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Ocular injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077670/the-mammalian-efferent-vestibular-system-plays-a-crucial-role-in-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-compensation-after-unilateral-labyrinthectomy
#1
Patrick P Hübner, Serajul I Khan, Americo A Migliaccio
The α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α9-nAChR) subunit is expressed in the vestibular and auditory periphery, and its loss of function could compromise peripheral input from the predominantly-cholinergic efferent vestibular system (EVS). A recent study has shown that α9-nAChRs play an important role in short-term vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation. We hypothesise that α9-nAChRs could also be important for other forms of vestibular plasticity, such as that needed for VOR recovery after vestibular organ injury...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074420/efficacy-of-systemic-diclofenac%C3%A2-sodium-on%C3%A2-intravitreal-concentration
#2
Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Naderi, Khosrow Jadidi, Hadise Hoseini, Mojtaba Abrishami
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as an alternative, are replacing corticosteroids in ocular inflammatory diseases. Diclofenac has been used mainly topically, and recent focus has been on intravitreal delivery. Both of these methods have been shown to have complications in long-term application. PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of slow release oral diclofenac sodium on intravitreal concentration in experimental model of chemically injured eyes...
January 10, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060316/an-alternative-and-validated-injection-method-for-accessing-the-subretinal-space-via-a-transcleral-posterior-approach
#3
Sachin Parikh, Andrew Le, Julian Davenport, Michael B Gorin, Steven Nusinowitz, Anna Matynia
Subretinal injections have been successfully used in both humans and rodents to deliver therapeutic interventions of proteins, viral agents, and cells to the interphotoreceptor/subretinal compartment that has direct exposure to photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Subretinal injections of plasminogen as well as recent preclinical and clinical trials have demonstrated safety and/or efficacy of delivering viral vectors and stem cells to individuals with advanced retinal disease. Mouse models of retinal disease, particularly hereditary retinal dystrophies, are essential for testing these therapies...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055102/galectin-3-inhibition-by-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-reduces-both-pathological-corneal-neovascularization-and-fibrosis
#4
Wei-Sheng Chen, Zhiyi Cao, Hakon Leffler, Ulf J Nilsson, Noorjahan Panjwani
Purpose: Corneal neovascularization and scarring commonly lead to significant vision loss. This study was designed to determine whether a small-molecule inhibitor of galectin-3 can inhibit both corneal angiogenesis and fibrosis in experimental mouse models. Methods: Animal models of silver nitrate cautery and alkaline burn were used to induce mouse corneal angiogenesis and fibrosis, respectively. Corneas were treated with the galectin-3 inhibitor, 33DFTG, or vehicle alone and were processed for whole-mount immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis to quantify the density of blood vessels and markers of fibrosis...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054910/examining-effects-of-physical-exertion-on-the-dynamic-visual-acuity-test-in-collegiate-athletes
#5
Jessie N Patterson, Anna M Murphy, Julie A Honaker
BACKGROUND: Acute symptoms of dizziness and/or imbalance commonly experienced in athletes postconcussion are speculated to arise from dysfunction at multiple levels (i.e., inner ear or central vestibular system) to appropriately integrate afferent sensory information. Disruption along any pathway of the balance system can result in symptoms of dizziness, decreased postural control function (vestibulospinal reflex), and reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function. This may also lead to decreased gaze stability with movements of the head and may account for symptoms of blurred vision or diplopia reported in almost half of athletes sustaining a concussion...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030558/loss-of-trpv4-function-suppresses-inflammatory-fibrosis-induced-by-alkali-burning-mouse-corneas
#6
Yuka Okada, Kumi Shirai, Masayasu Miyajima, Peter S Reinach, Osamu Yamanaka, Takayoshi Sumioka, Masahide Kokado, Katsuo Tomoyose, Shizuya Saika
In humans suffering from pulmonary disease and a mouse model, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel activation contributes to fibrosis. As a corneal alkali burn induces the same response, we determined if such an effect is also attributable to TRPV4 activation in mice. Accordingly, we determined if the alkali burn wound healing responses in wild-type (WT) mice are different than those in their TRPV4-null (KO) counterpart. Stromal opacification due to fibrosis in KO (n = 128) mice was markedly reduced after 20 days relative to that in WT (n = 157) mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027185/use-of-virtual-surgical-planning-for-simultaneous-maxillofacial-osteotomies-and-custom-polyetheretherketone-implant-in-secondary-orbito-frontal-reconstruction-importance-of-restoring-orbital-volume
#7
Neel Patel, Beomjune Kim, Waleed Zaid
Correction of orbito-frontal defects involves a multitude of surgical challenges, and requires careful and detailed planning. In the trauma setting, one must be prepared to deal with injuries to adjacent structures and be able to incorporate their repair into the surgical plan to maximize the functional and esthetic reconstruction for the benefit of the patient. Victims who have sustained trauma of the cranial complex in combination with mid-facial trauma, particularly involving the orbit, present a difficult scenario, especially when future ocular prosthetic rehabilitation is a concern...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026813/-mechanisms-of-perioperative-corneal-abrasions-alterations-in-tear-film-proteome
#8
E Yu Zernii, O S Gancharova, I E Ishutina, V E Baksheeva, M O Golovastova, E I Kabanova, M S Savchenko, M V Serebryakova, L F Sotnikova, A A Zamyatnin, P P Philippov, I I Senin
Perioperative corneal abrasion is an ophthalmic complication commonly found in patients underwent general anesthesia. In this study, correlations between development of corneal injury and proteomic changes in tear film during general anesthesia were examined using an animal (rabbit) model. Being started after 1-h anesthesia, the process of accumulation of pathological changes in the cornea unequivocally led clinically significant abrasions following 3-6 h of the narcosis. The corneal damage was associated with alterations in profiles of major proteins of the tear film...
