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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909748/temporal-prediction-abilities-are-mediated-by-motor-effector-and-rhythmic-expertise
#1
Fiona C Manning, Jennifer Harris, Michael Schutz
Motor synchronization is a critical part of musical performance and listening. Recently, motor control research has described how movements that contain more available degrees of freedom are more accurately timed. Previously, we demonstrated that stick tapping improves perception in a timing detection task, where percussionists greatly outperformed non-percussionists only when tapping along. Since most synchronization studies implement finger tapping to examine simple motor synchronization, here we completed a similar task where percussionists and non-percussionists synchronized using finger tapping; movement with fewer degrees of freedom than stick tapping...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812318/neural-correlates-of-auditory-perceptual-awareness-and-release-from-informational-masking-recorded-directly-from-human-cortex-a-case-study
#2
Andrew R Dykstra, Eric Halgren, Alexander Gutschalk, Emad N Eskandar, Sydney S Cash
In complex acoustic environments, even salient supra-threshold sounds sometimes go unperceived, a phenomenon known as informational masking. The neural basis of informational masking (and its release) has not been well-characterized, particularly outside auditory cortex. We combined electrocorticography in a neurosurgical patient undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring with trial-by-trial perceptual reports of isochronous target-tone streams embedded in random multi-tone maskers. Awareness of such masker-embedded target streams was associated with a focal negativity between 100 and 200 ms and high-gamma activity (HGA) between 50 and 250 ms (both in auditory cortex on the posterolateral superior temporal gyrus) as well as a broad P3b-like potential (between ~300 and 600 ms) with generators in ventrolateral frontal and lateral temporal cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630058/accounting-for-rate-dependent-category-boundary-shifts-in-speech-perception
#3
Hans Rutger Bosker
The perception of temporal contrasts in speech is known to be influenced by the speech rate in the surrounding context. This rate-dependent perception is suggested to involve general auditory processes because it is also elicited by nonspeech contexts, such as pure tone sequences. Two general auditory mechanisms have been proposed to underlie rate-dependent perception: durational contrast and neural entrainment. This study compares the predictions of these two accounts of rate-dependent speech perception by means of four experiments, in which participants heard tone sequences followed by Dutch target words ambiguous between /ɑs/ "ash" and /a:s/ "bait"...
September 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540367/finger-forces-in-clarinet-playing
#4
Alex Hofmann, Werner Goebl
Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17) and professional clarinettists (N = 6) were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 × 2 × 2 design (register: low-high; tempo: slow-fast, dynamics: soft-loud)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047358/look-at-the-beat-feel-the-meter-top-down-effects-of-meter-induction-on-auditory-and-visual-modalities
#5
Alexandre Celma-Miralles, Robert F de Menezes, Juan M Toro
Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked 16 musicians to internally project binary (i.e., a strong-weak pattern) and ternary (i.e., a strong-weak-weak pattern) meter onto separate, but analog, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014138/unpredicted-pitch-modulates-beta-oscillatory-power-during-rhythmic-entrainment-to-a-tone-sequence
#6
Andrew Chang, Dan J Bosnyak, Laurel J Trainor
Extracting temporal regularities in external stimuli in order to predict upcoming events is an essential aspect of perception. Fluctuations in induced power of beta band (15-25 Hz) oscillations in auditory cortex are involved in predictive timing during rhythmic entrainment, but whether such fluctuations are affected by prediction in the spectral (frequency/pitch) domain remains unclear. We tested whether unpredicted (i.e., unexpected) pitches in a rhythmic tone sequence modulate beta band activity by recording EEG while participants passively listened to isochronous auditory oddball sequences with occasional unpredicted deviant pitches at two different presentation rates...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972966/disentangling-beat-perception-from-sequential-learning-and-examining-the-influence-of-attention-and-musical-abilities-on-erp-responses-to-rhythm
#7
Fleur L Bouwer, Carola M Werner, Myrthe Knetemann, Henkjan Honing
Beat perception is the ability to perceive temporal regularity in musical rhythm. When a beat is perceived, predictions about upcoming events can be generated. These predictions can influence processing of subsequent rhythmic events. However, statistical learning of the order of sounds in a sequence can also affect processing of rhythmic events and must be differentiated from beat perception. In the current study, using EEG, we examined the effects of attention and musical abilities on beat perception. To ensure we measured beat perception and not absolute perception of temporal intervals, we used alternating loud and soft tones to create a rhythm with two hierarchical metrical levels...
