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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913541/cost-effectiveness-of-carbetocin-versus-oxytocin-for-prevention-of-postpartum-hemorrhage-resulting-from-uterine-atony-in-women-at-high-risk-for-bleeding-in-colombia
#1
Yaneth Gil-Rojas, Pieralessandro Lasalvia, Fabián Hernández, Camilo Castañeda-Cardona, Diego Rosselli
OBJECTIVE:  To assess the cost-effectiveness of carbetocin versus oxytocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) due to uterine atony after vaginal delivery/cesarean section in women with risk factors for bleeding. METHODS:  A decision tree was developed for vaginal delivery and another one for cesarean, in which a sequential analysis of the results was obtained with the use of carbetocin and oxytocin for prevention of PPH and related consequences. A third-party payer perspective was used; only direct medical costs were considered...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913537/evaluation-of-the-utility-of-von-willebrand-factor-propeptide-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-von-willebrand-disease-and-acquired-von-willebrand-syndrome
#2
Francesca Stufano, Marco Boscarino, Paolo Bucciarelli, Luciano Baronciani, Alberto Maino, Giovanna Cozzi, Flora Peyvandi
An increased von Willebrand factor propeptide (VWFpp) to VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) ratio (VWFpp/VWF:Ag) indicates an enhanced clearance of VWF. This finding has been described in von Willebrand disease (VWD) and in acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). A distinction between these two diseases, one congenital and the other acquired, is primarily based on family and personal history of bleeding. However, if this information is scanty, the diagnosis might be challenging due to the lack of an effective diagnostic biomarker...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913438/race-age-and-gender-based-characteristics-and-toxicities-of-targeted-therapies-on-phase-i-trials
#3
Taofeek K Owonikoko, Adeniyi K Busari, Sungjin Kim, Zhengjia Chen, Adebowale Akintayo, Colleen Lewis, Bradley C Carthon, Olatunji B Alese, Bassel F El-Rayes, Suresh S Ramalingam, R Donald Harvey
BACKGROUND: The impact of age-, gender-, and race-based differences on safety and efficacy in phase I clinical trials has not been well studied. METHODS: We analyzed data from phase I clinical trials evaluating targeted biologic agents in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Race and gender distribution of enrolled patients was compared to the referral population demographics at the city, metro, and state levels. The association between age, gender, and race with type, frequency, and severity of treatment-emergent toxicities and clinical benefit was assessed using univariate and multivariable models...
June 18, 2018: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913435/assessment-of-exposure-to-air-pollution-in-children-determining-whether-wearing-a-personal-monitor-affects-physical-activity
#4
Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir, Jennifer Lawrence, Kyung Hwa Jung, Andrew G Rundle, Lori A Hoepner, Beizhan Yan, Federica Perera, Matthew S Perzanowski, Rachel L Miller, Steve N Chillrud
Personal air pollution monitoring in research studies should not interfere with usual patterns of behavior and bias results. In an urban pediatric cohort study we tested whether wearing an air monitor impacted activity time based on continuous watch-based accelerometry. The majority (71%) reported that activity while wearing the monitor mimicked normal activity. Correspondingly, variation in activity while wearing versus not wearing the monitor did not differ greatly from baseline variation in activity (P = 0...
June 15, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913394/many-us-hospital-affiliated-freestanding-ambulatory-surgery-centers-are-located-on-hospital-campuses-relevant-to-interpretation-of-studies-involving-ambulatory-surgery
#5
Dean Elhag, Franklin Dexter, Mohamed Elhakim, Richard H Epstein
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's State Ambulatory Surgery Database includes procedures performed at hospital outpatient surgery departments. We hypothesized that, among US hospitals with an anesthesia department and freestanding outpatient surgical center, the prevalence on hospital campuses (i.e., within 250 yards of the main hospital building) would be sufficiently large (e.g., >10%) to influence interpretation of observational studies performed with US national ambulatory surgery datasets...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913388/perception-of-direct-vs-averted-gaze-in-portrait-paintings-an-fmri-and-eye-tracking-study
#6
Ladislav Kesner, Dominika Grygarová, Iveta Fajnerová, Jiří Lukavský, Tereza Nekovářová, Jaroslav Tintěra, Yuliya Zaytseva, Jiří Horáček
In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913341/impulse-control-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-rls-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Ana Marques, Michela Figorilli, Bruno Pereira, Philippe Derost, Berengere Debilly, Patricia Beudin, Tiphaine Vidal, Franck Durif, Maria Livia Fantini
BACKGROUND: Although dopamine replacement therapy is the main risk factor for the occurrence of Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD), non-pharmacological risk factors for have also been identified in that population and sleep disorders could be part of them. Our objective is to determine whether Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), that has been associated with more impulsive choices in general population regardless of dopaminergic therapy, could be associated with a specific psycho-behavioral profile and ICDs in PD...
