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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645875/high-resolution-igh-repertoire-analysis-reveals-fetal-liver-as-the-origin-of-life-long-innate-b-lymphopoiesis-in-humans
#1
Anindita Roy, Vojtech Bystry, Georg Bohn, Katerina Goudevenou, Tomas Reigl, Maria Papaioannou, Adam Krejci, Sorcha O'Byrne, Aristeidis Chaidos, Andrea Grioni, Nikos Darzentas, Irene A G Roberts, Anastasios Karadimitris
The ontogeny of the natural, public IgM repertoire remains incompletely explored. Here, high-resolution immunogenetic analysis of B cells from (unrelated) fetal, child, and adult samples, shows that although fetal liver (FL) and bone marrow (FBM) IgM repertoires are equally diversified, FL is the main source of IgM natural immunity during the 2nd trimester. Strikingly, 0.25% of all prenatal clonotypes, comprising 18.7% of the expressed repertoire, are shared with the postnatal samples, consistent with persisting fetal IgM+ B cells being a source of natural IgM repertoire in adult life...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641125/an-altered-redox-environment-assisted-by-over-expression-of-fetal-hemoglobins-protects-from-inflammatory-colitis-and-reduces-inflammatory-cytokine-expression
#2
R M Gorczynski, C Alexander, K Brandenburg, Z Chen, A Heini, D Neumann, J P Mach, E T Rietschel, A Tersikh, A J Ulmer, Kai Yu, U Zahringer, I Khatri
C5BL/6 female mice receiving dextran sodium sulfate in their drinking water develop an acute inflammatory colitis within 7d, with weight loss, histopathologic signs of inflammation, and colonic expression of inflammatory cytokines. In previous studies we have reported that increased inflammatory cytokine expression in aged mice can be attenuated by oral gavage of a crude fetal extract containing glutathione (GSH), MPLA and fetal hemoglobin, or more specifically by injection of a combination of these purified reagents...
June 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638817/a-challenging-case-of-hepatoblastoma-concomitant-with-autosomal-recessive-polycystic-kidney-disease-and-caroli-syndrome-review-of-the-literature
#3
Nevil Kadakia, Steven J Lobritto, Nadia Ovchinsky, Helen E Remotti, Darrell J Yamashiro, Jean C Emond, Mercedes Martinez
We report a rare case of an 18-month-old female with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, Caroli syndrome, and pure fetal type hepatoblastoma. The liver tumor was surgically resected with no chemotherapy given. Now 9 years post resection she demonstrates no local or distant recurrence and stable renal function.
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635586/gc-1-a-thyromimetic-with-multiple-therapeutic-applications-in-liver-disease
#4
Amedeo Columbano, Grazia Chiellini, Marta Anna Kowalik
Thyroid hormones, namely 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (thyroxine or T4), influence a variety of physiological processes that have important implications in fetal development, metabolism, cell growth and proliferation. While THs elicit several beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and improve myocardial contractility, these therapeutically desirable effects are associated to a thyrotoxic state, that severely limits the possible use of THs as therapeutic agents. Therefore, several efforts have been made to develop T3 analogues that could retain the beneficial actions (triglyceride, cholesterol, obesity and body mass lowering), without the adverse TH-dependent side effects...
June 13, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630397/fetal-hypotrophy-is-an-important-marker-in-diagnosis-of-preeclampsia-in-pregnant-patients-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#5
Anna Cyganek, Bronisława Pietrzak, Filip A Dąbrowski, Zoulikha Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Marcin Chlebus, Mirosław Wielgos, Barbara Grzechocińska
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to define the importance of fetal growth disturbances in pregnant patients after renal or liver transplantation in diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia. MATERIAL AND METHODS We assessed 108 pregnancies in patients with renal or liver transplants. Statistical analysis included Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS In the renal transplant (RTR) group, preeclampsia was diagnosed in 40% according to ISSHP. In the liver transplant (LTR) group, ISSHP guidelines allow this diagnose in 14...
