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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26946125/when-one-is-enough-impaired-multisensory-integration-in-cerebellar-agenesis
#1
L Ronconi, L Casartelli, S Carna, M Molteni, F Arrigoni, R Borgatti
In the last two decades, an intriguing shift in the understanding of the cerebellum has led to consider the nonmotor functions of this structure. Although various aspects of perceptual and sensory processing have been linked to the cerebellar activity, whether the cerebellum is essential for binding information from different sensory modalities remains uninvestigated. Multisensory integration (MSI) appears very early in the ontogenesis and is critical in several perceptual, cognitive, and social domains. For the first time, we investigated MSI in a rare case of cerebellar agenesis without any other associated brain malformations...
March 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26629707/a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-training-letter-speech-sound-integration-on-reading-fluency-in-children-with-dyslexia
#2
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gorka Fraga González, Gojko Žarić, Jurgen Tijms, Milene Bonte, Leo Blomert, Maurits W van der Molen
UNLABELLED: A recent account of dyslexia assumes that a failure to develop automated letter-speech sound integration might be responsible for the observed lack of reading fluency. This study uses a pre-test-training-post-test design to evaluate the effects of a training program based on letter-speech sound associations with a special focus on gains in reading fluency. A sample of 44 children with dyslexia and 23 typical readers, aged 8 to 9, was recruited. Children with dyslexia were randomly allocated to either the training program group (n = 23) or a waiting-list control group (n = 21)...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26445526/the-distinctive-vertical-heterophoria-of-dyslexics
#3
Patrick Quercia, Madeleine Quercia, Léonard J Feiss, François Allaert
In this study, we looked for the presence of vertical heterophoria (VH) in 42 dyslexic children (22 males and 20 females) aged 118.5±12.9 months who were compared with a control group of 22 nondyslexic children (eleven males and eleven females) aged 112±9.8 months. Dyslexics presented a low-level (always <1 prism diopter) VH combined with torsion. This oculomotor feature clearly separates the dyslexic group from the normal readers group. It is independent of the type of dyslexia. The essential feature of this VH is a lability that appears during specific stimulation of sensory receptors involved in postural regulation...
2015: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26338085/pay-attention-sluggish-multisensory-attentional-shifting-as-a-core-deficit-in-developmental-dyslexia
#4
REVIEW
Margaret B Krause
The aim of this review is to provide a background on the neurocognitive aspects of the reading process and review neuroscientific studies of individuals with developmental dyslexia, which provide evidence for amodal processing deficits. Hari, Renvall, and Tanskanen (2001) propose amodal sluggish attentional shifting (SAS) as a causal factor for temporal processing deficits in dyslexia. Undergirding this theory is the notion that when dyslexics are faced with rapid sequences of stimuli, their automatic attentional systems fail to disengage efficiently, which leads to difficulty when moving from one item to the next (Lallier et al...
November 2015: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26036834/zapping-the-gap-reducing-the-multisensory-temporal-binding-window-by-means-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#5
Sharon Zmigrod, Leor Zmigrod
Synchrony among the senses lies at the heart of our possession of a unified conscious perception of the world. However, due to discrepancies in physical and neural information processing from different senses, the brain accommodates a limited range of temporal asynchronies between sensory inputs, i.e. the multisensory temporal binding window (TBW). Using non-invasive brain stimulation, we sought to modulate the audio-visual TBW and to identify cortical areas implicated in the conscious perception of multisensory synchrony...
September 2015: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25679116/multisensory-integration-and-child-neurodevelopment
#6
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Dionne-Dostie, Natacha Paquette, Maryse Lassonde, Anne Gallagher
A considerable number of cognitive processes depend on the integration of multisensory information. The brain integrates this information, providing a complete representation of our surrounding world and giving us the ability to react optimally to the environment. Infancy is a period of great changes in brain structure and function that are reflected by the increase of processing capacities of the developing child. However, it is unclear if the optimal use of multisensory information is present early in childhood or develops only later, with experience...
2015: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25265514/impairments-of-multisensory-integration-and-cross-sensory-learning-as-pathways-to-dyslexia
#7
REVIEW
Noemi Hahn, John J Foxe, Sophie Molholm
Two sensory systems are intrinsic to learning to read. Written words enter the brain through the visual system and associated sounds through the auditory system. The task before the beginning reader is quite basic. She must learn correspondences between orthographic tokens and phonemic utterances, and she must do this to the point that there is seamless automatic 'connection' between these sensorially distinct units of language. It is self-evident then that learning to read requires formation of cross-sensory associations to the point that deeply encoded multisensory representations are attained...
