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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855460/-diagnosis-and-current-therapy-of-vestibular-syndromes
#1
Michael Strupp, Thomas Brandt
Vertigo and dizziness are with an annual incidence of more than 10% and a lifetime prevalence of more than 30% among the most frequent symptoms. The keys to the diagnosis are the patient history and the bedside examination: a) for the patient history the time course, type and triggers of symptoms and accompanying symptoms, b) for the clinical examination of the vestibular system the head-impulse test (HIT), the examination for a spontaneous nystagmus, a displacement of subjective visual vertical, a positional nystagmus and the Romberg test, and c) for the differentiation between an acute peripheral and central vestibular lesion the skew deviation, central fixation nystagmus, gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic smooth pursuit and a normal HIT...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787583/race-to-accumulate-evidence-for-few-and-many-saccade-alternatives-an-exception-to-speed-accuracy-trade-off
#2
M Puntiroli, C Tandonnet, D Kerzel, S Born
Hick's law states that increasing the number of response alternatives increases reaction time. Lawrence and colleagues report an exception to the law, whereby more alternatives lead to shorter saccadic reaction times (SRTs). Usher and McClelland (Psychol Rev 108(3):550-592. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.108.3.550 , 2001) predict such an anti-Hick's effect when accuracy is not prioritized in a task, which should result in higher error rates with more response alternatives, and in turn to a shorter right tail of the SRT distribution...
October 27, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773904/frontal-cortical-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-pd-comparison-of-memory-based-smooth-pursuit-and-anti-saccade-tasks-and-neuropsychological-and-motor-symptom-evaluations
#3
Norie Ito, Hidetoshi Takei, Susumu Chiba, Kikuro Fukushima
We reported recently that during a memory-based smooth-pursuit task, most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibited normal cue-information memory but impaired smooth-pursuit preparation and execution. A minority of PD patients had abnormal cue-information memory or difficulty in understanding the task. To further examine differences between these two groups, we assigned an anti-saccade task and compared correct rates with various neuropsychological and motor symptom evaluations. The anti-saccade task requires voluntary saccades in the opposite direction to a visual stimulus, and patients with frontal cortical impairments are known to exhibit reflexive saccades (errors)...
November 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753223/oculomotor-atypicalities-in-developmental-coordination-disorder
#4
Emma Sumner, Samuel B Hutton, Gustav Kuhn, Elisabeth L Hill
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) fail to acquire adequate motor skill, yet surprisingly little is known about the oculomotor system in DCD. Successful completion of motor tasks is supported by accurate visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any oculomotor differences can distinguish between children with and without a motor impairment. Using eye tracking technology, visual fixation, smooth pursuit, and pro- and anti-saccade performance were assessed in 77 children that formed three groups: children with DCD (aged 7-10), chronologically age (CA) matched peers, and a motor-match (MM) group (aged 4-7)...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739335/self-bias-modulates-saccadic-control
#5
Alla Yankouskaya, Diahann Palmer, Moritz Stolte, Jie Sui, G W Humphreys
We present novel data on the role of attention in eliciting enhanced processing of stimuli associated with self. Participants were required to make pro- or anti-saccades according to whether learned shape-label pairings matched or mismatched. When stimuli matched participants were required to make an anti-saccade and when the stimuli mismatched a pro-saccade was required. We found that anti-saccades were difficult to make to stimuli associated with self when compared to stimuli associated with a friend and a stranger...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721805/saccadic-velocity-in-the-new-suppression-head-impulse-test-a-new-indicator-of-horizontal-vestibular-canal-paresis-and-of-vestibular-compensation
#6
Qiwen Shen, Christophe Magnani, Olivier Sterkers, Georges Lamas, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Julien Sadoun, Ian S Curthoys, Catherine de Waele
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether saccadic velocity in the suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP) test is a reliable indicator of vestibular loss at the acute and at the chronic stage in patients suffering from different vestibular pathologies. METHODS: Thirty-five normal subjects and 57 patients suffering from different vestibular pathologies associated with unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) or bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) were tested in the SHIMPs paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706426/abnormal-eye-movements-in-three-types-of-chorea
#7
Tiago Attoni, Rogério Beato, Serge Pinto, Francisco Cardoso
Chorea is an abnormal movement characterized by a continuous flow of random muscle contractions. This phenomenon has several causes, such as infectious and degenerative processes. Chorea results from basal ganglia dysfunction. As the control of the eye movements is related to the basal ganglia, it is expected, therefore, that is altered in diseases related to chorea. Sydenham's chorea, Huntington's disease and neuroacanthocytosis are described in this review as basal ganglia illnesses that can present with abnormal eye movements...
