keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Anti saccade

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288201/optokinetic-nystagmus-reflects-perceptual-directions-in-the-onset-binocular-rivalry-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Mana Fujiwara, Catherine Ding, Lisandro Kaunitz, Julie C Stout, Dominic Thyagarajan, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), the reflexive eye movements evoked by a moving field, has recently gained interest among researchers as a useful tool to assess conscious perception. When conscious perception and stimulus are dissociated, such as in binocular rivalry-when dissimilar images are simultaneously presented to each eye and perception alternates between the two images over time-OKN correlates with perception rather than with the physical direction of the moving field. While this relationship is well established in healthy subjects, it is yet unclear whether it also generalizes to clinical populations, for example, patients with Parkinson's disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242726/mechanisms-of-saccade-suppression-revealed-in-the-anti-saccade-task
#2
REVIEW
Brian C Coe, Douglas P Munoz
The anti-saccade task has emerged as an important tool for investigating the complex nature of voluntary behaviour. In this task, participants are instructed to suppress the natural response to look at a peripheral visual stimulus and look in the opposite direction instead. Analysis of saccadic reaction times (SRT: the time from stimulus appearance to the first saccade) and the frequency of direction errors (i.e. looking toward the stimulus) provide insight into saccade suppression mechanisms in the brain. Some direction errors are reflexive responses with very short SRTs (express latency saccades), while other direction errors are driven by automated responses and have longer SRTs...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228585/fixation-target-representation-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-anti-saccade-task
#3
Xin Zhou, Christos Constantinidis
Neurons that discharge strongly during the time period of fixation of a visual target and cease to discharge prior to saccade initiation have been described in the brain stem, superior colliculus, and cortical areas. In subcortical structures, fixation neurons play a reciprocal role with saccadic neurons during the generation of eye movements. Their role in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is less obvious and it is not known if they are activated by fixation, inhibit saccade generation, or play a role in more complex functions such as the inhibition of inappropriate responses...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222173/back-to-basics-the-effects-of-block-vs-interleaved-trial-administration-on-pro-and-anti-saccade-performance
#4
Liran Zeligman, Ari Z Zivotofsky
The pro and anti-saccade task (PAT) is a widely used tool in the study of overt and covert attention with promising potential role in neurocognitive and psychiatric assessment. However, specific PAT protocols can vary significantly between labs, potentially resulting in large variations in findings across studies. In light of recent calls towards a standardization of PAT the current study's objective was to systematically and purposely evaluate the effects of block vs. interleaved administration-a fundamental consideration-on PAT measures in a within subject design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169987/theta-and-beta-synchrony-coordinate-frontal-eye-fields-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-during-sensorimotor-mapping
#5
Sahand Babapoor-Farrokhran, Martin Vinck, Thilo Womelsdorf, Stefan Everling
The frontal eye fields (FEFs) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated for cognitive saccade tasks, but whether this joined activation indexes coordinated activity underlying successful guidance of sensorimotor mapping is unknown. Here we test whether ACC and FEF circuits coordinate through phase synchronization of local field potential and neural spiking activity in macaque monkeys performing memory-guided and pro- and anti-saccades. We find that FEF and ACC showed prominent synchronization at a 3-9 Hz theta and a 12-30 Hz beta frequency band during the delay and preparation periods with a strong Granger-causal influence from ACC to FEF...