November 2014: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25128432/the-construct-of-the-multisensory-temporal-binding-window-and-its-dysregulation-in-developmental-disabilities
#8
REVIEW
Mark T Wallace, Ryan A Stevenson
Behavior, perception and cognition are strongly shaped by the synthesis of information across the different sensory modalities. Such multisensory integration often results in performance and perceptual benefits that reflect the additional information conferred by having cues from multiple senses providing redundant or complementary information. The spatial and temporal relationships of these cues provide powerful statistical information about how these cues should be integrated or "bound" in order to create a unified perceptual representation...
November 2014: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24962123/ability-for-voice-recognition-is-a-marker-for-dyslexia-in-children
#9
Manuel Perea, María Jiménez, Paz Suárez-Coalla, Nohemí Fernández, Cecilia Viña, Fernando Cuetos
A recent voice recognition experiment conducted by Perrachione, Del Tufo, and Gabrieli (2011) revealed that, in normal adult readers, the accuracy at identifying human voices was better in the participants' mother tongue than in an unfamiliar language, while this difference was absent in a group of adults with dyslexia. This pattern favored a view of dyslexia as due to "fundamentally impoverished native-language phonological representations." To further examine this issue, we conducted two voice recognition experiments, one with children with/without dyslexia, and the other with adults with/without dyslexia...
2014: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24530067/multisensory-integration-and-attention-in-developmental-dyslexia
#10
Vanessa Harrar, Jonathan Tammam, Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Anna Pitt, John Stein, Charles Spence
Developmental dyslexia affects 5%-10% of the population, resulting in poor spelling and reading skills. While there are well-documented differences in the way dyslexics process low-level visual and auditory stimuli, it is mostly unknown whether there are similar differences in audiovisual multisensory processes. Here, we investigated audiovisual integration using the redundant target effect (RTE) paradigm. Some conditions demonstrating audiovisual integration appear to depend upon magnocellular pathways, and dyslexia has been associated with deficits in this pathway; so, we postulated that developmental dyslexics ("dyslexics" hereafter) would show differences in audiovisual integration compared with controls...
March 3, 2014: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24243417/a-rescue-service-for-all-dyslexic-children
#11
E Miles
If help is to be available for all dyslexic children, it needs to be on an economical, cost-effective basis. The Dyslexia Unit at University College of North Wales, Bangor, has been running a teaching project in its own area for the past ten years to find out how this can be done. As a result some conclusions have emerged about the necessary conditions for success. Economies can be effected by using part-time teachers, but individual tuition for at least one hour a week from a trained specialist is considered essential...
January 1985: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24234052/dyslexia-and-musical-notation
#12
L Ganschow, J Lloyd-Jones, T R Miles
The authors examine the difficulties experienced by dyslexic musicians in the formalized study of music, in particular, musical notation. They describe case studies from the literature and from personal interviews they conducted with musicians about their educational histories, musical weaknesses and strengths, and successful compensatory strategies. The authors make instructional suggestions for educators and musicians with dyslexia on how to use multisensory approaches to teach musical notation.
January 1994: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24233627/a-success-story-a-large-urban-district-offers-a-working-model-for-implementing-multisensory-teaching-into-the-resource-and-regular-classroom
#13
L Hutcheson, H Selig, N Young
A large urban school district contracted with a private nonprofit educational foundation to train 126 special education resource teachers in the last three years in an Orton-Gillingham-based program. These teachers are currently teaching learning-disabled students in groups of 8-10 at the elementary level and 10-13 students at the secondary level. Learning-disabled students who qualify for Special Education, either in reading or spelling, or both, are receiving the instruction.The teachers took a Basic Introductory Class (90 hours of Advanced Academic Credit offered by the Texas Education Agency, or six hours of graduate credit at a local university) in order to teach the program in the resource setting...