November 2016: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025619/posterior-segment-intraocular-foreign-body-extraction-surgical-techniques-timing-and-indications-for-vitrectomy
#9
REVIEW
Dante A Guevara-Villarreal, Patricio J Rodríguez-Valdés
Ocular penetrating injury with Intraocular Foreign Body (IOFB) is a common form of ocular injury. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors. The aim of this publication is to review different timing and surgical techniques related to the extraction of IOFB. Material and Methods. A PubMed search on "Extraction of Intraocular Foreign Body," "Timing for Surgery Intraocular Foreign Body," and "Surgical Technique Intraocular Foreign Body" was made. Results. Potential advantages of immediate and delayed IOFB removal have been reported with different results...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008138/medically-uncontrolled-conjunctival-pyogenic-granulomas-correlation-between-clinical-characteristics-and-histological-findings
#10
Dan Wu, Tingting Qian, Takeshi Nakao, Jianjiang Xu, Zuguo Liu, Xinghuai Sun, Yiwei Chu, Jiaxu Hong
BACKGROUND: Conjunctival pyogenic granulomas are commonly seen after ocular surgeries or at an ocular wound site. The aim of this study is to describe a novel histological classification for medically uncontrolled conjunctival pyogenic granulomas (MUCPG), and to explore whether the diversity in clinical features correlates to different histological subtypes of MUCPG. METHODS: This is an observational cross-section case series. We reviewed 46 consecutive patients with conjunctival pyogenic granulomas who did not respond to topical corticosteroids and underwent surgical excision from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2015...
December 19, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005778/alternative-treatment-for-blow-in-fracture-of-lateral-orbital-wall-removal-of-the-fractured-fragment
#11
Jinyong Cho, Jaeyoung Ryu
Blow-in fracture of the zygomaticomaxillary complex that was displaced into the orbital cavity could be associated with ophthalmologic injuries, ranging from visual acuity to ocular motility limitation. Appropriate reduction and realignment of the fractured bone is necessary as early as possible for recovery of function and esthetics. However, limitation of accessibility and visibility makes it difficult for delicate surgery and increases the risk of damage of adjacent anatomic structures, such as optic nerve and extraocular muscles...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003786/accidental-macular-injury-with-class-ivb-laser-outside-the-medical-settings
#12
Ehab Abdelkader
In the medical settings, safety precautions are used to mitigate inadvertent ocular damage due to laser beams. High power lasers are illegal in many countries; however, they are sometimes used on social occasions. Use by an untrained member of the public can result in severe accidental ocular damage. We report a case of macular damage and central visual loss due to the illegal use of a class IVb 2000 mW power laser in a 20-year-old male. To our knowledge, this is the first case of macular injury due to this particular type of laser...
October 2016: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999681/timing-and-outcomes-of-vitreoretinal-surgery-after-traumatic-retinal-detachment
#13
REVIEW
Molly Orban, Yasmin Florence Khodeja Islam, Luis J Haddock
Traumatic retinal detachments are a significant cause of morbidity. There are currently no evidence-based guidelines on the appropriate time to perform vitreoretinal surgery to repair a traumatic retinal detachment. Early intervention, within seven days of the inciting trauma, may decrease proliferative vitreoretinopathy and postoperative endophthalmitis. Later intervention may yield a reduced risk of inflammation and hemorrhage, particularly in cases of concomitant open globe injuries. This article reviews the literature on the management of retinal detachments associated with ocular trauma from the years 2006 to 2016...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998732/pathogenesis-of-microbial-keratitis
#14
REVIEW
Sahreena Lakhundi, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. Epithelial defects and injuries are key predisposing factors making the eye susceptible to corneal pathogens. Among bacterial pathogens, the most common agents responsible for keratitis include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia and Serratia species. Fungal agents of corneal infections include both filamentous as well as yeast, including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Phaeohyphomycetes, Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Candida species, while in protists, Acanthamoeba spp...