February 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079062/does-retinal-configuration-make-the-head-and-eyes-of-foveate-birds-move
#6
Bret A Moore, Luke P Tyrrell, Diana Pita, Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds, Esteban Fernández-Juricic
Animals move their heads and eyes to compensate for movements of the body and background, search, fixate, and track objects visually. Avian saccadic head/eye movements have been shown to vary considerably between species. We tested the hypothesis that the configuration of the retina (i.e., changes in retinal ganglion cell density from the retinal periphery to the center of acute vision-fovea) would account for the inter-specific variation in avian head/eye movement behavior. We characterized retinal configuration, head movement rate, and degree of eye movement of 29 bird species with a single fovea, controlling for the effects of phylogenetic relatedness...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920750/fluid-intelligence-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-executive-control-and-balanced-time-perspective
#7
Marcin Zajenkowski, Maciej Stolarski, Joanna Witowska, Oliwia Maciantowicz, Paweł Łowicki
This study examined the cognitive foundations of the balanced time perspective (BTP) proposed by Zimbardo and Boyd (1999). Although BTP is defined as the mental ability to switch effectively between different temporal perspectives, its connection with cognitive functioning has not yet been established. We addressed this by exploring the relationships between time perspectives and both fluid intelligence (measured with Raven's and Cattell's tests) and executive control (Go/No-go and anti-saccade tasks). An investigation conducted among Polish adults (N = 233) revealed that more balanced TP profile was associated with higher fluid intelligence, and higher executive control...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855460/-diagnosis-and-current-therapy-of-vestibular-syndromes
#8
REVIEW
Michael Strupp, Thomas Brandt
Vertigo and dizziness are with an annual incidence of more than 10% and a lifetime prevalence of more than 30% among the most frequent symptoms. The keys to the diagnosis are the patient history and the bedside examination: a) for the patient history the time course, type and triggers of symptoms and accompanying symptoms, b) for the clinical examination of the vestibular system the head-impulse test (HIT), the examination for a spontaneous nystagmus, a displacement of subjective visual vertical, a positional nystagmus and the Romberg test, and c) for the differentiation between an acute peripheral and central vestibular lesion the skew deviation, central fixation nystagmus, gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic smooth pursuit and a normal HIT...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787583/race-to-accumulate-evidence-for-few-and-many-saccade-alternatives-an-exception-to-speed-accuracy-trade-off
#9
M Puntiroli, C Tandonnet, D Kerzel, S Born
Hick's law states that increasing the number of response alternatives increases reaction time. Lawrence and colleagues report an exception to the law, whereby more alternatives lead to shorter saccadic reaction times (SRTs). Usher and McClelland (Psychol Rev 108(3):550-592. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.108.3.550 , 2001) predict such an anti-Hick's effect when accuracy is not prioritized in a task, which should result in higher error rates with more response alternatives, and in turn to a shorter right tail of the SRT distribution...
October 27, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773904/frontal-cortical-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-pd-comparison-of-memory-based-smooth-pursuit-and-anti-saccade-tasks-and-neuropsychological-and-motor-symptom-evaluations
#10
Norie Ito, Hidetoshi Takei, Susumu Chiba, Kikuro Fukushima
We reported recently that during a memory-based smooth-pursuit task, most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibited normal cue-information memory but impaired smooth-pursuit preparation and execution. A minority of PD patients had abnormal cue-information memory or difficulty in understanding the task. To further examine differences between these two groups, we assigned an anti-saccade task and compared correct rates with various neuropsychological and motor symptom evaluations. The anti-saccade task requires voluntary saccades in the opposite direction to a visual stimulus, and patients with frontal cortical impairments are known to exhibit reflexive saccades (errors)...
November 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753223/oculomotor-atypicalities-in-developmental-coordination-disorder
#11
Emma Sumner, Samuel B Hutton, Gustav Kuhn, Elisabeth L Hill
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) fail to acquire adequate motor skill, yet surprisingly little is known about the oculomotor system in DCD. Successful completion of motor tasks is supported by accurate visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any oculomotor differences can distinguish between children with and without a motor impairment. Using eye tracking technology, visual fixation, smooth pursuit, and pro- and anti-saccade performance were assessed in 77 children that formed three groups: children with DCD (aged 7-10), chronologically age (CA) matched peers, and a motor-match (MM) group (aged 4-7)...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739335/self-bias-modulates-saccadic-control
#12
A Yankouskaya, D Palmer, M Stolte, J Sui, G W Humphreys
We present novel data on the role of attention in eliciting enhanced processing of stimuli associated with self. Participants were required to make pro- or anti-saccades according to whether learned shape-label pairings matched or mismatched. When stimuli matched participants were required to make an anti-saccade, and when the stimuli mismatched a pro-saccade was required. We found that anti-saccades were difficult to make to stimuli associated with self when compared to stimuli associated with a friend and a stranger...
October 28, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721805/saccadic-velocity-in-the-new-suppression-head-impulse-test-a-new-indicator-of-horizontal-vestibular-canal-paresis-and-of-vestibular-compensation
#13
Qiwen Shen, Christophe Magnani, Olivier Sterkers, Georges Lamas, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Julien Sadoun, Ian S Curthoys, Catherine de Waele
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether saccadic velocity in the suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP) test is a reliable indicator of vestibular loss at the acute and at the chronic stage in patients suffering from different vestibular pathologies. METHODS: Thirty-five normal subjects and 57 patients suffering from different vestibular pathologies associated with unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) or bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) were tested in the SHIMPs paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706426/abnormal-eye-movements-in-three-types-of-chorea
#14
Tiago Attoni, Rogério Beato, Serge Pinto, Francisco Cardoso
Chorea is an abnormal movement characterized by a continuous flow of random muscle contractions. This phenomenon has several causes, such as infectious and degenerative processes. Chorea results from basal ganglia dysfunction. As the control of the eye movements is related to the basal ganglia, it is expected, therefore, that is altered in diseases related to chorea. Sydenham's chorea, Huntington's disease and neuroacanthocytosis are described in this review as basal ganglia illnesses that can present with abnormal eye movements...
