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Isochronic tones

Yan Mu, Yingyu Huang, Chao Ji, Li Gu, Xiang Wu
The superiority of the auditory over visual modality in sensorimotor synchronization-a fundamental ability to coordinate movements with external rhythms-has long been established, whereas recent metronome synchronization work showed that synchronization of a visual bouncing ball was not less stable than synchronization of auditory tones in adults. The present study examined synchronization to isochronous sequences composed of auditory tones, visual flashes, or a bouncing ball in 6- to 7-year-old children, 12- to 15-year-old children, and 19- to 29-year-old adults...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Yingyu Huang, Li Gu, Junkai Yang, Xiang Wu
Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS), a fundamental human ability to coordinate movements with external rhythms, has long been thought to be modality specific. In the canonical metronome synchronization task that requires tapping a finger along with an isochronous sequence, a well-established finding is that synchronization is much more stable to an auditory sequence consisting of auditory tones than to a visual sequence consisting of visual flashes. However, recent studies have shown that periodically moving visual stimuli can substantially improve synchronization compared with visual flashes...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Christos Sidiras, Vasiliki Iliadou, Ioannis Nimatoudis, Tobias Reichenbach, Doris-Eva Bamiou
The relation between rhythm and language has been investigated over the last decades, with evidence that these share overlapping perceptual mechanisms emerging from several different strands of research. The dynamic Attention Theory posits that neural entrainment to musical rhythm results in synchronized oscillations in attention, enhancing perception of other events occurring at the same rate. In this study, this prediction was tested in 10 year-old children by means of a psychoacoustic speech recognition in babble paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Erik S Te Woerd, Robert Oostenveld, Floris P de Lange, Peter Praamstra
Several electrophysiological studies suggest that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have a reduced tendency to entrain to regular environmental patterns. Here we investigate whether this reduced entrainment concerns a generalized deficit or is confined to movement-related activity, leaving sensory entrainment intact. Magnetoencephalography was recorded during a rhythmic auditory target detection task in 14 PD patients and 14 control subjects. Participants were instructed to press a button when hearing a target tone amid an isochronous sequence of standard tones...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Fiona C Manning, Jennifer Harris, Michael Schutz
Motor synchronization is a critical part of musical performance and listening. Recently, motor control research has described how movements that contain more available degrees of freedom are more accurately timed. Previously, we demonstrated that stick tapping improves perception in a timing detection task, where percussionists greatly outperformed non-percussionists only when tapping along. Since most synchronization studies implement finger tapping to examine simple motor synchronization, here we completed a similar task where percussionists and non-percussionists synchronized using finger tapping; movement with fewer degrees of freedom than stick tapping...
March 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Andrew R Dykstra, Eric Halgren, Alexander Gutschalk, Emad N Eskandar, Sydney S Cash
In complex acoustic environments, even salient supra-threshold sounds sometimes go unperceived, a phenomenon known as informational masking. The neural basis of informational masking (and its release) has not been well-characterized, particularly outside auditory cortex. We combined electrocorticography in a neurosurgical patient undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring with trial-by-trial perceptual reports of isochronous target-tone streams embedded in random multi-tone maskers. Awareness of such masker-embedded target streams was associated with a focal negativity between 100 and 200 ms and high-gamma activity (HGA) between 50 and 250 ms (both in auditory cortex on the posterolateral superior temporal gyrus) as well as a broad P3b-like potential (between ~300 and 600 ms) with generators in ventrolateral frontal and lateral temporal cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hans Rutger Bosker
The perception of temporal contrasts in speech is known to be influenced by the speech rate in the surrounding context. This rate-dependent perception is suggested to involve general auditory processes because it is also elicited by nonspeech contexts, such as pure tone sequences. Two general auditory mechanisms have been proposed to underlie rate-dependent perception: durational contrast and neural entrainment. This study compares the predictions of these two accounts of rate-dependent speech perception by means of four experiments, in which participants heard tone sequences followed by Dutch target words ambiguous between /ɑs/ "ash" and /a:s/ "bait"...
January 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alex Hofmann, Werner Goebl
Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17) and professional clarinettists (N = 6) were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 × 2 × 2 design (register: low-high; tempo: slow-fast, dynamics: soft-loud)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Alexandre Celma-Miralles, Robert F de Menezes, Juan M Toro
Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked 16 musicians to internally project binary (i.e., a strong-weak pattern) and ternary (i.e., a strong-weak-weak pattern) meter onto separate, but analog, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Andrew Chang, Dan J Bosnyak, Laurel J Trainor
Extracting temporal regularities in external stimuli in order to predict upcoming events is an essential aspect of perception. Fluctuations in induced power of beta band (15-25 Hz) oscillations in auditory cortex are involved in predictive timing during rhythmic entrainment, but whether such fluctuations are affected by prediction in the spectral (frequency/pitch) domain remains unclear. We tested whether unpredicted (i.e., unexpected) pitches in a rhythmic tone sequence modulate beta band activity by recording EEG while participants passively listened to isochronous auditory oddball sequences with occasional unpredicted deviant pitches at two different presentation rates...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Fleur L Bouwer, Carola M Werner, Myrthe Knetemann, Henkjan Honing
Beat perception is the ability to perceive temporal regularity in musical rhythm. When a beat is perceived, predictions about upcoming events can be generated. These predictions can influence processing of subsequent rhythmic events. However, statistical learning of the order of sounds in a sequence can also affect processing of rhythmic events and must be differentiated from beat perception. In the current study, using EEG, we examined the effects of attention and musical abilities on beat perception. To ensure we measured beat perception and not absolute perception of temporal intervals, we used alternating loud and soft tones to create a rhythm with two hierarchical metrical levels...