December 17, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998001/knocked-by-the-shuttlecock-twelve-sight-threatening-blunt-eye-injuries-in-australian-badminton-players
#15
Kathy K Jao, Alp Atik, Michael P Jamieson, Mariana P Sheales, Matthew H Lee, Ashley Porter, Athena Roufas, Ivan Goldberg, Ehud Zamir, Andrew White, Simon E Skalicky
BACKGROUND: Non-penetrating ocular injuries from badminton shuttlecocks can result in severe damage and life-long complications. This case series highlights the morbidity of such injuries, particularly in regard to post-traumatic glaucoma. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of 12 patients with shuttlecock-related blunt eye injuries sustained during badminton play without eye protection. By approaching colleagues through conference presentations and networking, the authors have attempted to gather all known cases of shuttlecock ocular injury managed in tertiary ocular emergency departments or private ophthalmological clinics in Victoria and New South Wales, Australia in 2015...
December 20, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994814/bilateral-photic-maculopathy-following-pterygium-excision-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-findings
#16
Mohammad Hossein Jabbarpoor Bonyadi
PURPOSE: To report high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in a case with bilateral photic maculopathy and resultant central scotoma following pterygium excision. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man with a history of pterygium excision complained of visual disturbance and annoying central scotoma in both eyes. Although he had subtle funduscopic and angiographic changes, SD-OCT precisely showed disruption of the photoreceptors inner segment/outer segment in the foveal center...
October 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977843/occult-perforating-globe-injury-caused-by-intraocular-foreign-body
#17
Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Cynthia X Qian, Avni V Patel, Leo A Kim, Dean Eliott
Intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) may be associated with occult exit wounds. The authors present a case of a man who sustained a zipper-tooth IOFB through the cornea from a car tire explosion. CT showed an IOFB within the vitreous cavity, but the IOFB was not identified during vitrectomy. Extension of the peritomy revealed an exit wound with the foreign body lodged in the extraocular space. This case demonstrates that IOFBs can rest within the vitreous cavity after creating an exit wound, but may escape detection by being driven back out of the globe during vitrectomy due to the pressurized eye...
December 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977031/ultra-wide-field-imaging-and-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-of-ocular-electrical-injury-in-a-child
#18
Brijesh Takkar, Shorya Azad, Kabiruddin Molla, Pradeep Venkatesh
History of trauma in children may be obscured and physicians often rely on signs for diagnosis. The authors discuss a case of electrical injury where ocular signs led to diagnosis of the cause of macular atrophy. A high index of suspicion must always be maintained in such atypical cases, and the setting of electrical injury to the body requires meticulous ocular examination. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e69-e71.].
December 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966829/paediatric-eye-injuries-in-finland-helsinki-eye-trauma-study
#19
Anna-Kaisa Haavisto, Ahmad Sahraravand, Juha M Holopainen, Tiina Leivo
PURPOSE: To determine the current population-based epidemiology, treatment, use of resources and outcomes of children's eye injuries in Finland. METHODS: The study included all new patients, 16 years of age or under, with ocular or orbital traumas taken into care to the Helsinki University Eye Hospital (population base 1.5 million people) in 1 year. The follow-up period was 3 months. RESULTS: Two hundred and two children's eye injuries were treated...
December 14, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960623/surgical-management-and-outcome-of-open-globe-injuries-with-posterior-segment-complications-a-10-year-review
#20
Tian Xia, Alain Bauza, Nishant G Soni, Marco A Zarbin, Paul D Langer, Neelakshi Bhagat
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics, management, and outcomes of open globe injured (OGI) eyes that underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for posterior segment complications. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of cases that underwent PPV for posterior segment complications associated with OGI between 2003-2012 at University Hospital, Newark, NJ. RESULTS: 120 eyes were identified and classified as follows: "early retinal detachment (RD)" (within 30 days of OGI), 64 (53%) eyes; "delayed RD" (≥30 days after OGI), 30 (25%) eyes; and "no RD," 26 (22%) eyes...
December 14, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
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