September 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676615/reduced-cognitive-control-demands-after-practice-of-saccade-tasks-in-a-trial-type-probability-manipulation
#8
Jordan E Pierce, Jennifer E McDowell
Cognitive control is engaged to facilitate stimulus-response mappings for novel, complex tasks and supervise performance in unfamiliar, challenging contexts-processes supported by pFC, ACC, and posterior parietal cortex. With repeated task practice, however, the appropriate task set can be selected in a more automatic fashion with less need for top-down cognitive control and weaker activation in these brain regions. One model system for investigating cognitive control is the ocular motor circuitry underlying saccade production, with basic prosaccade trials (look toward a stimulus) and complex antisaccade trials (look to the mirror image location) representing low and high levels of cognitive control, respectively...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671681/medications-influencing-central-cholinergic-neurotransmission-affect-saccadic-and-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements-in-healthy-young-adults
#9
Preshanta Naicker, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D Grant, Justin J Kavanagh
RATIONALE: Acetylcholine is an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system, where it plays a significant role in central functions such as the regulation of movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the pharmacological effects of over-the-counter anticholinergic medications on saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements, in order to establish the significance of central cholinergic pathways in the control of these centrally regulated oculomotor processes...
September 26, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666384/cognitive-control-in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-electrocortical-theta-and-alpha-modulation-during-response-preparation-in-a-cued-saccade-task
#10
Stefon J R van Noordt, James A Desjardins, Cody E T Gogo, Ayda Tekok-Kilic, Sidney J Segalowitz
The oscillatory dynamics of medial frontal EEG theta and posterior alpha are implicated in the modulation of attention and cognitive control. We used a novel saccade cueing paradigm to examine whether theta and alpha are modulated by task difficulty during response preparation. After isolating and functionally classifying medial frontal and posterior alpha independent components, the EEG spectral power in these components was calculated on pro- and anti-saccade trials prior to response probes. The results of bootstrap re-sampling show that, compared to pro-saccade trials, correct anti-saccades are characterized by an increase in medial frontal theta and suppression of posterior alpha during the response preparation period...
September 22, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527824/ocular-motor-disturbances-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-systematic-review-and-comprehensive-meta-analysis
#11
Beth P Johnson, Jarrad A G Lum, Nicole J Rinehart, Joanne Fielding
There has been considerable focus placed on how individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) visually perceive and attend to social information, such as facial expressions or social gaze. The role of eye movements is inextricable from visual perception, however this aspect is often overlooked. We performed a series of meta-analyses based on data from 28 studies of eye movements in ASD to determine whether there is evidence for ocular motor dysfunction in ASD. Tasks assessed included visually-guided saccade tasks, gap/overlap, anti-saccade, pursuit tasks and ocular fixation...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488645/a-trial-by-trial-window-into-sensorimotor-transformations-in-the-human-motor-periphery
#12
Chao Gu, Daniel K Wood, Paul L Gribble, Brian D Corneil
UNLABELLED: The appearance of a novel visual stimulus generates a rapid stimulus-locked response (SLR) in the motor periphery within 100 ms of stimulus onset. Here, we recorded SLRs from an upper limb muscle while humans reached toward (pro-reach) or away (anti-reach) from a visual stimulus. The SLR on anti-reaches encoded the location of the visual stimulus rather than the movement goal. Further, SLR magnitude was attenuated when subjects reached away from rather than toward the visual stimulus...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391390/an-fmri-investigation-of-preparatory-set-in-the-human-cerebral-cortex-and-superior-colliculus-for-pro-and-anti-saccades
#13
Michele Furlan, Andrew T Smith, Robin Walker
Previous studies have identified several cortical regions that show larger BOLD responses during preparation and execution of anti-saccades than pro-saccades. We confirmed this finding with a greater BOLD response for anti-saccades than pro-saccades during the preparation phase in the FEF, IPS and DLPFC and in the FEF and IPS in the execution phase. We then applied multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to establish whether different neural populations are involved in the two types of saccade. Pro-saccades and anti-saccades were reliably decoded during saccade execution in all three cortical regions (FEF, DLPFC and IPS) and in IPS during saccade preparation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27360746/assessment-of-anti-saccades-within-24-to-48-hours-post-concussion-1921-board-73-june-2-3-30-pm-5-00-pm