June 20, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630143/extracellular-vesicles-of-stromal-origin-target-and-support-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#6
Gregoire Stik, Simon Crequit, Laurence Petit, Jennifer Durant, Pierre Charbord, Thierry Jaffredo, Charles Durand
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recently reported as crucial mediators in cell-to-cell communication in development and disease. In this study, we investigate whether mesenchymal stromal cells that constitute a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) released EVs that could affect the gene expression and function of HSPCs. By taking advantage of two fetal liver-derived stromal lines with widely differing abilities to maintain HSPCs ex vivo, we demonstrate that stromal EVs play a critical role in the regulation of HSPCs...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625011/liver-epithelioid-progenitor-cells-derived-from-fetal-luxi-bovine-alleviate-liver-fibrosis
#7
Kunfu Wang, Hao Liu, Jinjuan Yang, Caiyun Ma, Zebiao Zhang, Dong Zheng, Weijun Guan
Liver epithelioid progenitor cells (LEPCs) have important roles in liver therapy because of their hepatic differentiation potency in vitro and in vivo. Despite many researches on humans, mice, and rats, equivalent progenitor cells derived from bovine are relatively rare. The purpose of our current study is to characterize bovine LEPCs, and research on the cure potency of this heteroplastic progenitor cells on mice liver fibrosis. We have used collagenase IV digesting and differential adhesion method to isolate slabstone shape, EpCAM, LGR5, NCAM1 and SOX9 positive progenitor cells from fetal Luxi bovine liver...
June 17, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624458/dna-hypomethylation-circuit-of-mouse-rdna-repeats-in-the-germ-cell-lineage
#8
Asuka Furuta, Toshinobu Nakamura
DNA methylation is dynamically reprogrammed at two developmental periods, in primordial germ cells and pre-implantation embryos, via distinct phases of DNA demethylation and de novo methylation. Here we show that ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoters are hypomethylated in sperm and oocytes; this hypomethyaltion was maintained during pre-implantation development. A DNA methylation analysis of embryonic and extra-embryonic cells on embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) revealed that the rDNA promoter was slightly methylated in embryonic and extra-embryonic regions...
June 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624456/in%C3%A2-vitro-evidences-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-low-cell-density-cultured-human-fetal-hepatocytes
#9
Cinzia Maria Chinnici, Vitale Miceli, Mariangela Pampalone, Antonio Lo Nigro, Giandomenico Amico, Pier Giulio Conaldi
Culturing fetal hepatocytes in high cell-density allowed stabilization of the hepatocyte phenotype up to 8 weeks, including the maintenance of liver-specific functions. On the other hand, when cultured at low cell-density, fetal hepatocytes underwent morphological modifications and acquired fibroblastic morphology. Since a switch from E-cadherin to vimentin expression accompanied these changes, we hypothesized the occurrence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition when fetal hepatocytes were cultured at low cell-density...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623277/in-vivo-quantification-of-placental-insufficiency-by-bold-mri-a-human-study
#10
Jie Luo, Esra Abaci Turk, Carolina Bibbo, Borjan Gagoski, Drucilla J Roberts, Mark Vangel, Clare M Tempany-Afdhal, Carol Barnewolt, Judy Estroff, Arvind Palanisamy, William H Barth, Chloe Zera, Norberto Malpica, Polina Golland, Elfar Adalsteinsson, Julian N Robinson, Patricia Ellen Grant
Fetal health is critically dependent on placental function, especially placental transport of oxygen from mother to fetus. When fetal growth is compromised, placental insufficiency must be distinguished from modest genetic growth potential. If placental insufficiency is present, the physician must trade off the risk of prolonged fetal exposure to placental insufficiency against the risks of preterm delivery. Current ultrasound methods to evaluate the placenta are indirect and insensitive. We propose to use Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) MRI with maternal hyperoxia to quantitatively assess mismatch in placental function in seven monozygotic twin pairs naturally matched for genetic growth potential...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621802/glypican-3-a-promising-biomarker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Fubo Zhou, Wenting Shang, Xiaoling Yu, Jie Tian
Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type. Therefore, molecular targets are urgently required for the early detection of HCC and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Glypican-3 (GPC3), an oncofetal proteoglycan anchored to the cell membrane, is normally detected in the fetal liver but not in the healthy adult liver. However, in HCC patients, GPC3 is overexpressed at both the gene and protein levels, and its expression predicts a poor prognosis...
