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Ocular injury

Satishkumar G Patil, Imtiaz A Kotwal, Udupikrishna Joshi, Soumya Allurkar, Nitin Thakur, Aafreen Aftab
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Midfacial fractures may often be associated with injuries to the orbit which may lead to notable dysfunction of the visual apparatus, if not detected early after injury. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the associated ophthalmic injuries in mid-face trauma and to emphasize the need for understanding the ophthalmic signs and symptoms by an attending maxillofacial surgeon. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total number of 60 clinically and radiographically proven subjects with midfacial fractures were considered in the study that underwent complete ophthalmological evaluation at initial presentation...
September 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Kristen Jijelava, Hongvan Le, Jack Parker, Jeffrey Yee
BACKGROUND: Ocular chemical injuries due to accidental exposure or application of cyanoacrylate, commonly known as "superglue," have increased over the past 30 years. However, current treatment options to relieve eyelid adhesions due to cyanoacrylate applications are difficult to successfully execute and can require sedation or general anesthesia. Here we describe a simple technique to release eyelid adhesions due to cyanoacrylate, or other adhesive agents, that can be successfully performed at bedside without sedation...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nuzzi Raffaele, Alessandro Marchese, Dario Ghigo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine if dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone acetonide (TA), three anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used for ocular treatments, could affect the oxidative status of cultured human cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and protect them against oxidative injury. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were used as an in vitro model of RPE. Glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone on cellular antioxidant status...
October 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Aaron Jamison, David Lockington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
James Q Truong, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about human inter-ocular pupillary asymmetry (IOPA). Thus, the purpose of the present investigation was to assess objectively static and dynamic IOPA in normals and in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: The pupillary light reflex (PLR) was assessed in an adult population of normals and in those with mTBI using the Neuroptics DP-2000 binocular pupillometer. Four stimulus conditions were used to optimize the assessment...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Evgenia Kalogeraki, Justyna Pielecka-Fortuna, Janika M Hüppe, Siegrid Löwel
The primary visual cortex (V1) is widely used to study brain plasticity, which is not only crucial for normal brain function, such as learning and memory, but also for recovery after brain injuries such as stroke. In standard cage (SC) raised mice, experience-dependent ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in V1 declines with age and is compromised by a lesion in adjacent and distant cortical regions. In contrast, mice raised in an enriched environment (EE), exhibit lifelong OD plasticity and are protected from losing OD plasticity after a stroke-lesion in the somatosensory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Michael A Mancano
The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested...
September 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
Sharad K Mittal, Masahiro Omoto, Afsaneh Amouzegar, Anuradha Sahu, Alexandra Rezazadeh, Kishore R Katikireddy, Dhvanit I Shah, Srikant K Sahu, Sunil K Chauhan
Transparency of the cornea is indispensable for optimal vision. Ocular trauma is a leading cause of corneal opacity, leading to 25 million cases of blindness annually. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained prominence due to their inflammation-suppressing and tissue repair functions. Here, we investigate the potential of MSCs to restore corneal transparency following ocular injury. Using an in vivo mouse model of ocular injury, we report that MSCs have the capacity to restore corneal transparency by secreting high levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Michael J Ellis, Dean M Cordingley, Sara Vis, Karen M Reimer, Jeff Leiter, Kelly Russell
OBJECTIVE There were 2 objectives of this study. The first objective was to identify clinical variables associated with vestibulo-ocular dysfunction (VOD) detected at initial consultation among pediatric patients with acute sports-related concussion (SRC) and postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The second objective was to reexamine the prevalence of VOD in this clinical cohort and evaluate the effect of VOD on length of recovery and the development of PCS. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted for all patients with acute SRC and PCS who were evaluated at a pediatric multidisciplinary concussion program from September 2013 to May 2015...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Thomas Politzer, Amy Berryman, Karen Rasavage, Lawrence Snell, Allan Weintraub, Donald J Gerber
BACKGROUND: Oculomotor deficits in smooth pursuit, saccades, vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR), vergence, and fixation are common problems seen after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). No scale currently exists to rate all of these together. The Craig Hospital Eye Evaluation Rating Scale (CHEERS) was designed to systematically quantify frequency and severity of eye movement deficits in TBI. OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra- and interrater reliability of a new rating scale for detecting the presence and degree of 5 oculomotor abnormalities after TBI...
September 21, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Ali Riza Cenk Celebi, Ayse Ebru Kilavuzoglu, Ugur Emrah Altiparmak, C Banu Cosar, Abdullah Ozkiris
INTRODUCTION: Corneal foreign bodies are reported to be the second most common type of ocular injury. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) is a valuable tool for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progress of treatment in cases of ocular trauma. Herein we aimed to report on a patient with an intra-corneal foreign body and the role of AS-OCT in management. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old male presented with foreign body sensation in his left eye...
2016: SpringerPlus
Pablo Jose Guzman-Salas, Juan Carlos Serna-Ojeda, Ethel Beatriz Guinto-Arcos, Miguel Pedroza-Seres
AIM: To report the main features of sympathetic ophthalmia in a referral ophthalmology center. METHODS: Retrospective clinical study. We reviewed clinical records of patients with diagnosis of sympathetic ophthalmia attending the Uveitis Department from 2007 to 2013. Patients were selected by clinical criteria. Descriptive statistics were used to assess variables. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included for analysis, 13 males and 7 females...