#14
Nathan R D'Amico, Megan E Mormile, Klarie M Ake, Katelyn E Grimes, Dougals W Powell, Rebecca J Reed-Jones, Anthony P Salvatore, Nicholas G Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358462/implications-of-lateral-cerebellum-in-proactive-control-of-saccades
#15
Jun Kunimatsu, Tomoki W Suzuki, Masaki Tanaka
UNLABELLED: Although several lines of evidence establish the involvement of the medial and vestibular parts of the cerebellum in the adaptive control of eye movements, the role of the lateral hemisphere of the cerebellum in eye movements remains unclear. Ascending projections from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal and parietal association cortices via the thalamus are consistent with a role of these pathways in higher-order oculomotor control. In support of this, previous functional imaging studies and recent analyses in subjects with cerebellar lesions have indicated a role for the lateral cerebellum in volitional eye movements such as anti-saccades...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342314/brain-activation-differences-in-schizophrenia-during-context-dependent-processing-of-saccade-tasks
#16
A L Rodrigue, B P Austin, K A Dyckman, J E McDowell
BACKGROUND: Brain function in schizophrenia has been probed using saccade paradigms and functional magnetic resonance imaging, but little information exists about how changing task context impacts saccade related brain activation and behavioral performance. We recruited schizophrenia and comparison subjects to perform saccade tasks in differing contexts: (1) two single task runs (anti- or pro-saccades alternating with fixation) and (2) one dual task run (antisaccades alternating with prosaccades)...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284696/a-neural-model-of-the-frontal-eye-fields-with-reward-based-learning
#17
Weijie Ye, Shenquan Liu, Xuanliang Liu, Yuguo Yu
Decision-making is a flexible process dependent on the accumulation of various kinds of information; however, the corresponding neural mechanisms are far from clear. We extended a layered model of the frontal eye field to a learning-based model, using computational simulations to explain the cognitive process of choice tasks. The core of this extended model has three aspects: direction-preferred populations that cluster together the neurons with the same orientation preference, rule modules that control different rule-dependent activities, and reward-based synaptic plasticity that modulates connections to flexibly change the decision according to task demands...
September 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273555/model-based-exposure-response-analysis-to-quantify-age-related-differences-in-the-response-to-scopolamine-in-healthy-subjects
#18
Ricardo Alvarez-Jimenez, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Joop M A van Gerven, Sebastiaan C Goulooze, Anne Catrien Baakman, Justin L Hay, Jasper Stevens
AIM: Subjects with increasing age are more sensitive to the effects of the anti-muscarinic agent scopolamine, which is used (among other indications) to induce temporary cognitive dysfunction in early phase drug studies with cognition enhancing compounds. The enhanced sensitivity has always been attributed to incipient cholinergic neuronal dysfunction, as a part of the normal aging process. The aim of the study was to correlate age-dependent pharmacodynamic neuro-physiologic effects of scopolamine after correcting for differences in individual exposure...
October 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187233/cognitive-and-oculomotor-performance-in-subjects-with-low-and-high-schizotypy-implications-for-translational-drug-development-studies
#19
I Koychev, D Joyce, E Barkus, U Ettinger, A Schmechtig, C T Dourish, G R Dawson, K J Craig, J F W Deakin
The development of drugs to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia is a major unmet clinical need. A number of promising compounds failed in recent clinical trials, a pattern linked to poor translation between preclinical and clinical stages of drug development. Seeking proof of efficacy in early Phase 1 studies in surrogate patient populations (for example, high schizotypy individuals where subtle cognitive impairment is present) has been suggested as a strategy to reduce attrition in the later stages of drug development...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178858/freezing-of-gait-is-associated-with-increased-saccade-latency-and-variability-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Samuel T Nemanich, Gammon M Earhart
OBJECTIVE: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a locomotor disturbance in Parkinson disease (PD) related to impaired motor automaticity. In this study, we investigated the impact of freezing on automaticity in the oculomotor system using an anti-saccade paradigm. METHODS: Subjects with PD with (PD-FOG, n=13) and without (PD-NON, n=13) FOG, and healthy age-matched controls (CTRL, n=12) completed automatic pro-saccades and non-automatic anti-saccades. Primary outcomes were saccade latency, velocity, and gain...
June 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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