June 16, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619691/a-mouse-model-of-antepartum-stillbirth
#12
Anum Rahman, Lindsay S Cahill, Yu-Qing Zhou, Johnathan Hoggarth, Monique Y Rennie, Mike Seed, Christopher K Macgowan, John C Kingdom, S Lee Adamson, John G Sled
BACKGROUND: Many stillbirths of normally-formed fetuses in the third trimester could be prevented via delivery if reliable means to anticipate this outcome existed. However, since the etiology of these stillbirths is often unexplained and, although the underlying mechanism is presumed to be hypoxia from "placental insufficiency", the placentas often appear normal on histopathologic examination. Gestational age is a risk factor for antepartum stillbirth, with a rapid rise in stillbirth rates after 40 weeks gestation...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614297/multilineage-communication-regulates-human-liver-bud-development-from-pluripotency
#13
J Gray Camp, Keisuke Sekine, Tobias Gerber, Henry Loeffler-Wirth, Hans Binder, Malgorzata Gac, Sabina Kanton, Jorge Kageyama, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Lenka Belicova, Marc Bickle, Rico Barsacchi, Ryo Okuda, Emi Yoshizawa, Masaki Kimura, Hiroaki Ayabe, Hideki Taniguchi, Takanori Takebe, Barbara Treutlein
Conventional two-dimensional differentiation from pluripotency fails to recapitulate cell interactions occurring during organogenesis. Three-dimensional organoids generate complex organ-like tissues; however, it is unclear how heterotypic interactions affect lineage identity. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing to reconstruct hepatocyte-like lineage progression from pluripotency in two-dimensional culture. We then derive three-dimensional liver bud organoids by reconstituting hepatic, stromal, and endothelial interactions, and deconstruct heterogeneity during liver bud development...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613415/composition-and-functionality-of-the-intrahepatic-innate-lymphoid-cell-compartment-in-human-non-fibrotic-and-fibrotic-livers
#14
Marianne Forkel, Lena Berglin, Eliisa Kekäläinen, Adrian Carlsson, Emma Svedin, Jakob Michaëlsson, Maho Nagasawa, Jonas S Erjefält, Michiko Mori, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, Annika Bergquist, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Magnus Westgren, Ulrik Lindforss, Danielle Friberg, Carl Jorns, Ewa Ellis, Niklas K Björkström, Jenny Mjösberg
Human innate lymphoid cells have been described to exist in different organs, with functional deregulation of these cells contributing to several disease states. Here, we performed the first detailed characterization of the phenotype, tissue-residency properties and functionality of ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s in the human adult and fetal liver. In addition, we investigated changes in the ILC compartment in liver fibrosis. A unique composition of tissue-resident ILCs was observed in non-fibrotic livers as compared with that in mucosal tissues, with NKp44(-) ILC3s accounting for the majority of total intrahepatic ILCs...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611150/effects-of-stress-during-pregnancy-on-hepatic-glucogenic-capacity-in-rat-dams-and-their-fetuses
#15
Kathryn L Franko, Alison J Forhead, Abigail L Fowden
Stress during pregnancy is associated with metabolic dysfunction in the adult offspring in human and other animals. However, little is known about the metabolic effects of pregnancy stress on the mothers and fetuses during pregnancy itself. This study aimed to determine the consequences of the common experimental procedures of injection and single housing in pregnant rats on fetal and maternal hepatic glucogenic capacities. On day (D) 20 of pregnancy, feto-placental weights and the glycogen content and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) of fetal and maternal liver were measured in rats pair or single housed from D1 with or without saline injection from D15 to D19...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603940/outcome-of-prenatally-diagnosed-fetal-heterotaxy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Danilo Italo Pio Buca, Asma Khalil, Giuseppe Rizzo, Alessandra Familiari, Silvia Di Giovanni, Marco Liberati, Daniela Murgano, Alessandra Ricciardulli, Francesco Fanfani, Giovanni Scambia, Francesco D'Antonio
OBJECTIVES: To assess the perinatal outcomes of fetuses affected by heterotaxy. METHODS: Medline, Embase and Cinhal were searched. Only studies reporting a prenatal diagnosis of isomerism were included. The outcomes observed were: associated cardiac and extra-cardiac anomalies, fetal arrhythmias, abnormal karyotype, type of surgical repair and perinatal mortality. The analysis was stratified according the type of heterotaxy syndrome (left, LAI, and right, RAI, atrial isomerism)...