March 1, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913339/incidence-of-epileptiform-discharges-in-children-during-induction-of-anaesthesia-using-propofol-versus-sevoflurane
#8
Susanne Koch, Leopold Rupp, Christine Prager, Rudolf Mörgeli, Sylvia Kramer, Klaus Dieter Wernecke, Astrid Fahlenkamp, Claudia Spies
OBJECTIVE: In pediatric patients, anaesthesia induction is often performed with intravenous Propofol or Sevoflurane inhalation. Although epileptiform discharges have been observed during inductions with Sevoflurane, their occurrence has not been investigated for i.v. Propofol inductions. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence of epileptiform discharges in children during anaesthesia induction using Propofol versus Sevoflurane. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study in children aged 0...
June 8, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913308/basic-versus-supplementary-health-insurance-access-to-care-and-the-role-of-cost-effectiveness
#9
Jan Boone
In a model where patients face budget constraints that make some treatments unaffordable without health insurance, we ask which treatments should be covered by universal basic insurance and which by private voluntary insurance. We argue that next to cost effectiveness, prevalence is important if the government wants to maximize the welfare gain that it gets from its health budget. Conditions are derived under which basic insurance should cover treatments that are mainly used by high risk agents with low income...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913256/the-effect-of-glucocorticoids-on-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#10
Anne-Birgitte Blavnsfeldt, Annette de Thurah, Malissa Dawn Thomsen, Simon Tarp, Bente Langdahl, Ellen-Margrethe Hauge
PURPOSE: The role of glucocorticoids in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is widely debated. Impairment of bone formation may be counter-balanced by reduced systemic inflammation. This review aims to assess the effect of prednisolone/prednisone on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA analyzed in randomized, controlled trials. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and identified randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled studies including patients with RA and using prednisolone or prednisone as the intervention...
June 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913173/diagnostic-accuracy-of-4-th-generation-architect-hiv-ag-ab-combo-assay-and-utility-of-signal-to-cutoff-ratio-to-predict-false-positive-hiv-tests-in-pregnancy
#11
Emily H Adhikari, Devin Macias, Donna Gaffney, Sarah White, Vanessa L Rogers, Donald D McIntire, Scott W Roberts
BACKGROUND: False positive HIV screening tests in pregnancy may lead to unnecessary interventions in labor. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a new algorithm for HIV diagnosis using a 4th generation screening test, which detects antibodies to HIV as well as p24 antigen and has a shorter window period compared with prior generations. A reactive screen requires a differentiation assay, and supplemental qualitative RNA testing is necessary for nonreactive differentiation assay...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913171/longitudinal-profiles-of-relaxin-and-progestagens-during-pregnancy-pregnancy-loss-and-false-pregnancy-in-the-killer-whale-orcinus-orca
#12
Todd R Robeck, Jason L Blum, Karen J Steinman, Jill R Ratner, Don R Bergfelt, Justine K O'Brien
The circulating pattern of immunoreactive relaxin and progestagens based on monthly and gestational stage (early, mid, late) profiles were determined during pregnancies that resulted in live calves (LIVE, n = 30), stillbirths (STILLB, n = 3), abortions (ABORT, n = 5) and presumptive false pregnancies (FALSE, n = 8), and during the follicular (n = 34) and luteal phases (n = 58). Monthly LIVE relaxin concentrations steadily increased during gestation, but values did not significantly exceed those of the luteal phase until 10 months prior to parturition, peaking during the final month at 2,356 ng/ml...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913132/a-novel-kinematics-analysis-method-using-quaternion-interpolation-a-case-study-in-frog-jumping
#13
Christopher T Richards, Laura B Porro
Spherical Linear Interpolation (SLERP) has long been used in computer animation to interpolate movements between two 3D orientations. We developed a forward kinematics (FK) approach using quaternions and SLERP to predict how frogs modulate jump kinematics between start posture and takeoff. Frog limb kinematics have been studied during various activities, yet the causal link between differences in joint kinematics and locomotor variation remains unknown. We varied 1) takeoff angle from 8 to 60 degrees; 2) turn angle from 0 to 18 degrees; and 3) initial body pitch from 0 to 70 degrees...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913113/the-frequency-of-false-allegations-of-child-sexual-abuse-a-critical-review
#14
William O'Donohue, Caroline Cummings, Brendan Willis
