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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471536/variation-across-mitochondrial-gene-trees-provides-evidence-for-systematic-error-how-much-gene-tree-variation-is-biological
#1
Emilie J Richards, Jeremy M Brown, Anthony J Barley, Rebecca A Chong, Robert C Thomson
The use of large genomic datasets in phylogenetics has highlighted extensive topological variation across genes. Much of this discordance is assumed to result from biological processes. However, variation among gene trees can also be a consequence of systematic error driven by poor model fit, and the relative importance of biological versus methodological factors in explaining gene tree variation is a major unresolved question. Using mitochondrial genomes to control for biological causes of gene tree variation, we estimate the extent of gene tree discordance driven by systematic error and employ posterior prediction to highlight the role of model fit in producing this discordance...
February 19, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471460/coaching-primary-care-clinics-for-hpv-vaccination-quality-improvement-comparing-in-person-and-webinar-implementation
#2
William A Calo, Melissa B Gilkey, Jennifer Leeman, Jennifer Heisler-MacKinnon, Chrystal Averette, Stephanie Sanchez, Melanie L Kornides, Noel T Brewer
State health departments commonly use quality improvement coaching as an implementation strategy for improving low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage, but such coaching can be resource intensive. To explore opportunities for improving efficiency, we compared in-person and webinar delivery of coaching sessions on implementation outcomes, including reach, acceptability, and delivery cost. In 2015, we randomly assigned 148 high-volume primary care clinics in Illinois, Michigan, and Washington State to receive either in-person or webinar coaching...
February 20, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471449/obesity-associated-advanced-glycation-end-products-within-the-human-uterine-cavity-adversely-impact-endometrial-function-and-embryo-implantation-competence
#3
Gabriella S Antoniotti, Melinda Coughlan, Lois A Salamonsen, Jemma Evans
STUDY QUESTION: Do obese levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) within the uterine cavity detrimentally alter tissue function in embryo implantation and placental development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Obese levels of AGEs activate inflammatory signaling (p65 NFκB) within endometrial epithelial cells and alter their function, cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endometrial stromal cells and impair decidualization, compromise implantation of blastocyst mimics and inhibit trophoblast invasion...
February 20, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471423/predictive-models-of-cognitive-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Jason A Berard, Andra M Smith, Lisa A S Walker
Objective: Cognitive fatigue (CF) can be defined as decreased performance with sustained cognitive effort. The present study examined the interrelatedness of disease severity, fatigue, depression, and sleep quality in order to evaluate their predictive roles of CF in MS. Four theoretical models examining these variables were assessed. Methods: Fifty-eight individuals with a diagnosis of MS were recruited. CF was measured by examining last third versus first third performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471395/origin-and-composition-of-cell-free-dna-in-spent-medium-from-human-embryo-culture-during-preimplantation-development
#5
M Vera-Rodriguez, A Diez-Juan, J Jimenez-Almazan, S Martinez, R Navarro, V Peinado, A Mercader, M Meseguer, D Blesa, I Moreno, D Valbuena, C Rubio, C Simon
STUDY QUESTION: What is the origin and composition of cell-free DNA in human embryo spent culture media? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cell-free DNA from human embryo spent culture media represents a mix of maternal and embryonic DNA, and the mixture can be more complex for mosaic embryos. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In 2016, ~300 000 human embryos were chromosomally and/or genetically analyzed using preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A) or monogenic disorders (PGT-M) before transfer into the uterus...
February 20, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471393/the-severe-impairment-profile-a-conceptual-shift
#6
Jordan S Robinson, Robert L Collins, Brian I Miller, Vitor H Pacheco, Nicholas M Wisdom
Objective: The current study sought to evaluate and replicate the severe impairment profile (SIP) of the Word Memory Test (WMT) in patients referred for dementia evaluations. Method: The sample consisted of 125 patients referred for a neuropsychological evaluation at a large Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Patients were assigned a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) by blind raters, and were classified according to their performance on performance validity testing. Subsequent chart reviews were conducted to help in more accurately determining the presence of severe memory impairment likely due to an underlying dementing process versus poor effort/task engagement...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471261/regulation-of-cortical-and-peripheral-gch1-expression-and-biopterin-levels-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#7
James D Clelland, Laura L Read, Jennifer Smeed, Catherine L Clelland
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 ) is an essential cofactor for dopamine, serotonin and nitric oxide synthesis. Deficits of plasma total biopterin (a measure of BH4 ) have been described in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. GCH1 encodes the first and rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 synthesis. Peripheral GCH1 expression is lower in first episode psychosis patients versus controls, and we hypothesized that a GCH1 promoter polymorphism associated with psychiatric illness, contributes to regulation of both GCH1 expression and BH4 levels...