June 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599825/left-ventricular-rotational-and-twist-mechanics-in%C3%A2-the-human-fetal-heart
#17
Ling Li, Mary Craft, Hao H Hsu, Ming Zhang, Berthold Klas, David A Danford, Shelby Kutty
BACKGROUND: The authors investigated left ventricular (LV) rotational indices, twist, and torsion in a large cohort of fetuses using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. METHODS: Pregnant women (N = 102) were prospectively recruited for fetal two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. Because of variable fetal position, ventricular orientation was established using the location of the liver and LV position in relation to the right ventricle...
June 6, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598448/fetal-ductus-venosus-pulsatility-index-and-diameter-during-second-and-third-trimester-of-gestation
#18
P Pokharel, M A Ansari
INTRODUCTION: The ductus venosus is a small funnel shaped vessel found posterior to the fetal liver connecting the intra-abdominal umbilical vein and the inferior vena cava. It is one of the three physiological shunts in the fetus. The main objective of this study is to construct the reference table and normogram for fetal ductus venosus Pulsatility Index and diameter with gestational age. METHODS: This was a prospective cross sectional study conducted during August 2011 to July 2012 taking 294 uncomplicated pregnancies using systemic random sampling method...
January 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594770/placental-abruption-with-delayed-fetal-compromise-in-maternal-acetaminophen-toxicity
#19
Juliana Taney, Hannah Anastasio, Amanda Paternostro, Vincenzo Berghella, Amanda Roman
BACKGROUND: After maternal acetaminophen overdose, fetal fulminant liver failure, stillbirth, neonatal death, or preterm delivery may occur. CASE: A 27-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 1, presented at 28 weeks of gestation after unintentional acetaminophen overdose. Four days after ingestion, her laboratory values worsened, including serum aspartate aminotransferase of 5,460 units/L, alanine aminotransferase of 4,936 units/L, and international normalized ratio of 2...
June 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574501/rip1-kinase-activity-dependent-roles-in-embryonic-development-of-fadd-deficient-mice
#20
Yongbo Liu, Cunxian Fan, Yifan Zhang, Xianjun Yu, Xiaoxia Wu, Xixi Zhang, Qun Zhao, Haiwei Zhang, Qun Xie, Ming Li, Xiaoming Li, Qiurong Ding, Hao Ying, Dali Li, Haibing Zhang
RIP1 is an essential regulator of TNF-induced signaling complexes mediating NF-κB activation, apoptosis and necroptosis. Loss of Rip1 rescues the embryonic lethality of Fadd or Caspase-8-deficient mice, even though the double knockout mice die shortly after birth like Rip1-deficient mice. Recent studies demonstrated that mice expressing RIP1 kinase-dead mutants developed normally and resisted necroptotic stimuli in vitro and in vivo. However, the impact of RIP1 kinase activity on Fadd(-/-) embryonic development remains unknown...
June 2, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
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