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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043656/from-eyes-to-hands-transfer-of-learning-in-the-simon-task-across-motor-effectors
#1
Ashika Verghese, Jason B Mattingley, Phoebe E Palmer, Paul E Dux
Inhibition of irrelevant and conflicting information and responses is crucial for goal-directed behaviour and adaptive functioning. In the Simon task, for example, responses are slowed if their mappings are spatially incongruent with stimuli that must be discriminated on a nonspatial dimension. Previous work has shown that practice with incongruent spatial mappings can reduce or even reverse the Simon effect. We asked whether such practice transfers between the manual and oculomotor systems and if so to what extent this occurs across a range of behavioural tasks...
October 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924105/the-successful-application-of-plasmapheresis-in-the-treatment-of-a-patient-with-opsoclonus-and-autoantibodies-to-glutamate-receptor-%C3%AE-2
#2
Kiyotaka Nakamagoe, Seitaro Nohara, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Mao Takiguchi, Rio Kawakami, Tadachika Koganezawa, Akira Tamaoka
Glutamate receptor δ2 (GluRδ2) is expressed in the neuronal postsynaptic densities at the junctions between the Purkinje cells and the parallel fibers. Recent reports have described patients with opsoclonus who possess anti-GluRδ2 antibodies. We report the case of a 53-year-old man with opsoclonus whose cerebrospinal fluid was positive for anti-GluRδ2 antibodies. Electronystagmography revealed abnormal sinusoidal eye movements, which were definitively identified as opsoclonus. The frequency and amplitude of saccadic oscillations diminished after plasmapheresis (PE)...
October 15, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868046/a-novel-saccadic-strategy-revealed-by-suppression-head-impulse-testing-of-patients-with-bilateral-vestibular-loss
#3
Catherine de Waele, Qiwen Shen, Christophe Magnani, Ian S Curthoys
OBJECTIVE: We examined the eye movement response patterns of a group of patients with bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) during suppression head impulse testing. Some showed a new saccadic strategy that may have potential for explaining how patients use saccades to recover from vestibular loss. METHODS: Eight patients with severe BVL [vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains less than 0.35 and absent otolithic function] were tested. All patients were given the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and questioned about oscillopsia during abrupt head movements...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844436/psychosis-subgroups-differ-in-intrinsic-neural-activity-but-not-task-specific-processing
#4
Matthew E Hudgens-Haney, Lauren E Ethridge, Jennifer E McDowell, Sarah K Keedy, Godfrey D Pearlson, Carol A Tamminga, Matcheri S Keshavan, John A Sweeney, Brett A Clementz
Individuals with psychosis often show high levels of intrinsic, or nonspecific, neural activity, but attenuated stimulus-specific activity. Clementz et al. (2016) proposed that one subgroup of psychosis cases has accentuated intrinsic activity (Biotype-2's) and a different subgroup (Biotype-1's) has diminished intrinsic activity, with both groups exhibiting varying degrees of cognitive deficits. This model was studied by assessing neural activity in psychosis probands (N=105) during baseline and a 5second period in preparation for a pro-/anti-saccade task...
August 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794192/neural-correlates-for-task-switching-in-the-macaque-superior-colliculus
#5
Jason L Chan, Michael J Koval, Kevin Johnston, Stefan Everling
Successful task switching requires a network of brain areas to select, maintain, implement, and execute the appropriate task. Although frontoparietal brain areas are thought to play a critical role in task switching by selecting and encoding task rules and exerting top-down control, how brain areas closer to the execution of tasks participate in task switching is unclear. The superior colliculus (SC) integrates information from various brain areas to generate saccades and is likely influenced by task switching...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755238/dissociating-the-capture-of-attention-from-saccade-activation-by-subliminal-abrupt-onsets
#6
Tobias Schoeberl, Ulrich Ansorge
Attentional capture and effects on saccade metrics by subliminal abrupt onset cues have been studied with peripheral cues at one out of several (two to four) display locations, swiftly followed by additional onsets at the other display locations. The lead time of the cue was too short to be seen. Here, we were interested in whether such subliminal onset cues influenced saccades primarily by way of attention or by way of direct saccade activation. In separate blocks, participants made speeded pro-saccades towards a black target or anti-saccades away from the target...