February 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471198/gaze-patterns-reveal-how-situation-models-and-text-representations-contribute-to-episodic-text-memory
#8
Roger Johansson, Franziska Oren, Kenneth Holmqvist
When recalling something you have previously read, to what degree will such episodic remembering activate a situation model of described events versus a memory representation of the text itself? The present study was designed to address this question by recording eye movements of participants who recalled previously read texts while looking at a blank screen. An accumulating body of research has demonstrated that spontaneous eye movements occur during episodic memory retrieval and that fixation locations from such gaze patterns to a large degree overlap with the visuospatial layout of the recalled information...
February 19, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471159/operation-versus-watchful-waiting-in-asymptomatic-or-minimally-symptomatic-inguinal-hernias-the-meta-analysis-results-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
REVIEW
Wenbin Gong, Junsheng Li
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this article was to compare and analyze the outcomes of surgical repair and watchful waiting (WW) in the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic inguinal hernias. METHODS: A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify studies that compare surgical repair and watchful waiting in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic inguinal hernias. And all related data matching our standards were abstracted for Meta-analysis with RevMan 5...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471156/sliding-hip-screw-versus-cannulated-cancellous-screws-for-fixation-of-femoral-neck-fracture-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Jian-Xiong Ma, Ming-Jie Kuang, Fei Xing, Yun-Long Zhao, Heng-Ting Chen, Lu-Kai Zhang, Zheng-Rui Fan, Chao Han, Xin-Long Ma
OBJECTIVE: Femoral neck fracture is considered a difficult fracture to treat and often gives rise to unsatisfactory treatment results. Cannulated cancellous screws (CCS) or a sliding hip screw (SHS) are the mainstream internal fixations used for osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures. There is a need to integrate existing data through a meta-analysis to investigate the safety and effectiveness of CCS and SHS in the treatment of femoral neck fractures. METHOD: According to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, we screened for the relevant studies by searching Google Scholar, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, and PubMed...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471155/early-results-of-magnetic-sphincter-augmentation-versus-fundoplication-for-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Alberto Aiolfi, Emanuele Asti, Daniele Bernardi, Gianluca Bonitta, Emanuele Rausa, Stefano Siboni, Luigi Bonavina
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Nissen and Toupet fundoplication (LF) are currently considered gold-standard surgical treatment for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation (MSA) is an innovative surgical procedure that has been showed to be effective to control GERD symptoms and to reduce esophageal acid exposure. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare early outcomes of LF and MSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were consulted matching the terms "Gastroesophageal reflux or heartburn", "LINX or magnetic sphincter augmentation" and "fundoplication"...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471152/carpal-tunnel-release-with-a-new-mini-incision-approach-versus-a-conventional-approach-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Jiangbo Bai, Lingde Kong, Hongfang Zhao, Kunlun Yu, Bing Zhang, Jichun Zhang, Dehu Tian
PURPOSE: We have make use of a new method to perform carpal tunnel release (CTR) through a 1.5-2.0 cm long incision The aim of this study is to introduce this method and to compare the effectiveness and safety of this approach to the conventional one. METHODS: We included consecutive patients diagnosed with primary carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) who had CTR from January 2015 to September 2016. A total of 85 patients were included in our study. Among them, 42 patients with mini-incision approach were enrolled in group A, and the other 43 patients with conventional approach were enrolled in group B...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471150/comprehensive-virome-analysis-reveals-the-complexity-and-diversity-of-the-viral-spectrum-in-pediatric-patients-diagnosed-with-severe-and-mild-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#13
Chunhua Wang, Shuaifeng Zhou, Wanhua Xue, Liang Shen, Wei Huang, Yi Zhang, Xuguang Li, Junzhi Wang, Hong Zhang, Xuejun Ma
The management of hand-foot-and-mouth disease(HFMD) epidemic is difficult due to the frequent emergence of non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses and some cases testing negative for HFMD-associated causative agents. To clarify the virus spectrum of mild and severe HFMD, a comprehensive virome analysis of 238 samples was performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The data revealed total thirteen mammalian- and plant- virus families and diverse viral populations including enteroviruses, common respiratory viruses, diarrhea-related viruses, plant viruses and anelloviruses...
February 19, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471147/blue-light-versus-red-light-for-photodynamic-therapy-of-basal-cell-carcinoma-in-patients-with-gorlin-syndrome-a-bilaterally-controlled-comparison-study
#14
Edward V Maytin, Urvashi Kaw, Muneeb Ilyas, Judith A Mack, Bo Hu
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-scarring alternative for treating basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in patients with Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (BCNS), also known as Gorlin syndrome. In Europe, red light (635 nm) is the predominant source for PDT, whereas in the United States blue light (400 nm) is more widely available. The objective of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison of blue light and red light PDT in the same BCNS patients. METHODS: In a pilot study of three patients with 141 BCC lesions, 5-aminolevulinate (20% solution) was applied to all tumors...
