB in pediatric patients with improved pain control following palatoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective patient series of all single-surgeon palatoplasty patients treated at a tertiary craniofacial center from August 2014 to December 2015 were included. All patients received 1.3% LB intraoperatively as greater palatal nerve and surgical field blocks in 2-flap V-Y pushback palatoplasty...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762277/impact-of-clinical-practice-guidelines-on-use-of-intra-articular-hyaluronic-acid-and-corticosteroid-injections-for-knee-osteoarthritis
#19
Nicholas A Bedard, David E DeMik, Natalie A Glass, Robert A Burnett, Kevin J Bozic, John J Callaghan
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) clinical practice guidelines on the use of these injections in the United States and determine if utilization differed by provider specialty. METHODS: Patients with knee osteoarthritis were identified within the Humana database from 2007 to 2015, and the percentage of patients receiving a knee injection relative to the number of patients having an encounter for knee osteoarthritis was calculated and was trended for the study period...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757166/structural-electronic-and-vibrational-properties-of-the-laf-sub-3-sub-according-to-density-functional-theory-and-raman-spectroscopy
#20
Aleksandr S Oreshonkov, Evgenii Roginskii, Alexander S Krylov, Alexandr A Ershov, Vladimir Nikolaevich Voronov
Crystal structure of LaF3 single crystal is refined in tysonite-type trigonal unit cell P-3c1 using density functional theory calculations and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that trigonal structure with P-3c1 space group is more energy-efficient than hexagonal structure with space group P63cm. Simulated Raman spectra obtained using LDA approximation is in much better agreement with experimental data than obtained with PBE and PBEsol functionals of GGA. The calculated frequency value of silent mode B2 in case of hexagonal structure P63cm was found to be imaginary (unstable mode), thus the energy surface obtains negative curvature with respect to the corresponding normal coordinates of the mode which leads to instability of the hexagonal structure in harmonic approximation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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