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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336912/fgf21-regulates-t-cell-development-in-the-neonatal-and-juvenile-thymus
#1
Yoshiaki Nakayama, Yuki Masuda, Hiroya Ohta, Tomohiro Tanaka, Miwa Washida, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima, Ayumi Miyake, Nobuyuki Itoh, Morichika Konishi
We have previously shown that Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is expressed in the thymus as well as in the liver. In line with this expression profile, Fgf21 was recently reported to protect against ageing-related thymic senescence by improving the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, the function of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus remained to be elucidated. We investigated the physiological roles of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus and found that young Fgf21 knockout mice, but not β-Klotho knockout mice nor adult Fgf21 knockout mice, showed a significant reduction in the percentage of single-positive CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes without obvious alteration in TECs...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332752/bovine-trophectoderm-cells-induced-from-bovine-fibroblasts-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-reprogramming-factors
#2
Neil C Talbot, Wendy O Sparks, Caitlin Phillips, Alan D Ealy, Anne M Powell, Thomas J Caperna, Wesley M Garrett, David M Donovan, Le Ann Blomberg
Thirteen independent induced bovine trophectroderm (iBT) cell lines were established by reprogramming bovine fetal liver-derived fibroblasts after viral-vector transduction with either 6 or 8 factors, including POU5F1 (OCT4), KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, LIN28, SV40 large T antigen, and hTERT.. Light- and electron-microscopy analysis showed that the iBT cells had epithelial cell morphology typical of bovine trophectoderm cells. Reverse-transcription-PCR assays indicated that all of the cell lines expressed interferon-tau (IFNT) at passages 1 or 2...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319942/right-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernias-is-there-a-correlation-between-prenatal-lung-volume-and-postnatal-survival-as-in-isolated-left-diaphragmatic-hernias
#3
Teresa Victoria, Enrico Danzer, Edward R Oliver, J Christopher Edgar, Suzanne Iyoob, Emily A Partridge, Ann M Johnson, William H Peranteau, Beverly G Coleman, Alan W Flake, Mark P Johnson, Holly H Hedrick, N Scott Adzick
OBJECTIVES: Whereas left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernias (L-CDH) have been extensively studied and their prognostic parameters delineated, right-sided hernias (R-CDH) have not. Published results remain inconclusive. The aim of this study is to evaluate if proven prognostic indicators of postnatal survival in the fetus with L-CDH apply to the fetus with R-CDH. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study of R-CDH fetuses with available prenatal studies assessed for fetal lung volume by means of ultrasound-measured observed versus expected (O/E) lung area to head circumference (LHR) and magnetic resonance-calculated O/E total lung volume (TLV) in a 12-year time period...
March 21, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319104/diabetes-consequences-in-the-fetus-liver-of-the-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#4
M B Aires, A C V Dos Santos, M S Kubrusly, A C de Lima Luna, L A C D'Albuquerque, D A Maria
DM type 1 (T1D) incidence is increasing around 3% every year and represents risks for maternal and fetal health. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of diabetes on fetus liver cells in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Hyperglycemic NOD (HNOD), normoglycemic NOD (NNOD) and BALB/c females were used for mating, and the fetus livers were collected at 19.5 gestation day (gd). HNOD group had reduced fetal weight (989.5±68.32 vs 1290±57.39 mg BALB/c, P<0.05) at 19.5 gd and higher glycemia (516...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318185/neonatal-acute-liver-failure-a-diagnosis-challenge
#5
Mirta Ciocca, Fernando Álvarez
Neonatal acute liver failure is a rare, very severe disease with a high rate of mortality. It is clinically and etiologically different from acute liver failure seen in older children and adults. Coagulopathy with an international normalized ratio ≥ 3 is the critical parameter that defines it. The most common causes are fetal alloimmune hepatitis, previously called neonatal hemochromatosis, viral infections, metabolic disorders, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. There is a group of treatable diseases that require a very early diagnosis for the prescription of an adequate treatment...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317816/hemophagocytic-syndrome-secondary-to-tuberculosis-at-24-week-gestation
#6
Alexandra Arteaga Fernández, David Fernández de Velasco Pérez, M C Jiménez Fournier, J C Moreno Del Prado, B Paraíso Torras, M L Cañete Palomo
Hemophagocytic syndrome is a life-threatening disease characterized by the uncontrolled activation of macrophages, resulting in hemophagocytosis of blood cells in the bone marrow. A 20-year-old gravida at 23-week and 5-day gestation was admitted to hospital to evaluate fever up to 104°F of unknown origin, moderate cytopenia, and elevated levels of liver enzymes. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed hemophagocytic syndrome, and polymerase chain reaction came back positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Supportive care and tuberculosis treatment resulted in clinical improvement...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302729/phagocytosis-dependent-ketogenesis-in-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#7
Juan Reyes-Reveles, Anuradha Dhingra, Desiree Alexander, Alvina Bragin, Nancy J Philp, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia
Daily, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) ingests a bolus of lipid and protein in the form of phagocytized photoreceptor outer segments (OS). The RPE like the liver expresses enzymes required for fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis. This suggests that these pathways play a role in the disposal of lipids from ingested OS as well as providing a mechanism for recycling metabolic intermediates back to the outer retina. In this study, we examined whether OS phagocytosis was linked to ketogenesis. We found increased levels of β-hydroxy-butyrate (β-HB) in the apical media following ingestion of OS by human fetal RPE and ARPE19 cells cultured on transwell inserts...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298706/an-assessment-of-fetal-cerebral-and-hepatic-perfusion-in-normal-pregnancy-and-pre-eclampsia-using-three-dimensional-ultrasound
#8
Susan Addley, Amanda Ali, Stephen Ong
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia and placental causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are part of the same spectrum of disorders. In IUGR, there is preferential shunting of blood to the fetal brain at the expense of other organs. We wanted to demonstrate that this also occurs in pre-eclampsia using three dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The 3D indices of perfusion are: flow index (FI), vascular index (VI) and vascularisation flow index (VFI) which reflect tissue vascularity and flow intensity...
