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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937323/clinical-characteristics-and-temporal-profile-of-recovery-in-patients-with-favorable-outcomes-at-6-months-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Aditya Vedantam, Claudia S Robertson, Shankar P Gopinath
OBJECTIVE Early withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment due to expected poor prognosis is responsible for the majority of in-house deaths in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). With increased focus on the decision and timing of withdrawal of care in patients with severe TBI, data on early neurological recovery in patients with a favorable outcome is needed to guide physicians and families. METHODS The authors reviewed prospectively collected data obtained in 1241 patients with head injury who were treated between 1986 and 2012...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936483/looking-forwards-and-backwards-the-real-time-processing-of-strong-and-weak-crossover
#2
Dave Kush, Jeffrey Lidz, Colin Phillips
We investigated the processing of pronouns in Strong and Weak Crossover constructions as a means of probing the extent to which the incremental parser can use syntactic information to guide antecedent retrieval. In Experiment 1 we show that the parser accesses a displaced wh-phrase as an antecedent for a pronoun when no grammatical constraints prohibit binding, but the parser ignores the same wh-phrase when it stands in a Strong Crossover relation to the pronoun. These results are consistent with two possibilities...
2017: Glossa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935857/sensorimotor-computation-underlying-phototaxis-in-zebrafish
#3
Sébastien Wolf, Alexis M Dubreuil, Tommaso Bertoni, Urs Lucas Böhm, Volker Bormuth, Raphaël Candelier, Sophia Karpenko, David G C Hildebrand, Isaac H Bianco, Rémi Monasson, Georges Debrégeas
Animals continuously gather sensory cues to move towards favourable environments. Efficient goal-directed navigation requires sensory perception and motor commands to be intertwined in a feedback loop, yet the neural substrate underlying this sensorimotor task in the vertebrate brain remains elusive. Here, we combine virtual-reality behavioural assays, volumetric calcium imaging, optogenetic stimulation and circuit modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms through which a zebrafish performs phototaxis, i.e...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930035/calgary-edmonton-and-the-university-of-alberta-the-extraordinary-medical-mobilization-by-canada-s-newest-province
#4
Mark P Da Cambra, Vivian C McAlister
The Canadian contribution of medical services to the British Empire during the First World War was a national endeavour. Physicians from across the country enlisted in local regiments to join. No other region provided more physicians per capita than the newly formed province of Alberta. Largely organized through the Medical School of the University of Alberta, the No. 11 Canadian Field Ambulance out of Edmonton and the No. 8 Canadian Field Ambulance out of Calgary ultimately enlisted between one-third and half of the province's doctors to the war campaign...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928557/a-comparative-evaluation-of-intravenous-dexmedetomidine-and-fentanyl-in-breast-cancer-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-and-controlled-trial
#5
Sakshi Goyal, Kewal Krishan Gupta, Vikram Mahajan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies have advised narcotic less anaestheic techniques for breast cancer surgeries due to altered immune system by use of opioids. So we planned this study to compare the efficacy of dexmedtomidine with fentanyl in breast cancer surgery in terms of haemodynamic stability, anaesthetic sparing effects, recovery profile and postoperative analgesia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this randomized prospective controlled trial, a total of 60 female patients were randomly assigned into two groups...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927937/evaluation-of-intensity-drift-correction-strategies-using-metabodrift-a-normalization-tool-for-multi-batch-metabolomics-data
#6
Chanisa Thonusin, Heidi B IglayReger, Tanu Soni, Amy E Rothberg, Charles F Burant, Charles R Evans
In recent years, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has increasingly been applied to large-scale epidemiological studies of human subjects. However, the successful use of metabolomics in this context is subject to the challenge of detecting biologically significant effects despite substantial intensity drift that often occurs when data are acquired over a long period or in multiple batches. Numerous computational strategies and software tools have been developed to aid in correcting for intensity drift in metabolomics data, but most of these techniques are implemented using command-line driven software and custom scripts which are not accessible to all end users of metabolomics data...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927466/goleman-s-leadership-styles-at-different-hierarchical-levels-in-medical-education
#7
Anurag Saxena, Loni Desanghere, Kent Stobart, Keith Walker
BACKGROUND: With current emphasis on leadership in medicine, this study explores Goleman's leadership styles of medical education leaders at different hierarchical levels and gain insight into factors that contribute to the appropriateness of practices. METHODS: Forty two leaders (28 first-level with limited formal authority, eight middle-level with wider program responsibility and six senior- level with higher organizational authority) rank ordered their preferred Goleman's styles and provided comments...