May 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26927928/psychophysiological-responses-to-auditory-change
#8
Lorraine Chuen, David Sears, Stephen McAdams
A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony...
June 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26067889/trained-to-keep-a-beat-movement-related-enhancements-to-timing-perception-in-percussionists-and-non-percussionists
#9
Fiona C Manning, Michael Schutz
Many studies demonstrate that musicians exhibit superior timing abilities compared to nonmusicians. Here, we investigated how specific musical expertise can mediate the relationship between movement and timing perception. In the present study, a group of highly trained percussionists (n = 33) and a group of non-percussionists (n = 33) were tested on their ability to detect temporal deviations of a tone presented after an isochronous sequence. Participants either tapped along with the sequence using a drumstick (movement condition) or listened without tapping (no-movement condition)...
July 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25955253/autonomic-effects-of-music-in-health-and-crohn-s-disease-the-impact-of-isochronicity-emotional-valence-and-tempo
#10
Roland Uwe Krabs, Ronny Enk, Niels Teich, Stefan Koelsch
BACKGROUND: Music can evoke strong emotions and thus elicit significant autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. However, previous studies investigating music-evoked ANS effects produced inconsistent results. In particular, it is not clear (a) whether simply a musical tactus (without common emotional components of music) is sufficient to elicit ANS effects; (b) whether changes in the tempo of a musical piece contribute to the ANS effects; (c) whether emotional valence of music influences ANS effects; and (d) whether music-elicited ANS effects are comparable in healthy subjects and patients with Crohn´s disease (CD, an inflammatory bowel disease suspected to be associated with autonomic dysfunction)...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25717310/filling-the-blanks-in-temporal-intervals-the-type-of-filling-influences-perceived-duration-and-discrimination-performance
#11
Ninja K Horr, Massimiliano Di Luca
In this work we investigate how judgments of perceived duration are influenced by the properties of the signals that define the intervals. Participants compared two auditory intervals that could be any combination of the following four types: intervals filled with continuous tones (filled intervals), intervals filled with regularly-timed short tones (isochronous intervals), intervals filled with irregularly-timed short tones (anisochronous intervals), and intervals demarcated by two short tones (empty intervals)...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25659464/sensitivity-to-the-temporal-structure-of-rapid-sound-sequences-an-meg-study
#12
Lefkothea-Vasiliki Andreou, Timothy D Griffiths, Maria Chait
To probe sensitivity to the time structure of ongoing sound sequences, we measured MEG responses, in human listeners, to the offset of long tone-pip sequences containing various forms of temporal regularity. If listeners learn sequence temporal properties and form expectancies about the arrival time of an upcoming tone, sequence offset should be detectable as soon as an expected tone fails to arrive. Therefore, latencies of offset responses are indicative of the extent to which the temporal pattern has been acquired...
April 15, 2015: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25618068/age-effects-in-discrimination-of-intervals-within-rhythmic-tone-sequences
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Peter J Fitzgibbons, Sandra Gordon-Salant
This study measured listener sensitivity to increments of a target inter-onset interval (IOI) embedded within tone sequences that featured different rhythmic patterns. The sequences consisted of six 50-ms 1000-Hz tone bursts separated by silent intervals that were adjusted to create different timing patterns. Control sequences were isochronous, with all tonal IOIs fixed at either 200 or 400 ms, while other patterns featured combinations of the two IOIs arranged to create different sequential tonal groupings...
