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Anti saccade

Emma Sumner, Samuel B Hutton, Gustav Kuhn, Elisabeth L Hill
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) fail to acquire adequate motor skill, yet surprisingly little is known about the oculomotor system in DCD. Successful completion of motor tasks is supported by accurate visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any oculomotor differences can distinguish between children with and without a motor impairment. Using eye tracking technology, visual fixation, smooth pursuit, and pro- and anti-saccade performance were assessed in 77 children that formed three groups: children with DCD (aged 7-10), chronologically age (CA) matched peers, and a motor-match (MM) group (aged 4-7)...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Alla Yankouskaya, Diahann Palmer, Moritz Stolte, Jie Sui, G W Humphreys
We present novel data on the role of attention in eliciting enhanced processing of stimuli associated with self. Participants were required to make pro- or anti-saccades according to whether learned shape-label pairings matched or mismatched. When stimuli matched participants were required to make an anti-saccade and when the stimuli mismatched a pro-saccade was required. We found that anti-saccades were difficult to make to stimuli associated with self when compared to stimuli associated with a friend and a stranger...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Qiwen Shen, Christophe Magnani, Olivier Sterkers, Georges Lamas, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Julien Sadoun, Ian S Curthoys, Catherine de Waele
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether saccadic velocity in the suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP) test is a reliable indicator of vestibular loss at the acute and at the chronic stage in patients suffering from different vestibular pathologies. METHODS: Thirty-five normal subjects and 57 patients suffering from different vestibular pathologies associated with unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) or bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) were tested in the SHIMPs paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Tiago Attoni, Rogério Beato, Serge Pinto, Francisco Cardoso
Chorea is an abnormal movement characterized by a continuous flow of random muscle contractions. This phenomenon has several causes, such as infectious and degenerative processes. Chorea results from basal ganglia dysfunction. As the control of the eye movements is related to the basal ganglia, it is expected, therefore, that is altered in diseases related to chorea. Sydenham's chorea, Huntington's disease and neuroacanthocytosis are described in this review as basal ganglia illnesses that can present with abnormal eye movements...
September 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Jordan E Pierce, Jennifer E McDowell
Cognitive control is engaged to facilitate stimulus-response mappings for novel, complex tasks and supervise performance in unfamiliar, challenging contexts-processes supported by pFC, ACC, and posterior parietal cortex. With repeated task practice, however, the appropriate task set can be selected in a more automatic fashion with less need for top-down cognitive control and weaker activation in these brain regions. One model system for investigating cognitive control is the ocular motor circuitry underlying saccade production, with basic prosaccade trials (look toward a stimulus) and complex antisaccade trials (look to the mirror image location) representing low and high levels of cognitive control, respectively...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Preshanta Naicker, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D Grant, Justin J Kavanagh
RATIONALE: Acetylcholine is an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system, where it plays a significant role in central functions such as the regulation of movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the pharmacological effects of over-the-counter anticholinergic medications on saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements, in order to establish the significance of central cholinergic pathways in the control of these centrally regulated oculomotor processes...
September 26, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Stefon J R van Noordt, James A Desjardins, Cody E T Gogo, Ayda Tekok-Kilic, Sidney J Segalowitz
The oscillatory dynamics of medial frontal EEG theta and posterior alpha are implicated in the modulation of attention and cognitive control. We used a novel saccade cueing paradigm to examine whether theta and alpha are modulated by task difficulty during response preparation. After isolating and functionally classifying medial frontal and posterior alpha independent components, the EEG spectral power in these components was calculated on pro- and anti-saccade trials prior to response probes. The results of bootstrap re-sampling show that, compared to pro-saccade trials, correct anti-saccades are characterized by an increase in medial frontal theta and suppression of posterior alpha during the response preparation period...
September 22, 2016: NeuroImage
Beth P Johnson, Jarrad A G Lum, Nicole J Rinehart, Joanne Fielding
There has been considerable focus placed on how individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) visually perceive and attend to social information, such as facial expressions or social gaze. The role of eye movements is inextricable from visual perception, however this aspect is often overlooked. We performed a series of meta-analyses based on data from 28 studies of eye movements in ASD to determine whether there is evidence for ocular motor dysfunction in ASD. Tasks assessed included visually-guided saccade tasks, gap/overlap, anti-saccade, pursuit tasks and ocular fixation...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Chao Gu, Daniel K Wood, Paul L Gribble, Brian D Corneil
UNLABELLED: The appearance of a novel visual stimulus generates a rapid stimulus-locked response (SLR) in the motor periphery within 100 ms of stimulus onset. Here, we recorded SLRs from an upper limb muscle while humans reached toward (pro-reach) or away (anti-reach) from a visual stimulus. The SLR on anti-reaches encoded the location of the visual stimulus rather than the movement goal. Further, SLR magnitude was attenuated when subjects reached away from rather than toward the visual stimulus...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Michele Furlan, Andrew T Smith, Robin Walker
Previous studies have identified several cortical regions that show larger BOLD responses during preparation and execution of anti-saccades than pro-saccades. We confirmed this finding with a greater BOLD response for anti-saccades than pro-saccades during the preparation phase in the FEF, IPS and DLPFC and in the FEF and IPS in the execution phase. We then applied multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to establish whether different neural populations are involved in the two types of saccade. Pro-saccades and anti-saccades were reliably decoded during saccade execution in all three cortical regions (FEF, DLPFC and IPS) and in IPS during saccade preparation...