2016: Open Ophthalmology Journal
Alireza Baradaran-Rafii, Medi Eslani, Zeeshan Haq, Ebrahim Shirzadeh, Michael J Huvard, Ali R Djalilian
Chemical injuries frequently result in vision loss, disfigurement, and challenging ocular surface complications. Acute interventions are directed at decreasing the extent of the injury, suppressing inflammation, and promoting ocular surface re-epithelialization. Chronically, management involves controlling inflammation along with rehabilitation and reconstruction of the ocular surface. Future therapies aimed at inhibiting neovascularization and promoting ocular surface regeneration should provide more effective treatment options for the management of ocular chemical injuries...
September 17, 2016: Ocular Surface
Gregory J Bever, Frank L Brodie, David G Hwang
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine skin preparation has been shown to provide highly effective antimicrobial presurgical skin cleansing. However, there is a significant risk of ocular toxicity when it is used in periocular areas. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe 2 cases of significant corneal damage resulting from 4% chlorhexidine gluconate preoperative skin cleanser, despite the use of protective occlusive dressing over the eyes. Because of the potential for severe corneal toxicity resulting from use of chlorhexidine, alternative agents such as 10% povidone-iodine should be considered for skin preparation near periocular areas whenever possible...
September 16, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Ashley A Weaver, Sarah M Stitzel, Joel D Stitzel
A predictive Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element eye model was used to analyze 2.27 and 0.45 kg trinitrotoluene equivalent blasts detonated from 24 different locations. Free air and ground level blasts were simulated directly in front of the eye and at lateral offset locations with box, average, less protective, and more protective orbital anthropometries, resulting in 96 simulations. Injury risk curves were developed for hyphema, lens dislocation, retinal damage, and globe rupture from experimental and computational data to compute risk from corneoscleral stress and intra-ocular pressure computational outputs...
September 19, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Madhurima K Nayak, Neha Singh
Multiple myeloma cripples the human body in many ways, one of them being decreased immunity. Infections occurring spontaneously can increase the morbidity. We report a case of an elderly lady with multiple myeloma on treatment and uncontrolled diabetes, who developed loss of vision, swelling and redness of left eye of 4 days duration. There was no history of injury or entry of a foreign body. She also had left arm cellulitis. Ocular examination revealed visual acuity of 6/36 in right eye and no perception of light in left eye...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
İsa Yuvacı, Emine Pangal, Nurettin Bayram, Sevgi Arık Yüksel, Bedirhan Alabay, Alperen Ağadayı, Ender Sırakaya, Ahmet Gülhan
PURPOSE: Evaluation of the nerve fiber thicknesses of the macula, choroid, and retina using the apnea-hypopnea index in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) without systemic components. METHODS: Prospective, controlled study. The central macular, choroidal, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated using enhanced depth imaging-spectral domain optical coherence tomography in individuals with OSAS. In people with severe OSAS who had received treatment, posterior ocular structures were examined over 3 months (4th and 12th weeks), and changes were evaluated...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Shreya Mehul Shah, Mehul Ashvin Shah, Prerna D Shah, Kashyap B Patel
INTRODUCTION: Injury is a known cause of monocular blindness. Ocular trauma may affect lacrimal canaliculi and the extraocular muscle. We report this case as it includes injury to lid, lacrimal canaliculi and inferior rectus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 25-year-old male presented with an injury caused by a sharp object that resulted in a conjunctival tear, lid tear involving the lacrimal canal, and rupture of the inferior rectus muscle. All of the structures were repaired successfully during a single procedure...
2016: GMS Ophthalmol Cases
Prabu Baskaran, Seema Ramakrishnan, Pankaja Dhoble, Joseph Gubert
PURPOSE: To report a case of beta-hemolytic streptococcal endophthalmitis following crane-pecking injury. CASE REPORT: A twelve-year-old boy was brought to us by his father with history of crane beak injury in his right eye. On examination, his vision was 6/24 Snellen's acuity. Anterior segment examination showed a full thickness two mm corneo-limbal tear at 1 o'clock with iris prolapse. Pupil showed peaking through the wound with a clear crystalline lens. There was no evidence of hypopyon in the anterior chamber and B-scan ultrasonography showed acoustically clear vitreous with an attached retina...
2016: GMS Ophthalmol Cases
Vicki Chrysostomou, Sandra Galic, Peter van Wijngaarden, Ian A Trounce, Gregory R Steinberg, Jonathan G Crowston
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) become increasingly vulnerable to injury with advancing age. We recently showed that this vulnerability can be strongly modified in mice by exercise. However, the characteristics and underlying mechanisms of retinal protection with exercise remain unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate cellular changes associated with exercise-induced protection of aging retinal cells and the role of local and peripheral trophic signalling in mediating these effects. We focussed on two molecules that are thought to play key roles in mediating beneficial effects of exercise: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
September 9, 2016: Aging Cell
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