July 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649493/voluntary-saccade-inhibition-deficits-correlate-with-extended-white-matter-cortico-basal-atrophy-in-huntington-s-disease
#7
Israel Vaca-Palomares, Brian C Coe, Donald C Brien, Douglas P Munoz, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
The ability to inhibit automatic versus voluntary saccade commands in demanding situations can be impaired in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD). These deficits could result from disruptions in the interaction between basal ganglia and the saccade control system. To investigate voluntary oculomotor control deficits related to the cortico-basal circuitry, we evaluated early HD patients using an interleaved pro- and anti-saccade task that requires flexible executive control to generate either an automatic response (look at a peripheral visual stimulus) or a voluntary response (look away from the stimulus in the opposite direction)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638208/eye-movement-indices-in-the-study-of-depressive-disorder
#8
Yu Li, Yangyang Xu, Mengqing Xia, Tianhong Zhang, Junjie Wang, Xu Liu, Yongguang He, Jijun Wang
BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is one of the most common core symptoms of depressive disorder. Eye movement testing mainly reflects patients' cognitive functions, such as cognition, memory, attention, recognition, and recall. This type of testing has great potential to improve theories related to cognitive functioning in depressive episodes as well as potential in its clinical application. AIMS: This study investigated whether eye movement indices of patients with unmedicated depressive disorder were abnormal or not, as well as the relationship between these indices and mental symptoms...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373058/individual-differences-in-human-eye-movements-an-oculomotor-signature
#9
Gary Bargary, Jenny M Bosten, Patrick T Goodbourn, Adam J Lawrance-Owen, Ruth E Hogg, J D Mollon
Human eye movements are stereotyped and repeatable, but how specific to a normal individual are the quantitative properties of his or her eye movements? We recorded saccades, anti-saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements in a sample of over 1000 healthy young adults. A randomly selected subsample (10%) of participants were re-tested on a second occasion after a median interval of 18.8days, allowing us to estimate reliabilities. Each of several derived measures, including latencies, accuracies, velocities, and left-right asymmetries, proved to be very reliable...
April 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288201/optokinetic-nystagmus-reflects-perceptual-directions-in-the-onset-binocular-rivalry-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Mana Fujiwara, Catherine Ding, Lisandro Kaunitz, Julie C Stout, Dominic Thyagarajan, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), the reflexive eye movements evoked by a moving field, has recently gained interest among researchers as a useful tool to assess conscious perception. When conscious perception and stimulus are dissociated, such as in binocular rivalry-when dissimilar images are simultaneously presented to each eye and perception alternates between the two images over time-OKN correlates with perception rather than with the physical direction of the moving field. While this relationship is well established in healthy subjects, it is yet unclear whether it also generalizes to clinical populations, for example, patients with Parkinson's disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242726/mechanisms-of-saccade-suppression-revealed-in-the-anti-saccade-task
#11
REVIEW
Brian C Coe, Douglas P Munoz
The anti-saccade task has emerged as an important tool for investigating the complex nature of voluntary behaviour. In this task, participants are instructed to suppress the natural response to look at a peripheral visual stimulus and look in the opposite direction instead. Analysis of saccadic reaction times (SRT: the time from stimulus appearance to the first saccade) and the frequency of direction errors (i.e. looking toward the stimulus) provide insight into saccade suppression mechanisms in the brain. Some direction errors are reflexive responses with very short SRTs (express latency saccades), while other direction errors are driven by automated responses and have longer SRTs...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228585/fixation-target-representation-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-antisaccade-task
#12
Xin Zhou, Christos Constantinidis
Neurons that discharge strongly during the time period of fixation of a visual target and cease to discharge before saccade initiation have been described in the brain stem, superior colliculus, and cortical areas. In subcortical structures, fixation neurons play a reciprocal role with saccadic neurons during the generation of eye movements. Their role in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is less obvious, and it is not known if they are activated by fixation, inhibit saccade generation, or play a role in more complex functions such as the inhibition of inappropriate responses...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222173/back-to-basics-the-effects-of-block-vs-interleaved-trial-administration-on-pro-and-anti-saccade-performance
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Liran Zeligman, Ari Z Zivotofsky
The pro and anti-saccade task (PAT) is a widely used tool in the study of overt and covert attention with promising potential role in neurocognitive and psychiatric assessment. However, specific PAT protocols can vary significantly between labs, potentially resulting in large variations in findings across studies. In light of recent calls towards a standardization of PAT the current study's objective was to systematically and purposely evaluate the effects of block vs. interleaved administration-a fundamental consideration-on PAT measures in a within subject design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169987/theta-and-beta-synchrony-coordinate-frontal-eye-fields-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-during-sensorimotor-mapping
#14
Sahand Babapoor-Farrokhran, Martin Vinck, Thilo Womelsdorf, Stefan Everling
The frontal eye fields (FEFs) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated for cognitive saccade tasks, but whether this joined activation indexes coordinated activity underlying successful guidance of sensorimotor mapping is unknown. Here we test whether ACC and FEF circuits coordinate through phase synchronization of local field potential and neural spiking activity in macaque monkeys performing memory-guided and pro- and anti-saccades. We find that FEF and ACC showed prominent synchronization at a 3-9 Hz theta and a 12-30 Hz beta frequency band during the delay and preparation periods with a strong Granger-causal influence from ACC to FEF...