February 19, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471120/the-4-n-acyl-and-4-n-alkyl-gemcitabine-analogues-with-silicon-fluoride-acceptor-application-to-18-f-radiolabeling
#15
Cesar Gonzalez, Andersson Sanchez, Jeffrey Collins, Ksenia Lisova, Jason T Lee, R Michael van Dam, M Alejandro Barbieri, Cheppail Ramachandran, Stanislaw F Wnuk
The coupling of gemcitabine with functionalized carboxylic acids using peptide coupling conditions afforded 4-N-alkanoyl analogues with a terminal alkyne or azido moiety. Reaction of 4-N-tosylgemcitabine with azidoalkyl amine provided 4-N-alkyl gemcitabine with a terminal azido group. Click reaction with silane building blocks afforded 4-N-alkanoyl or 4-N-alkyl gemcitabine analogues suitable for fluorination. RP-HPLC analysis indicated better chemical stability of 4-N-alkyl gemcitabine analogues versus 4-N-alkanoyl analogues in acidic aqueous conditions...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471082/anhedonic-behavior-and-%C3%AE-amino-butyric-acid-during-a-sensitive-period-in-female-rats-exposed-to-early-adversity
#16
Jodi L Lukkes, Shirisha Meda, Kevin J Norman, Susan L Andersen
Early life adversity increases depressive behavior that emerges during adolescence. Sensitive periods have been associated with fewer GABAergic interneurons, especially parvalbumin (PV), brain derived growth factor, and its receptor, TrkB. Here, maternal separation (MS) and social isolation (ISO) were used to establish a sensitive period for anhedonic depression using the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm. Female Sprague-Dawley rat pups underwent MS for 4-h/day or received typical care (CON) between postnatal days 2-20; for the ISO condition, separate cohorts were individually housed between days 20-40 or served as controls (CON2)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471045/prdm14-a-putative-histone-methyl-transferase-interacts-with-and-decreases-the-stability-and-activity-of-the-hoxa1-transcription-factor
#17
Amandine Draime, Laure Bridoux, Magali Belpaire, Tamara Pringels, Janne Tys, René Rezsohazy
Understanding how the activity of transcription factors like HOX proteins is regulated remains a widely open question. In a recent screen for proteins interacting with HOXA1, we identified a PRDM protein family member, PRDM14, which is known to be transiently co-expressed with HOXA1 in epiblast cells before their specification towards somatic versus germ cell fate. Here, we confirm PRDM14 is an interactor of HOXA1 and we identify the homeodomain of HOXA1 as well as the PR domain and Zinc fingers of PRDM14 to be required for the interaction...
February 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471013/hepatic-arterial-infusion-of-oxaliplatin-plus-fluorouracil-leucovorin-versus-sorafenib-for-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Ning Lyu, Yanan Kong, Luwen Mu, Youen Lin, Jibin Li, Yaru Liu, Zhenfeng Zhang, Lie Zheng, Haijing Deng, Shaolong Li, Qiankun Xie, Rongping Guo, Ming Shi, Li Xu, Xiuyu Cai, Peihong Wu, Ming Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To compare the overall survival (OS) and disease progression free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (Ad-HCC) who are undergoing hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of oxaliplatin, fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) treatment versus sorafenib. METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the ethical review committee, and informed consent was obtained from all patients before treatment. HAI of FOLFOX (HAIF) was recommended as an alternative treatment option for patient who refused sorafenib...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471002/interpersonal-relationship-modulates-the-behavioral-and-neural-responses-during-moral-decision-making
#19
Youlong Zhan, Xiao Xiao, Jin Li, Lei Liu, Jie Chen, Wei Fan, Yiping Zhong
Interpersonal relationship (IR) may play an important role in moral decision-making. However, it is little known about how IR influences neural and behavioral responses during moral decision-making. The present study utilized the dilemma scenario-priming paradigm to examine the time course of the different intimate IR (friend, acquaintance, or stranger) impacts on the emotional and cognitive processes during moral decision-making. Results showed that participants made less altruistic decisions with increased decision times and experienced more unpleasure for strangers versus friends and acquaintances...
February 19, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470992/control-of-cell-fraction-and-population-recovery-during-tissue-regeneration-in-stem-cell-lineages
#20
Marissa Renardy, Alexandra Jilkine, Leili Shahriyari, Ching-Shan Chou
Multicellular tissues are continually turning over, and homeostasis is maintained through regulated proliferation and differentiation of stem cells and progenitors. Following tissue injury, a dramatic increase in cell proliferation is commonly observed, resulting in rapid restoration of tissue size. This regulation is thought to occur via multiple feedback loops acting on cell self-renewal or differentiation. Models of ordinary differential equations have been widely used to study the cell lineage system. Prior modeling studies have suggested that loss of homeostasis and initiation of tumorigenesis can be contributed to the loss of control of these processes, and the rate of symmetric versus asymmetric division of the stem cells may also be altered...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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