2016: PloS One
Nathan R D'Amico, Megan E Mormile, Klarie M Ake, Katelyn E Grimes, Dougals W Powell, Rebecca J Reed-Jones, Anthony P Salvatore, Nicholas G Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jun Kunimatsu, Tomoki W Suzuki, Masaki Tanaka
UNLABELLED: Although several lines of evidence establish the involvement of the medial and vestibular parts of the cerebellum in the adaptive control of eye movements, the role of the lateral hemisphere of the cerebellum in eye movements remains unclear. Ascending projections from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal and parietal association cortices via the thalamus are consistent with a role of these pathways in higher-order oculomotor control. In support of this, previous functional imaging studies and recent analyses in subjects with cerebellar lesions have indicated a role for the lateral cerebellum in volitional eye movements such as anti-saccades...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
A L Rodrigue, B P Austin, K A Dyckman, J E McDowell
BACKGROUND: Brain function in schizophrenia has been probed using saccade paradigms and functional magnetic resonance imaging, but little information exists about how changing task context impacts saccade related brain activation and behavioral performance. We recruited schizophrenia and comparison subjects to perform saccade tasks in differing contexts: (1) two single task runs (anti- or pro-saccades alternating with fixation) and (2) one dual task run (antisaccades alternating with prosaccades)...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Weijie Ye, Shenquan Liu, Xuanliang Liu, Yuguo Yu
Decision-making is a flexible process dependent on the accumulation of various kinds of information; however, the corresponding neural mechanisms are far from clear. We extended a layered model of the frontal eye field to a learning-based model, using computational simulations to explain the cognitive process of choice tasks. The core of this extended model has three aspects: direction-preferred populations that cluster together the neurons with the same orientation preference, rule modules that control different rule-dependent activities, and reward-based synaptic plasticity that modulates connections to flexibly change the decision according to task demands...
September 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Ricardo Alvarez-Jimenez, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Joop M A van Gerven, Sebastiaan C Goulooze, Anne Catrien Baakman, Justin L Hay, Jasper Stevens
AIM: Subjects with increasing age are more sensitive to the effects of the anti-muscarinic agent scopolamine, which is used (among other indications) to induce temporary cognitive dysfunction in early phase drug studies with cognition enhancing compounds. The enhanced sensitivity has always been attributed to incipient cholinergic neuronal dysfunction, as a part of the normal aging process. The aim of the study was to correlate age-dependent pharmacodynamic neuro-physiologic effects of scopolamine after correcting for differences in individual exposure...
October 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
I Koychev, D Joyce, E Barkus, U Ettinger, A Schmechtig, C T Dourish, G R Dawson, K J Craig, J F W Deakin
The development of drugs to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia is a major unmet clinical need. A number of promising compounds failed in recent clinical trials, a pattern linked to poor translation between preclinical and clinical stages of drug development. Seeking proof of efficacy in early Phase 1 studies in surrogate patient populations (for example, high schizotypy individuals where subtle cognitive impairment is present) has been suggested as a strategy to reduce attrition in the later stages of drug development...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Samuel T Nemanich, Gammon M Earhart
OBJECTIVE: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a locomotor disturbance in Parkinson disease (PD) related to impaired motor automaticity. In this study, we investigated the impact of freezing on automaticity in the oculomotor system using an anti-saccade paradigm. METHODS: Subjects with PD with (PD-FOG, n=13) and without (PD-NON, n=13) FOG, and healthy age-matched controls (CTRL, n=12) completed automatic pro-saccades and non-automatic anti-saccades. Primary outcomes were saccade latency, velocity, and gain...
June 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Xin Zhou, Xue-Lian Qi, Christos Constantinidis
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex have been implicated in the planning of movements and inhibition of inappropriate responses, though their precise roles in these functions are not known. To address this question, we trained monkeys to perform memory-guided saccade and anti-saccade tasks and compared neural responses in the same animals. A population of neurons with no motor responses was also activated by a stimulus appearing out of the receptive field and could therefore mediate vector inversion...
March 29, 2016: Cell Reports
Damien Camors, Yves Trotter, Pierre Pouget, Sophie Gilardeau, Jean-Baptiste Durand
Ocular saccades bringing the gaze toward the straight-ahead direction (centripetal) exhibit higher dynamics than those steering the gaze away (centrifugal). This is generally explained by oculomotor determinants: centripetal saccades are more efficient because they pull the eyes back toward their primary orbital position. However, visual determinants might also be invoked: elements located straight-ahead trigger saccades more efficiently because they receive a privileged visual processing. Here, we addressed this issue by using both pro- and anti-saccade tasks in order to dissociate the centripetal/centrifugal directions of the saccades, from the straight-ahead/eccentric locations of the visual elements triggering those saccades...
2016: Scientific Reports
Aasef G Shaikh, George Wilmot
Paucity in gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) due to blockage in the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), as seen in the syndrome of anti-GAD antibody, causes adult onset cerebellar ataxia, muscle rigidity, and episodic spasms. Downbeat nystagmus, saccadic dysmetria, impaired ocular pursuit, and impaired cancelation of vestibular ocular reflex are typical ocular motor deficits in patients with syndrome of anti-GAD antibody. We describe opsoclonus, in addition to downbeat nystagmus, in a patient with increased titers of anti-GAD antibody...
March 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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