September 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676615/reduced-cognitive-control-demands-after-practice-of-saccade-tasks-in-a-trial-type-probability-manipulation
#15
Jordan E Pierce, Jennifer E McDowell
Cognitive control is engaged to facilitate stimulus-response mappings for novel, complex tasks and supervise performance in unfamiliar, challenging contexts-processes supported by pFC, ACC, and posterior parietal cortex. With repeated task practice, however, the appropriate task set can be selected in a more automatic fashion with less need for top-down cognitive control and weaker activation in these brain regions. One model system for investigating cognitive control is the ocular motor circuitry underlying saccade production, with basic prosaccade trials (look toward a stimulus) and complex antisaccade trials (look to the mirror image location) representing low and high levels of cognitive control, respectively...
February 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671681/medications-influencing-central-cholinergic-neurotransmission-affect-saccadic-and-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements-in-healthy-young-adults
#16
Preshanta Naicker, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D Grant, Justin J Kavanagh
RATIONALE: Acetylcholine is an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system, where it plays a significant role in central functions such as the regulation of movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the pharmacological effects of over-the-counter anticholinergic medications on saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements, in order to establish the significance of central cholinergic pathways in the control of these centrally regulated oculomotor processes...
January 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666384/cognitive-control-in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-electrocortical-theta-and-alpha-modulation-during-response-preparation-in-a-cued-saccade-task
#17
Stefon J R van Noordt, James A Desjardins, Cody E T Gogo, Ayda Tekok-Kilic, Sidney J Segalowitz
The oscillatory dynamics of medial frontal EEG theta and posterior alpha are implicated in the modulation of attention and cognitive control. We used a novel saccade cueing paradigm to examine whether theta and alpha are modulated by task difficulty during response preparation. After isolating and functionally classifying medial frontal and posterior alpha independent components, the EEG spectral power in these components was calculated on pro- and anti-saccade trials prior to response probes. The results of bootstrap re-sampling show that, compared to pro-saccade trials, correct anti-saccades are characterized by an increase in medial frontal theta and suppression of posterior alpha during the response preparation period...
January 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527824/ocular-motor-disturbances-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-systematic-review-and-comprehensive-meta-analysis
#18
Beth P Johnson, Jarrad A G Lum, Nicole J Rinehart, Joanne Fielding
There has been considerable focus placed on how individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) visually perceive and attend to social information, such as facial expressions or social gaze. The role of eye movements is inextricable from visual perception, however this aspect is often overlooked. We performed a series of meta-analyses based on data from 28 studies of eye movements in ASD to determine whether there is evidence for ocular motor dysfunction in ASD. Tasks assessed included visually-guided saccade tasks, gap/overlap, anti-saccade, pursuit tasks and ocular fixation...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488645/a-trial-by-trial-window-into-sensorimotor-transformations-in-the-human-motor-periphery
#19
Chao Gu, Daniel K Wood, Paul L Gribble, Brian D Corneil
UNLABELLED: The appearance of a novel visual stimulus generates a rapid stimulus-locked response (SLR) in the motor periphery within 100 ms of stimulus onset. Here, we recorded SLRs from an upper limb muscle while humans reached toward (pro-reach) or away (anti-reach) from a visual stimulus. The SLR on anti-reaches encoded the location of the visual stimulus rather than the movement goal. Further, SLR magnitude was attenuated when subjects reached away from rather than toward the visual stimulus...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391390/an-fmri-investigation-of-preparatory-set-in-the-human-cerebral-cortex-and-superior-colliculus-for-pro-and-anti-saccades
#20
Michele Furlan, Andrew T Smith, Robin Walker
Previous studies have identified several cortical regions that show larger BOLD responses during preparation and execution of anti-saccades than pro-saccades. We confirmed this finding with a greater BOLD response for anti-saccades than pro-saccades during the preparation phase in the FEF, IPS and DLPFC and in the FEF and IPS in the execution phase. We then applied multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to establish whether different neural populations are involved in the two types of saccade. Pro-saccades and anti-saccades were reliably decoded during saccade execution in all three cortical regions (FEF, DLPFC and IPS) and in IPS during saccade preparation...
2016: PloS One
keyword
keyword
77949
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"