January 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295742/prognosis-of-isolated-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-using-lung-to-head-circumference-ratio-variability-across-centers-in-a-national-perinatal-network
#9
Marie-Victoire Senat, Hanane Bouchghoul, Julien Stirnemann, Pascal Vaast, Julia Boubnova, Laetitia Begue, Elizabeth Carricaburu, Agnes Sartor, Jacques Jani, Alexandra Benachi, Jean Bouyer
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe congenital anomaly. The observed to expected lung area-to-head circumference ratio (o/e-LHR) has been shown to provide a useful prediction of subsequent survival in fetuses with CDH in reference centers with expertise and a large caseload. However, the accuracy of o/e-LHR measurements in unselected fetal medicine units or in centers with less expertise is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate o/e-LHR measurement in prognostic evaluation of postnatal survival when the measurement is performed in fetal medicine units with different levels of expertise...
March 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294559/the-platelet-activating-receptor-c-type-lectin-receptor-2-plays-an-essential-role-in-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-mice
#10
Hiroshi Kono, Hideki Fujii, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue, Osamu Inoue, Shinji Furuya, Kazuyoshi Hirayama, Yasuhiro Akazawa, Yuuki Nakata, Chao Sun, Nagaharu Tsukiji, Toshiaki Shirai, Yukio Ozaki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CLEC-2 in liver regeneration following partial liver resection in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Irradiated chimeric mice transplanted with fetal liver cells from wild-type (WT), CLEC-2 deleted (KO), or CLEC-2 deleted specifically from platelets (flKO) mice were generated. Mice underwent 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate the expression of the endogenous ligand for CLEC-2, podoplanin...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294314/generation-of-precursor-immature-and-mature-murine-b1-cell-lines-from-c-myc-bcl-xl-overexpressing-pre-bi-cells
#11
Inge Wolf, Corinne Bouquet, Friederike Naumann, Fritz Melchers
Deregulated expression of c-myc and bcl-xL is long known to generate transformed B cells in humans and mice. We overexpressed these genes to induce in vitro and in vivo differentiation of fetal liver-derived mouse pre-BI cells to B1-lineage pre-BII-like, immature and mature B-cell lines and to Ig-secreting cells. In vitro, doxycycline-controlled c-myc/bcl-xL-overexpressing CD19(+) CD93(+) c-kikt(+) IgM(-) pre-BI cells differentiate to and survive as CD19(+) CD93(+) c-kit(-) IgM(+) immature B1 cells. Timed CpG-stimulation of these oncogene-overexpressing pre-B or immature B1 cells generates either CD19(+) CD93(low) c-kit(-) IgM(-) SLC(-) pre-BII-like, or IgM(+) MHCII(+) CD73(+) CD80(+) CD40(+) mature B1-cell lines and IgM-secreting B1 cells in vitro and fixes their state of differentiation...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291946/enantioselective-bioaccumulation-tissue-distribution-and-toxic-effects-of-myclobutanil-enantiomers-in-pelophylax-nigromaculatus-tadpole
#12
Cheng Cheng, Shanshan Di, Li Chen, Wenjun Zhang, Jinling Diao, Zhiqiang Zhou
The research on the enantioselective behavior of chiral pesticides on amphibian has received growing attention, because amphibian is experiencing population decline and amphibian metamorphosis shares many similarities with human fetal development. In this study, the enantioselective behavior of myclobutanil on Pelophylax nigromaculatus tadpole was studied. The antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GST) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were investigated to assess the different toxic effects when tadpoles were exposed to myclobutanil enantiomers for 96 h...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291236/acute-fatty-liver-disease-of-pregnancy-updates-in-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Joy Liu, Tara T Ghaziani, Jacqueline L Wolf
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is an obstetric emergency characterized by maternal liver failure and may have complications for the mother and fetus, including death. This review examines recent literature on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Pathogenesis of this disease has been linked to defects in fatty acid metabolism during pregnancy, especially in the setting of fetal genetic defects in fatty acid oxidation. The value of screening all patients for these genetic defects remains to be determined...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289707/eomesodermin-and-t-bet-mark-developmentally-distinct-human-natural-killer-cells
#14
Amélie Collins, Nyanza Rothman, Kang Liu, Steven L Reiner
Immaturity of the immune system of human fetuses and neonates is often invoked to explain their increased susceptibility to infection; however, the development of the fetal innate immune system in early life remains incompletely explored. We now show that the most mature NK cells found in adult (or postnatal) human circulation (CD94(-)CD16(+)) are absent during ontogeny. Human fetal NK cells were found to express the 2 signature T-box transcription factors essential for the development of all murine NK and NK-like cells, eomesodermin (Eomes) and T-bet...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289208/specific-deletion-of-lkb1-stk11-in-the-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-mesenchyme-drives-hyperplasia-of-the-periurethral-stroma-and-tumorigenesis-in-male-mice