The rate of false allegations has been a topic of research spanning back to as early as the 1970s. Studies have often relied on data gathered by Child Protective Services workers and court administrators. Some researchers have also used hypothetical scenarios to estimate rates. However, given the plethora of sampling methods, there is a large variation in estimated rates of false allegations of sexual abuse depending on the data source and context of the allegation. Additionally, methodological problems such as unclear or invalid criteria used to judge truth or falsity of an allegation, unrepresentative samples, and ignoring important contextual variables such as the stage at which an allegation is made, currently all render the determination of actual rates of false child sexual abuse allegations to be unknown...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913078/sexual-rehabilitation-after-prostate-cancer-through-assistive-aids-a-comparison-of-gay-bisexual-and-heterosexual-men
#15
Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz, Duncan Rose, Andrew Kellett, Gary Dowsett
The use of assistive aids in sexual rehabilitation after prostate cancer (PCa) was examined in 124 gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) and 225 heterosexual men. GBM were significantly more likely to use assistive aids (79% versus 56%), to try multiple assistive aids (M = 1.65 versus M = 0.83) including medication, penile injection, penile implant, vacuum pump, and nonmedical sex aids, and to seek information about sexual rehabilitation on the Internet, through counseling, or in a support group...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913039/regulatory-t-cells-from-allo-to-xenotransplantation-opportunities-and-challenges
#16
REVIEW
Mohamed B Ezzelarab
Regulatory T cells (Treg) are currently being evaluated in clinical allotransplantation for tolerance induction, with proven safety in humans with autoimmune diseases and graft-versus-host disease. A considerable amount of recent data suggests that additional factors may need to be validated, including the stability and commitment of newly discovered Treg subsets under inflammatory conditions, to further warrant safe and effective Treg-based therapeutic approaches. This review explores the opportunities and challenges of Treg-based cell therapy in xenotransplantation...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913033/comparison-of-propofol-based-versus-volatile-based-anaesthesia-and-postoperative-sedation-in-cardiac-surgical-patients-a-prospective-randomized-study
#17
Marcin Wąsowicz, Angela Jerath, Warren Luksun, Vivek Sharma, Nicholas Mitsakakis, Massimilaino Meineri, Rita Katznelson, Terrence Yau, Vivek Rao, William Scott Beattie
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown conflicting results regarding the use of volatile anesthesia before or after the ischemic insult in cardiac surgical patients and effect on myocardial injury. This may be attributable to the failure of continuing volatile agents into the early postoperative period. We hypothesized that combined volatile-based anesthesia and postoperative sedation would decrease the extent of myocardial injury after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) when compared to intravenous, propofol-based approach...
June 18, 2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912954/impact-of-smartphone-assisted-prenatal-home-visits-on-women-s-use-of-facility-delivery-results-from-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-rural-tanzania
#18
Kristy Hackett, Curtis Lafleur, Peter Nyella, Ophira Ginsburg, Wendy Lou, Daniel Sellen
BACKGROUND: About half of births in rural Tanzania are assisted by skilled providers. Point-of-care mobile phone applications hold promise in boosting job support for community health workers aiming to ensure safe motherhood through increased facility delivery awareness, access and uptake. We conducted a controlled comparison to evaluate a smartphone-based application designed to assist community health workers with data collection, education delivery, gestational danger sign identification, and referrals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912907/evaluation-of-the-genexpert-mtb-rif-in-patients-with-presumptive-tuberculous-meningitis
#19
Tatiana Metcalf, Jaime Soria, Silvia M Montano, Eduardo Ticona, Carlton A Evans, Luz Huaroto, Matthew Kasper, Eric S Ramos, Nicanor Mori, Podjanee Jittamala, Kesinee Chotivanich, Irwin F Chavez, Pratap Singhasivanon, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Joseph R Zunt
BACKGROUND: Meningitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing with the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay versus traditional approaches for diagnosing tuberculosis meningitis (TBM). METHODS: Patients were adults (n = 37) presenting with suspected TBM to the Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Peru, during 12 months until 1st January 2015. Each participant had a single CSF specimen that was divided into aliquots that were concurrently tested for M...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912838/baha-skin-complications-in-the-pediatric-population-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#20
Scott Shapiro, Jad Ramadan, Adam Cassis
OBJECTIVE: Compare the incidence of skin and surgical site complications for children undergoing percutaneous and transcutaneous bone conduction implant (pBCI and tBCI) surgery via systematic review and meta-analysis of the available data. DATA SOURCES: 1) Search of PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCOhost databases from January 2012 to April 2017. 2) References of studies meeting initial criteria. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were studies that involved patients less than 18 years old undergoing tBCI or pBCI surgery with a BI300 implant and reported skin complications, implant loss, and need for revision surgery...
June 15, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
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