February 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079062/does-retinal-configuration-make-the-head-and-eyes-of-foveate-birds-move
#15
Bret A Moore, Luke P Tyrrell, Diana Pita, Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds, Esteban Fernández-Juricic
Animals move their heads and eyes to compensate for movements of the body and background, search, fixate, and track objects visually. Avian saccadic head/eye movements have been shown to vary considerably between species. We tested the hypothesis that the configuration of the retina (i.e., changes in retinal ganglion cell density from the retinal periphery to the center of acute vision-fovea) would account for the inter-specific variation in avian head/eye movement behavior. We characterized retinal configuration, head movement rate, and degree of eye movement of 29 bird species with a single fovea, controlling for the effects of phylogenetic relatedness...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920750/fluid-intelligence-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-executive-control-and-balanced-time-perspective
#16
Marcin Zajenkowski, Maciej Stolarski, Joanna Witowska, Oliwia Maciantowicz, Paweł Łowicki
This study examined the cognitive foundations of the balanced time perspective (BTP) proposed by Zimbardo and Boyd (1999). Although BTP is defined as the mental ability to switch effectively between different temporal perspectives, its connection with cognitive functioning has not yet been established. We addressed this by exploring the relationships between time perspectives and both fluid intelligence (measured with Raven's and Cattell's tests) and executive control (Go/No-go and anti-saccade tasks). An investigation conducted among Polish adults (N = 233) revealed that more balanced TP profile was associated with higher fluid intelligence, and higher executive control...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855460/-diagnosis-and-current-therapy-of-vestibular-syndromes
#17
REVIEW
Michael Strupp, Thomas Brandt
Vertigo and dizziness are with an annual incidence of more than 10% and a lifetime prevalence of more than 30% among the most frequent symptoms. The keys to the diagnosis are the patient history and the bedside examination: a) for the patient history the time course, type and triggers of symptoms and accompanying symptoms, b) for the clinical examination of the vestibular system the head-impulse test (HIT), the examination for a spontaneous nystagmus, a displacement of subjective visual vertical, a positional nystagmus and the Romberg test, and c) for the differentiation between an acute peripheral and central vestibular lesion the skew deviation, central fixation nystagmus, gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic smooth pursuit and a normal HIT...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787583/race-to-accumulate-evidence-for-few-and-many-saccade-alternatives-an-exception-to-speed-accuracy-trade-off
#18
M Puntiroli, C Tandonnet, D Kerzel, S Born
Hick's law states that increasing the number of response alternatives increases reaction time. Lawrence and colleagues report an exception to the law, whereby more alternatives lead to shorter saccadic reaction times (SRTs). Usher and McClelland (Psychol Rev 108(3):550-592. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.108.3.550 , 2001) predict such an anti-Hick's effect when accuracy is not prioritized in a task, which should result in higher error rates with more response alternatives, and in turn to a shorter right tail of the SRT distribution...
February 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773904/frontal-cortical-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-pd-comparison-of-memory-based-smooth-pursuit-and-anti-saccade-tasks-and-neuropsychological-and-motor-symptom-evaluations
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Norie Ito, Hidetoshi Takei, Susumu Chiba, Kikuro Fukushima
We reported recently that during a memory-based smooth-pursuit task, most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibited normal cue-information memory but impaired smooth-pursuit preparation and execution. A minority of PD patients had abnormal cue-information memory or difficulty in understanding the task. To further examine differences between these two groups, we assigned an anti-saccade task and compared correct rates with various neuropsychological and motor symptom evaluations. The anti-saccade task requires voluntary saccades in the opposite direction to a visual stimulus, and patients with frontal cortical impairments are known to exhibit reflexive saccades (errors)...
November 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753223/oculomotor-atypicalities-in-developmental-coordination-disorder
#20
Emma Sumner, Samuel B Hutton, Gustav Kuhn, Elisabeth L Hill
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) fail to acquire adequate motor skill, yet surprisingly little is known about the oculomotor system in DCD. Successful completion of motor tasks is supported by accurate visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any oculomotor differences can distinguish between children with and without a motor impairment. Using eye tracking technology, visual fixation, smooth pursuit, and pro- and anti-saccade performance were assessed in 77 children that formed three groups: children with DCD (aged 7-10), chronologically age (CA) matched peers, and a motor-match (MM) group (aged 4-7)...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
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