#15
Jitu W George, Amanda L Patterson, Pradeep S Tanwar, André Kajdacsy-Balla, Gail S Prins, Jose M Teixeira
Nearly all older men will experience lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the etiology of which is not well understood. We have generated Stk11(CKO) mice by conditional deletion of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor gene, Stk11 (serine threonine kinase 11), in the fetal Müllerian duct mesenchyme (MDM), the caudal remnant of which is thought to be assimilated by the urogenital sinus primordial mesenchyme in males during fetal development. We show that MDM cells contribute to the postnatal stromal cells at the dorsal aspect of the prostatic urethra by lineage tracing...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288550/four-stages-of-hepatic-hematopoiesis-in-human-embryos-and-fetuses
#16
D Fanni, F Angotzi, F Lai, C Gerosa, G Senes, V Fanos, G Faa
The liver is a major hematopoietic organ during embryonic and fetal development in humans. Its hematopoietic activity starts during the first weeks of gestation and continues until birth. During this period the liver is colonized by undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that gradually differentiate and once mature, enter the circulatory system through the hepatic sinusoids, this process is called hepatic hematopoiesis. The morphology of hepatic hematopoiesis, has been studied in humans through the years, and led to a characterization of all the cell types that make up these phenomena...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286798/hereditary-persistence-of-alpha-fetoprotein-is-associated-with-the-119g-a-polymorphism-in-afp-gene
#17
Neha Deshpande, Radhika Chavan, Govardhan Bale, Urmila Steffie Avanthi, Mohsin Aslam, Mohan Ramchandani, D Nageshwar Reddy, V V Ravikanth
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein that is produced by the liver and yolk sac during fetal development. Its levels are usually raised in malignant conditions. Hereditary persistence of AFP (HPAFP) is a rare benign condition with elevated levels of AFP. It is inherited in a dominant mode with complete penetrance and is usually not associated with any clinical disability. We report two individuals with elevated levels of AFP harboring the -119G>A polymorphism in the AFP gene. A genetic screening to rule out variants in the AFP gene is advised in cases with unexplained persistent AFP levels to avoid inappropriate treatment and surgical options...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277913/observed-to-expected-mri-fetal-lung-volume-can-predict-long-term-lung-morbidity-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#18
Hiroyuki Tsuda, Tomomi Kotani, Mayo Miura, Yumiko Ito, Shima Hirako, Tomoko Nakano, Kenji Imai, Fumitaka Kikkawa
OBJECTIVE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) causes pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension, which are associated with long-term respiratory problems in infants. The aim of this study was to establish a marker for predicting lung function at 1 year of age in infants with CDH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infants with isolated CDH who were delivered after 35 weeks of gestation from April 2008 to June 2016 at Nagoya University Hospital were registered. Regarding alive infants with CDH, only those who underwent follow-up for at least 1 year were registered...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277286/complementary-roles-of-%C3%AE-catenin-and-glutamine-synthetase-immunostaining-in-diagnosis-of-chemotherapy-treated-and-untreated-hepatoblastoma
#19
Wei-Ju Huang, Jia-Huei Tsai, Yung-Ming Jeng
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the expression of β-catenin and its downstream target glutamine synthetase (GS) in hepatoblastoma (HB), and to evaluate the use of these two markers for diagnosing HB. METHODS: Eighteen untreated HBs and 22 HBs resected after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed using β-catenin and GS immunostaining. RESULTS: We detected nuclear β-catenin immunostaining in nearly all untreated HBs, including in fetal and embryonal epithelial components and in mesenchymal elements...
October 27, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270873/predictors-of-fetal-and-maternal-outcome-in-the-crucible-of-hepatic-dysfunction-during-pregnancy
#20
Indrajit Suresh, Vijaykumar Tr, Nandeesh Hp
BACKGROUND: Hepatic dysfunction during pregnancy places both the mother and the fetus at risk. Investigations which are efficient, cost effective and easily available for prognostication are required to tackle this global problem. We studied the etiologies and evaluated investigations for predictive efficiency. METHODS: One hundred ninety-seven pregnant women with hepatic dysfunction during pregnancy were identified. All patients were followed up till 8 weeks after termination of pregnancy or death...
February 2017: Gastroenterology Research
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