January 2015: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25372147/metrical-presentation-boosts-implicit-learning-of-artificial-grammar
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tatiana Selchenkova, Clément François, Daniele Schön, Alexandra Corneyllie, Fabien Perrin, Barbara Tillmann
The present study investigated whether a temporal hierarchical structure favors implicit learning. An artificial pitch grammar implemented with a set of tones was presented in two different temporal contexts, notably with either a strongly metrical structure or an isochronous structure. According to the Dynamic Attending Theory, external temporal regularities can entrain internal oscillators that guide attention over time, allowing for temporal expectations that influence perception of future events. Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25096145/effects-of-age-and-hearing-loss-on-stream-segregation-based-on-interaural-time-differences
#15
Christian Füllgrabe, Brian C J Moore
The effect of interaural time differences (ITDs) on obligatory stream segregation for successive tone bursts was investigated for older listeners with normal hearing (ONH) and hearing loss (OHL), by measuring the threshold for detecting a rhythmic irregularity in an otherwise isochronous sequence of interleaved "A" and "B" tones. The A and B tones had equal but opposite ITDs from 0 to 0.5 ms. For some of the ONH listeners, the threshold increased with increasing ITD, but no OHL listener showed an effect of ITD...
August 2014: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25071691/beat-induced-fluctuations-in-auditory-cortical-beta-band-activity-using-eeg-to-measure-age-related-changes
#16
Laura K Cirelli, Dan Bosnyak, Fiona C Manning, Christina Spinelli, Céline Marie, Takako Fujioka, Ayda Ghahremani, Laurel J Trainor
People readily extract regularity in rhythmic auditory patterns, enabling prediction of the onset of the next beat. Recent magnetoencephalography (MEG) research suggests that such prediction is reflected by the entrainment of oscillatory networks in the brain to the tempo of the sequence. In particular, induced beta-band oscillatory activity from auditory cortex decreases after each beat onset and rebounds prior to the onset of the next beat across tempi in a predictive manner. The objective of the present study was to examine the development of such oscillatory activity by comparing electroencephalography (EEG) measures of beta-band fluctuations in 7-year-old children to adults...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24982142/superior-time-perception-for-lower-musical-pitch-explains-why-bass-ranged-instruments-lay-down-musical-rhythms
#17
Michael J Hove, Céline Marie, Ian C Bruce, Laurel J Trainor
The auditory environment typically contains several sound sources that overlap in time, and the auditory system parses the complex sound wave into streams or voices that represent the various sound sources. Music is also often polyphonic. Interestingly, the main melody (spectral/pitch information) is most often carried by the highest-pitched voice, and the rhythm (temporal foundation) is most often laid down by the lowest-pitched voice. Previous work using electroencephalography (EEG) demonstrated that the auditory cortex encodes pitch more robustly in the higher of two simultaneous tones or melodies, and modeling work indicated that this high-voice superiority for pitch originates in the sensory periphery...
July 15, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24961770/human-brain-basis-of-musical-rhythm-perception-common-and-distinct-neural-substrates-for-meter-tempo-and-pattern
#18
Michael H Thaut, Pietro Davide Trimarchi, Lawrence M Parsons
Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies...
2014: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24746941/hear-it-playing-low-and-slow-how-pitch-level-differentially-influences-time-perception
#19
Jessica I Lake, Kevin S LaBar, Warren H Meck
Variations in both pitch and time are important in conveying meaning through speech and music, however, research is scant on perceptual interactions between these two domains. Using an ordinal comparison procedure, we explored how different pitch levels of flanker tones influenced the perceived duration of empty interstimulus intervals (ISIs). Participants heard monotonic, isochronous tone sequences (ISIs of 300, 600, or 1200 ms) composed of either one or five standard ISIs flanked by 500 Hz tones, followed by a final interval (FI) flanked by tones of either the same (500 Hz), higher (625 Hz), or lower (400 Hz) pitch...
June 2014: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24606277/the-effects-of-rhythm-and-melody-on-auditory-stream-segregation
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Orsolya Szalárdy, Alexandra Bendixen, Tamás M Böhm, Lucy A Davies, Susan L Denham, István Winkler
While many studies have assessed the efficacy of similarity-based cues for auditory stream segregation, much less is known about whether and how the larger-scale structure of sound sequences support stream formation and the choice of sound organization. Two experiments investigated the effects of musical melody and rhythm on the segregation of two interleaved tone sequences. The two sets of tones fully overlapped in pitch range but differed from each other in interaural time and intensity. Unbeknownst to the listener, separately, each of the interleaved sequences was created from the notes of a different song...
March 2014: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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