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Dyslexia multisensory

Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G Overton, Tom Stafford
Abnormalities in multimodal processing have been found in many developmental disorders such as autism and dyslexia. However, surprisingly little empirical work has been conducted to test the integrity of multisensory integration in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The main aim of the present study was to examine links between symptoms of ADHD (as measured using a self-report scale in a healthy adult population) and the temporal aspects of multisensory processing. More specifically, a Simultaneity Judgement (SJ) and a Temporal Order Judgement (TOJ) task were used in participants with low and high levels of ADHD-like traits to measure the temporal integration window and Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) (respectively) between the timing of an auditory beep and a visual pattern presented over a broad range of stimulus onset asynchronies...
October 9, 2017: Acta Psychologica
S Mascheretti, S Gori, V Trezzi, M Ruffino, A Facoetti, C Marino
Although a genetic component is known to have an important role in the etiology of developmental dyslexia (DD), we are far from understanding the molecular etiopathogenetic pathways. Reduced measures of neurobiological functioning related to reading (dis)ability, i.e. endophenotypes (EPs), are promising targets for gene finding and the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. In a sample of 100 nuclear families with DD (229 offspring) and 83 unrelated typical readers, we tested whether a set of well-established, cognitive phenotypes related to DD [i...
January 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Cassandra L Dean, Brady A Eggleston, Kyla David Gibney, Enimielen Aligbe, Marissa Blackwell, Leslie Dowell Kwakye
The ability to synthesize information across multiple senses is known as multisensory integration and is essential to our understanding of the world around us. Sensory stimuli that occur close in time are likely to be integrated, and the accuracy of this integration is dependent on our ability to precisely discriminate the relative timing of unisensory stimuli (crossmodal temporal acuity). Previous research has shown that multisensory integration is modulated by both bottom-up stimulus features, such as the temporal structure of unisensory stimuli, and top-down processes such as attention...
2017: PloS One
Nora W Schlesinger, Shelley Gray
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of simultaneous multisensory structured language instruction promoted better letter name and sound production, word reading, and word spelling for second grade children with typical development (N = 6) or with dyslexia (N = 5) than structured language instruction alone. The use of non-English graphemes (letters) to represent two pretend languages was used to control for children's lexical knowledge. A multiple baseline, multiple probe across subjects single-case design, with an embedded alternating treatments design, was used to compare the efficacy of multisensory and structured language interventions...
October 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
Gorka Fraga González, Gojko Žarić, Jurgen Tijms, Milene Bonte, Maurits W van der Molen
We use a neurocognitive perspective to discuss the contribution of learning letter-speech sound (L-SS) associations and visual specialization in the initial phases of reading in dyslexic children. We review findings from associative learning studies on related cognitive skills important for establishing and consolidating L-SS associations. Then we review brain potential studies, including our own, that yielded two markers associated with reading fluency. Here we show that the marker related to visual specialization (N170) predicts word and pseudoword reading fluency in children who received additional practice in the processing of morphological word structure...
January 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
Ana A Francisco, Alexandra Jesse, Margriet A Groen, James M McQueen
Purpose: Because reading is an audiovisual process, reading impairment may reflect an audiovisual processing deficit. The aim of the present study was to test the existence and scope of such a deficit in adult readers with dyslexia. Method: We tested 39 typical readers and 51 adult readers with dyslexia on their sensitivity to the simultaneity of audiovisual speech and nonspeech stimuli, their time window of audiovisual integration for speech (using incongruent /aCa/ syllables), and their audiovisual perception of phonetic categories...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Thijs van Laarhoven, Mirjam Keetels, Lemmy Schakel, Jean Vroomen
Individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD) may experience, besides reading problems, other speech-related processing deficits. Here, we examined the influence of visual articulatory information (lip-read speech) at various levels of background noise on auditory word recognition in children and adults with DD. We found that children with a documented history of DD have deficits in their ability to gain benefit from lip-read information that disambiguates noise-masked speech. We show with another group of adult individuals with DD that these deficits persist into adulthood...
January 2018: Developmental Science
L Ronconi, L Casartelli, S Carna, M Molteni, F Arrigoni, R Borgatti
In the last two decades, an intriguing shift in the understanding of the cerebellum has led to consider the nonmotor functions of this structure. Although various aspects of perceptual and sensory processing have been linked to the cerebellar activity, whether the cerebellum is essential for binding information from different sensory modalities remains uninvestigated. Multisensory integration (MSI) appears very early in the ontogenesis and is critical in several perceptual, cognitive, and social domains. For the first time, we investigated MSI in a rare case of cerebellar agenesis without any other associated brain malformations...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Gorka Fraga González, Gojko Žarić, Jurgen Tijms, Milene Bonte, Leo Blomert, Maurits W van der Molen
UNLABELLED: A recent account of dyslexia assumes that a failure to develop automated letter-speech sound integration might be responsible for the observed lack of reading fluency. This study uses a pre-test-training-post-test design to evaluate the effects of a training program based on letter-speech sound associations with a special focus on gains in reading fluency. A sample of 44 children with dyslexia and 23 typical readers, aged 8 to 9, was recruited. Children with dyslexia were randomly allocated to either the training program group (n = 23) or a waiting-list control group (n = 21)...
2015: PloS One
Patrick Quercia, Madeleine Quercia, Léonard J Feiss, François Allaert
In this study, we looked for the presence of vertical heterophoria (VH) in 42 dyslexic children (22 males and 20 females) aged 118.5±12.9 months who were compared with a control group of 22 nondyslexic children (eleven males and eleven females) aged 112±9.8 months. Dyslexics presented a low-level (always <1 prism diopter) VH combined with torsion. This oculomotor feature clearly separates the dyslexic group from the normal readers group. It is independent of the type of dyslexia. The essential feature of this VH is a lability that appears during specific stimulation of sensory receptors involved in postural regulation...