January 1990: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23977346/sensorimotor-integration-in-dyslexic-children-under-different-sensory-stimulations
#14
André R Viana, Milena Razuk, Paulo B de Freitas, José A Barela
Dyslexic children, besides difficulties in mastering literacy, also show poor postural control that might be related to how sensory cues coming from different sensory channels are integrated into proper motor activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sensory information and body sway, with visual and somatosensory information manipulated independent and concurrently, in dyslexic children. Thirty dyslexic and 30 non-dyslexic children were asked to stand as still as possible inside of a moving room either with eyes closed or open and either lightly touching a moveable surface or not for 60 seconds under five experimental conditions: (1) no vision and no touch; (2) moving room; (3) moving bar; (4) moving room and stationary touch; and (5) stationary room and moving bar...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23622168/dyslexia
#15
REVIEW
Michel Habib, Kimberly Giraud
Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a specific and persistent disability affecting the acquisition of written language. Prevalence is estimated to be between 5% and 17% of school-aged children; it therefore represents a major public health issue. Neurological in origin, its causes are unknown, although there is a clear genetic component. Diagnosis rests upon the use of standardized tests and tools to assess reading and spelling, as well as phonological skills. The importance of early diagnosis cannot be overemphasized and much current research is focusing on screening and prediction, particularly through use of objective imaging techniques (e...
2013: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23604624/multisensory-temporal-integration-task-and-stimulus-dependencies
#16
Ryan A Stevenson, Mark T Wallace
The ability of human sensory systems to integrate information across the different modalities provides a wide range of behavioral and perceptual benefits. This integration process is dependent upon the temporal relationship of the different sensory signals, with stimuli occurring close together in time typically resulting in the largest behavior changes. The range of temporal intervals over which such benefits are seen is typically referred to as the temporal binding window (TBW). Given the importance of temporal factors in multisensory integration under both normal and atypical circumstances such as autism and dyslexia, the TBW has been measured with a variety of experimental protocols that differ according to criterion, task, and stimulus type, making comparisons across experiments difficult...
June 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21562919/computer-based-learning-of-spelling-skills-in-children-with-and-without-dyslexia
#17
Monika Kast, Gian-Marco Baschera, Markus Gross, Lutz Jäncke, Martin Meyer
Our spelling training software recodes words into multisensory representations comprising visual and auditory codes. These codes represent information about letters and syllables of a word. An enhanced version, developed for this study, contains an additional phonological code and an improved word selection controller relying on a phoneme-based student model. We investigated the spelling behavior of children by means of learning curves based on log-file data of the previous and the enhanced software version...
December 2011: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21195198/discrete-neural-substrates-underlie-complementary-audiovisual-speech-integration-processes
#18
Ryan A Stevenson, Ross M VanDerKlok, David B Pisoni, Thomas W James
The ability to combine information from multiple sensory modalities into a single, unified percept is a key element in an organism's ability to interact with the external world. This process of perceptual fusion, the binding of multiple sensory inputs into a perceptual gestalt, is highly dependent on the temporal synchrony of the sensory inputs. Using fMRI, we identified two anatomically distinct brain regions in the superior temporal cortex, one involved with processing temporal-synchrony, and one with processing perceptual fusion of audiovisual speech...
April 1, 2011: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21134385/binding-of-sights-and-sounds-age-related-changes-in-multisensory-temporal-processing
#19
Andrea R Hillock, Albert R Powers, Mark T Wallace
We live in a multisensory world and one of the challenges the brain is faced with is deciding what information belongs together. Our ability to make assumptions about the relatedness of multisensory stimuli is partly based on their temporal and spatial relationships. Stimuli that are proximal in time and space are likely to be bound together by the brain and ascribed to a common external event. Using this framework we can describe multisensory processes in the context of spatial and temporal filters or windows that compute the probability of the relatedness of stimuli...
February 2011: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20957685/is-there-a-causal-link-from-a-phonological-awareness-deficit-to-reading-failure-in-children-at-familial-risk-for-dyslexia
#20
Leo Blomert, Gonny Willems
The knowledge that reading and phonological awareness are mainly reciprocally related has hardly influenced the status of a phonological awareness deficit as the main cause of a reading deficit in dyslexia. Because direct proofs for this theory are still lacking we investigated children at familial risk for dyslexia in kindergarten and first grade. The familial risk was genuine; 40% developed reading deficits in first grade. However, we did not find any relationship between a phonological awareness or other phonological processing deficits in kindergarten and reading deficits in first grade...
November 2010: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
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