September 19, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926451/the-isolated-forearm-paradox-why-never-a-response-to-command-in-the-completely-unparalyzed
#8
Jaideep J Pandit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926171/biliary-reconstructive-techniques-and-associated-anatomic-variants-in-adult-living-donor-liver-transplants-the-a2all-experience
#9
Talia B Baker, Michael A Zimmerman, Nathan P Goodrich, Benjamin Samstein, Elizabeth A Pomfret, James J Pomposelli, Brenda W Gillespie, Carl L Berg, Jean C Emond, Robert M Merion
INTRODUCTION: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a technically demanding endeavor, requiring command of the complex anatomy of partial liver grafts. We examined the influence of anatomic variation and reconstruction technique on surgical outcomes and graft survival in the nine-center A2ALL Study. METHODS: Data from 272 adult LDLT recipients (2011-2015) included details on anatomic characteristics and types of intraoperative biliary reconstruction. Associations were tested between reconstruction technique and complications, which included first biliary complication ([BC]; leak, stricture, or biloma) and first vascular complication (hepatic artery thrombosis [HAT] or portal vein thrombosis [PVT])...
September 19, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924748/a-multi-joint-model-of-quiet-upright-stance-accounts-for-the-uncontrolled-manifold-structure-of-joint-variance
#10
Hendrik Reimann, Gregor Schöner
The upright body in quiet stance is usually modeled as a single-link inverted pendulum. This agrees with most of the relevant sensory organs being at the far end of the pendulum, i.e., the eyes and the vestibular system in the head. Movement of the body in quiet stance has often been explained in terms of the "ankle strategy," where most movement is generated by the ankle musculature, while more proximal muscle groups are only rarely activated for faster movements or in response to perturbations, for instance, by flexing at the hips in what has been called the "hip strategy...
September 18, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924250/command-electro-optical-switching-of-photoaligned-liquid-crystal-on-photopatterned-graphene
#11
Andrii Varanytsia, Liang-Chy Chien
We report command electro-optical switching on photolithographically-patterned graphene into a high-density electrode pattern for a high-transmission in-plane-switching (IPS) liquid crystal device. A highly-effective liquid crystal photoalignment method is used to maximize the field-driven optical contrast of a prototyped device. A non-contact and low-temperature photoalignment allows delicate surface treatment required for successful processing of graphene layer into an IPS electrode structure. Electro-optic performance of the graphene-based single pixel laboratory IPS prototype demonstrates the application potential of graphene for liquid crystal electro-optic devices with complex and high-definition electrode patterns...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924050/discovery-of-leucokinin-like-neuropeptides-that-modulate-a-specific-parameter-of-feeding-motor-programs-in-the-molluscan-model-aplysia
#12
Guo Zhang, Ferdinand S Vilim, Dan-Dan Liu, Elena V Romanova, Ke Yu, Wang-Ding Yuan, Hui Xiao, Amanda B Hummon, Ting-Ting Chen, Vera Alexeeva, Si-Yuan Yin, Song-An Chen, Elizabeth C Cropper, Jonathan V Sweedler, Klaudiusz R Weiss, Jian Jing
A better understanding of neuromodulation in a behavioral system requires identifying active modulatory transmitters. Here, we used identifiable neurons in a neurobiological model system, the mollusc Aplysia, to study neuropeptides, a diverse class of neuromodulators. We took advantage of two types of feeding neurons, B48 and B1/B2, in the Aplysia buccal ganglion that might contain different neuropeptides. We performed a representational difference analysis (RDA) by subtraction of mRNAs in B48 versus mRNA in B1/B2...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921758/-the-days-when-the-anatomist-commanded-the-respect-and-confidence-of-his-medical-colleagues-solely-on-the-basis-of-his-knowledge-of-static-morphology-are-rapidly-disappearing
#13
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917169/short-term-associations-of-ambient-air-pollution-and-cause-specific-emergency-department-visits-in-guangzhou-china
#14
Pi Guo, Wenru Feng, Murui Zheng, Jiayun Lv, Li Wang, Ju Liu, Yanhong Zhang, Gangfeng Luo, Yanting Zhang, Changyu Deng, Tongxing Shi, Pengda Liu, Lin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Evidence of association of ambient air pollution with cause-specific emergency department visits in China is still limited. This study aimed to investigate short-term associations between exposures to air pollutants and daily cause-specific emergency department visits using a large-scale multicenter database involving a total of 65 sentinel hospitals in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in south China, during 2013-2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We obtained data on 162,771 emergency department visits from 65 hospitals from the Emergency Medical Command Center in Guangzhou between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916989/comparison-of-the-recovery-profile-between-desflurane-and-sevoflurane-in-patients-undergoing-bariatric-surgery-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
Preet Mohinder Singh, Anuradha Borle, Jason McGavin, Anjan Trikha, Ashish Sinha
Early and clear recovery from anesthesia is the crux for preventing perioperative complications in the obese undergoing bariatric surgery. Volatile inhalation agents by virtue of high lipid solubility are expected to produce residual anesthetic effects. Prospective randomized trials comparing desflurane and sevoflurane used for anesthesia maintenance (electroencephalograph guided) during bariatric surgery published till 1st of July 2017 were searched in the medical database. Comparisons were made for surrogate markers of recovery from anesthesia that included time to eye-opening (TEo), time to tracheal-extubation (TEx), and Aldrete scores on immediately shifting to recovery (Ald-I)...