May 2016: Neuropsychologia
Lorraine Chuen, David Sears, Stephen McAdams
A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony...
June 2016: Psychophysiology
Fiona C Manning, Michael Schutz
Many studies demonstrate that musicians exhibit superior timing abilities compared to nonmusicians. Here, we investigated how specific musical expertise can mediate the relationship between movement and timing perception. In the present study, a group of highly trained percussionists (n = 33) and a group of non-percussionists (n = 33) were tested on their ability to detect temporal deviations of a tone presented after an isochronous sequence. Participants either tapped along with the sequence using a drumstick (movement condition) or listened without tapping (no-movement condition)...
July 2016: Psychological Research
Roland Uwe Krabs, Ronny Enk, Niels Teich, Stefan Koelsch
BACKGROUND: Music can evoke strong emotions and thus elicit significant autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. However, previous studies investigating music-evoked ANS effects produced inconsistent results. In particular, it is not clear (a) whether simply a musical tactus (without common emotional components of music) is sufficient to elicit ANS effects; (b) whether changes in the tempo of a musical piece contribute to the ANS effects; (c) whether emotional valence of music influences ANS effects; and (d) whether music-elicited ANS effects are comparable in healthy subjects and patients with Crohn´s disease (CD, an inflammatory bowel disease suspected to be associated with autonomic dysfunction)...
2015: PloS One
Ninja K Horr, Massimiliano Di Luca
In this work we investigate how judgments of perceived duration are influenced by the properties of the signals that define the intervals. Participants compared two auditory intervals that could be any combination of the following four types: intervals filled with continuous tones (filled intervals), intervals filled with regularly-timed short tones (isochronous intervals), intervals filled with irregularly-timed short tones (anisochronous intervals), and intervals demarcated by two short tones (empty intervals)...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Lefkothea-Vasiliki Andreou, Timothy D Griffiths, Maria Chait
To probe sensitivity to the time structure of ongoing sound sequences, we measured MEG responses, in human listeners, to the offset of long tone-pip sequences containing various forms of temporal regularity. If listeners learn sequence temporal properties and form expectancies about the arrival time of an upcoming tone, sequence offset should be detectable as soon as an expected tone fails to arrive. Therefore, latencies of offset responses are indicative of the extent to which the temporal pattern has been acquired...
April 15, 2015: NeuroImage
Peter J Fitzgibbons, Sandra Gordon-Salant
This study measured listener sensitivity to increments of a target inter-onset interval (IOI) embedded within tone sequences that featured different rhythmic patterns. The sequences consisted of six 50-ms 1000-Hz tone bursts separated by silent intervals that were adjusted to create different timing patterns. Control sequences were isochronous, with all tonal IOIs fixed at either 200 or 400 ms, while other patterns featured combinations of the two IOIs arranged to create different sequential tonal groupings...
January 2015: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Tatiana Selchenkova, Clément François, Daniele Schön, Alexandra Corneyllie, Fabien Perrin, Barbara Tillmann
The present study investigated whether a temporal hierarchical structure favors implicit learning. An artificial pitch grammar implemented with a set of tones was presented in two different temporal contexts, notably with either a strongly metrical structure or an isochronous structure. According to the Dynamic Attending Theory, external temporal regularities can entrain internal oscillators that guide attention over time, allowing for temporal expectations that influence perception of future events. Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation...
2014: PloS One
Christian Füllgrabe, Brian C J Moore
The effect of interaural time differences (ITDs) on obligatory stream segregation for successive tone bursts was investigated for older listeners with normal hearing (ONH) and hearing loss (OHL), by measuring the threshold for detecting a rhythmic irregularity in an otherwise isochronous sequence of interleaved "A" and "B" tones. The A and B tones had equal but opposite ITDs from 0 to 0.5 ms. For some of the ONH listeners, the threshold increased with increasing ITD, but no OHL listener showed an effect of ITD...
August 2014: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Laura K Cirelli, Dan Bosnyak, Fiona C Manning, Christina Spinelli, Céline Marie, Takako Fujioka, Ayda Ghahremani, Laurel J Trainor
People readily extract regularity in rhythmic auditory patterns, enabling prediction of the onset of the next beat. Recent magnetoencephalography (MEG) research suggests that such prediction is reflected by the entrainment of oscillatory networks in the brain to the tempo of the sequence. In particular, induced beta-band oscillatory activity from auditory cortex decreases after each beat onset and rebounds prior to the onset of the next beat across tempi in a predictive manner. The objective of the present study was to examine the development of such oscillatory activity by comparing electroencephalography (EEG) measures of beta-band fluctuations in 7-year-old children to adults...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
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