2015: Clinical Ophthalmology
Margaret B Krause
The aim of this review is to provide a background on the neurocognitive aspects of the reading process and review neuroscientific studies of individuals with developmental dyslexia, which provide evidence for amodal processing deficits. Hari, Renvall, and Tanskanen (2001) propose amodal sluggish attentional shifting (SAS) as a causal factor for temporal processing deficits in dyslexia. Undergirding this theory is the notion that when dyslexics are faced with rapid sequences of stimuli, their automatic attentional systems fail to disengage efficiently, which leads to difficulty when moving from one item to the next (Lallier et al...
November 2015: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Sharon Zmigrod, Leor Zmigrod
Synchrony among the senses lies at the heart of our possession of a unified conscious perception of the world. However, due to discrepancies in physical and neural information processing from different senses, the brain accommodates a limited range of temporal asynchronies between sensory inputs, i.e. the multisensory temporal binding window (TBW). Using non-invasive brain stimulation, we sought to modulate the audio-visual TBW and to identify cortical areas implicated in the conscious perception of multisensory synchrony...
September 2015: Consciousness and Cognition
Emmanuelle Dionne-Dostie, Natacha Paquette, Maryse Lassonde, Anne Gallagher
A considerable number of cognitive processes depend on the integration of multisensory information. The brain integrates this information, providing a complete representation of our surrounding world and giving us the ability to react optimally to the environment. Infancy is a period of great changes in brain structure and function that are reflected by the increase of processing capacities of the developing child. However, it is unclear if the optimal use of multisensory information is present early in childhood or develops only later, with experience...
2015: Brain Sciences
Noemi Hahn, John J Foxe, Sophie Molholm
Two sensory systems are intrinsic to learning to read. Written words enter the brain through the visual system and associated sounds through the auditory system. The task before the beginning reader is quite basic. She must learn correspondences between orthographic tokens and phonemic utterances, and she must do this to the point that there is seamless automatic 'connection' between these sensorially distinct units of language. It is self-evident then that learning to read requires formation of cross-sensory associations to the point that deeply encoded multisensory representations are attained...
November 2014: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Mark T Wallace, Ryan A Stevenson
Behavior, perception and cognition are strongly shaped by the synthesis of information across the different sensory modalities. Such multisensory integration often results in performance and perceptual benefits that reflect the additional information conferred by having cues from multiple senses providing redundant or complementary information. The spatial and temporal relationships of these cues provide powerful statistical information about how these cues should be integrated or "bound" in order to create a unified perceptual representation...
November 2014: Neuropsychologia
Manuel Perea, María Jiménez, Paz Suárez-Coalla, Nohemí Fernández, Cecilia Viña, Fernando Cuetos
A recent voice recognition experiment conducted by Perrachione, Del Tufo, and Gabrieli (2011) revealed that, in normal adult readers, the accuracy at identifying human voices was better in the participants' mother tongue than in an unfamiliar language, while this difference was absent in a group of adults with dyslexia. This pattern favored a view of dyslexia as due to "fundamentally impoverished native-language phonological representations." To further examine this issue, we conducted two voice recognition experiments, one with children with/without dyslexia, and the other with adults with/without dyslexia...
2014: Experimental Psychology
Vanessa Harrar, Jonathan Tammam, Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Anna Pitt, John Stein, Charles Spence
Developmental dyslexia affects 5%-10% of the population, resulting in poor spelling and reading skills. While there are well-documented differences in the way dyslexics process low-level visual and auditory stimuli, it is mostly unknown whether there are similar differences in audiovisual multisensory processes. Here, we investigated audiovisual integration using the redundant target effect (RTE) paradigm. Some conditions demonstrating audiovisual integration appear to depend upon magnocellular pathways, and dyslexia has been associated with deficits in this pathway; so, we postulated that developmental dyslexics ("dyslexics" hereafter) would show differences in audiovisual integration compared with controls...
March 3, 2014: Current Biology: CB
E Miles
If help is to be available for all dyslexic children, it needs to be on an economical, cost-effective basis. The Dyslexia Unit at University College of North Wales, Bangor, has been running a teaching project in its own area for the past ten years to find out how this can be done. As a result some conclusions have emerged about the necessary conditions for success. Economies can be effected by using part-time teachers, but individual tuition for at least one hour a week from a trained specialist is considered essential...
January 1985: Annals of Dyslexia
L Ganschow, J Lloyd-Jones, T R Miles
The authors examine the difficulties experienced by dyslexic musicians in the formalized study of music, in particular, musical notation. They describe case studies from the literature and from personal interviews they conducted with musicians about their educational histories, musical weaknesses and strengths, and successful compensatory strategies. The authors make instructional suggestions for educators and musicians with dyslexia on how to use multisensory approaches to teach musical notation.
January 1994: Annals of Dyslexia
L Hutcheson, H Selig, N Young
A large urban school district contracted with a private nonprofit educational foundation to train 126 special education resource teachers in the last three years in an Orton-Gillingham-based program. These teachers are currently teaching learning-disabled students in groups of 8-10 at the elementary level and 10-13 students at the secondary level. Learning-disabled students who qualify for Special Education, either in reading or spelling, or both, are receiving the instruction.The teachers took a Basic Introductory Class (90 hours of Advanced Academic Credit offered by the Texas Education Agency, or six hours of graduate credit at a local university) in order to teach the program in the resource setting...
January 1990: Annals of Dyslexia
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