September 16, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916788/a-v0-core-neuronal-circuit-for-inspiration
#16
Jinjin Wu, Paolo Capelli, Julien Bouvier, Martyn Goulding, Silvia Arber, Gilles Fortin
Breathing in mammals relies on permanent rhythmic and bilaterally synchronized contractions of inspiratory pump muscles. These motor drives emerge from interactions between critical sets of brainstem neurons whose origins and synaptic ordered organization remain obscure. Here, we show, using a virus-based transsynaptic tracing strategy from the diaphragm muscle in the mouse, that the principal inspiratory premotor neurons share V0 identity with, and are connected by, neurons of the preBötzinger complex that paces inspiration...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916209/towards-new-strategies-to-manage-livestock-reproduction-using-kisspeptin-analogs
#17
M Beltramo, C Decourt
The discovery of the hypothalamic neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor (KISS1R) have dramatically improved our knowledge about the central mechanisms controlling reproduction. Kisspeptin neurons could be considered the hub where internal and external information controlling reproduction converge. The information is here elaborated and the command dispatched to GnRH neurons, the final output of the brain system controlling reproduction. Several studies have shown that in mammals administration of kisspeptin could finely modulate many aspects of reproduction from puberty to ovulation...
September 12, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915244/metacognitive-monitoring-and-control-in-visual-change-detection-implications-for-situation-awareness-and-cognitive-control
#18
Ken I McAnally, Adam P Morris, Christopher Best
Metacognitive monitoring and control of situation awareness (SA) are important for a range of safety-critical roles (e.g., air traffic control, military command and control). We examined the factors affecting these processes using a visual change detection task that included representative tactical displays. SA was assessed by asking novice observers to detect changes to a tactical display. Metacognitive monitoring was assessed by asking observers to estimate the probability that they would correctly detect a change, either after study of the display and before the change (judgement of learning; JOL) or after the change and detection response (judgement of performance; JOP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912707/methodological-choices-in-muscle-synergy-analysis-impact-differentiation-of-physiological-characteristics-following-stroke
#19
Caitlin L Banks, Mihir M Pai, Theresa E McGuirk, Benjamin J Fregly, Carolynn Patten
Muscle synergy analysis (MSA) is a mathematical technique that reduces the dimensionality of electromyographic (EMG) data. Used increasingly in biomechanics research, MSA requires methodological choices at each stage of the analysis. Differences in methodological steps affect the overall outcome, making it difficult to compare results across studies. We applied MSA to EMG data collected from individuals post-stroke identified as either responders (RES) or non-responders (nRES) on the basis of a critical post-treatment increase in walking speed...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911915/risk-factors-of-compliance-with-self-harm-command-hallucinations-in-individuals-with-affective-and-non-affective-psychosis
#20
Jules R Dugré, Jean-Pierre Guay, Alexandre Dumais
Clinicians are often left with the difficult task of assessing and managing the risk of violent behaviors in individuals having command hallucinations, which may result in substantial rates of false positive or false negative. Moreover, findings on the association between command hallucinations and suicidal behaviors are limited. In an attempt to better understand compliance to this hallucinatory phenomenon, our objective was to identify the risk factors of compliance with self-harm command hallucinations. Secondary analyses from the MacArthur Study were performed on 82 participants with psychosis reporting such commands...
September 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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