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Low-intensity pulsed laser

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878232/holographic-writing-of-ink-based-phase-conjugate-nanostructures-via-laser-ablation
#1
Muhammad Waqas Khalid, Rajib Ahmed, Ali K Yetisen, Bader AlQattan, Haider Butt
The optical phase conjugation (OPC) through photonic nanostructures in coherent optics involves the utilization of a nonlinear optical mechanism through real-time processing of electromagnetic fields. Their applications include spectroscopy, optical tomography, wavefront sensing, and imaging. The development of functional and personalized holographic devices in the visible and near-infrared spectrum can be improved by introducing cost-effective, rapid, and high-throughput fabrication techniques and low-cost recording media...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828925/towards-ion-beam-therapy-based-on-laser-plasma-accelerators
#2
Leonhard Karsch, Elke Beyreuther, Wolfgang Enghardt, Malte Gotz, Umar Masood, Ulrich Schramm, Karl Zeil, Jörg Pawelke
Only few ten radiotherapy facilities worldwide provide ion beams, in spite of their physical advantage of better achievable tumor conformity of the dose compared to conventional photon beams. Since, mainly the large size and high costs hinder their wider spread, great efforts are ongoing to develop more compact ion therapy facilities. One promising approach for smaller facilities is the acceleration of ions on micrometre scale by high intensity lasers. Laser accelerators deliver pulsed beams with a low pulse repetition rate, but a high number of ions per pulse, broad energy spectra and high divergences...
August 22, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772237/low-intensity-laser-therapy-efficacy-evaluation-in-mice-subjected-to-acute-arthritis-condition
#3
Bianca F Trawitzki, Lothar Lilge, Fellipe A T de Figueiredo, Ana Paula Macedo, João Paulo M Issa
Acute arthritis is an inflammation that affects many joints. The principal treatment options comprise drugs (corticosteroids), invasive and painful surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low intensity laser therapy (LILT), a non-invasive treatment, in a murine model of acute inflammation model. 48 mice received a synovial injection of Zymosan A into one knee. Mice were treated with LILT by three different wavelengths, either as a single (S) or dual (D) application immediately after the injury or after 24h following initiation of an inflammatory response...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741866/a-review-of-available-laser-and-intense-light-source-home-devices-a-dermatologist-s-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Margit Lw Juhász, Melissa K Levin, Ellen S Marmur
BACKGROUND: Home optical devices are becoming an increasingly popular treatment modality sought out by patients for dermatologic pathologies such as acne, hair removal and anti-aging, as these devices are a low-cost and convenient therapy choice. METHODS: An Internet search using PubMed.gov was completed with search terms, "home device dermatology," "home device acne," "home device hair" or "hair removal," and "home device aging." RESULTS: Currently, there are multiple home optical devices available on the market...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735428/effects-of-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-on-soft-tissue-micro-circulation-in-the-foot
#5
Anna Katharina Kösters, Bergita Ganse, Boyko Gueorguiev, Kajetan Klos, Ali Modabber, Sven Nebelung, Bong-Sung S Kim, Matthias Knobe
PURPOSE: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been shown to accelerate bone healing and is considered to increase blood flow. The aim of this study was to assess changes in micro-circulation of the foots' soft tissue in response to LIPUS intervention. We hypothesised improved micro-circulation in response to LIPUS. METHODS: Micro-circulation was assessed in 2 mm and 8 mm-deep skin of 50 healthy volunteers using non-invasive laser-doppler spectrophotometry (O2C-device)...
July 22, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729560/adaptive-control-of-ion-yield-in-femtosecond-laser-post-ionization-for-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#6
Dusan Lorenc, Monika Jerigova, Monika Stupavska, Dusan Velic
Secondary ion mass spectrometry is an excellent technique of analytical chemistry, where primary ions sputter a solid sample generating the secondary ions which are determined. Although the ion yield is inherently low, it can be enhanced by using a post-ionization of sputtered neutral species. Our novel approach integrates this technique with a near infrared femtosecond laser post-ionization based on an adaptive control through a laser pulse shaper. The shaping of the laser pulse provides adaptive control to select a mass peak of interest and to enhance this peak intensity...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721044/stimulated-phase-shift-acoustic-nanodroplets-enhance-vancomycin-efficacy-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#7
Hao Guo, Ziming Wang, Quanyin Du, Pan Li, Zhigang Wang, Aimin Wang
PURPOSE: Bacterial biofilms on the surface of prostheses are becoming a rising concern in managing prosthetic joint infections. The inherent resistant features of biofilms render traditional antimicrobial therapy unproductive and revision surgery outcomes uncertain. This situation has prompted the exploration of novel antimicrobial strategies. The synergy of ultrasound microbubbles and vancomycin has been proposed as an efficient alternative for biofilm eradication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of stimulated phase-shift acoustic nanodroplets (NDs) combined with vancomycin...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720854/laser-pulse-shape-control-of-seeded-qed-cascades
#8
Matteo Tamburini, Antonino Di Piazza, Christoph H Keitel
QED cascades are complex avalanche processes of hard photon emission and electron-positron pair creation driven by ultrastrong electromagnetic fields. They play a fundamental role in astrophysical environments such as a pulsars' magnetosphere, rendering an earth-based implementation with intense lasers attractive. In the literature, QED cascades were also predicted to limit the attainable intensity in a set-up of colliding laser beams in a tenuous gas such as the residual gas of a vacuum chamber, therefore severely hindering experiments at extreme field intensities...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691773/visualization-of-aged-fingerprints-with-an-ultraviolet-laser
#9
Norimitsu Akiba, Kenro Kuroki, Kenji Kurosawa, Ken'ichi Tsuchiya
Detection of aged fingerprints is difficult because they can degrade over time with exposure to light, moisture, and temperature. In this study, aging fingerprints were visualized by time-resolved spectroscopy with an ultraviolet-pulsed laser. Fingerprints were prepared on glass slides and paper and then stored under three lighting conditions and two humidity conditions for up to a year. The fluorescence intensities of the fingerprints decreased with time. Samples were stored in the dark degraded less than in sunlight or under a fluorescent lamp...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688752/comparison-of-effects-of-lllt-and-lipus-on-fracture-healing-in-animal-models-and-patients-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Mohammad Bayat, Amarjit Virdi, Reza Jalalifirouzkouhi, Fatemehalsadat Rezaei
The aim of this paper is to study the in vivo potency of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) alone, accompanied by bone grafts, or accompanied by other factors on fracture healing in animal models and patients. In this paper, we aim to systematically review the published scientific literature regarding the use of LLLT and LIPUS to accelerate fracture healing in animal models and patients. We searched the PubMed database for the terms LLLT or LIPUS and/or bone, and fracture...
July 5, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653018/outrunning-damage-electrons-vs-x-rays-timescales-and-mechanisms
#11
John C H Spence
Toward the end of his career, Zewail developed strong interest in fast electron spectroscopy and imaging, a field to which he made important contributions toward his aim of making molecular movies free of radiation damage. We therefore compare here the atomistic mechanisms leading to destruction of protein samples in diffract-and-destroy experiments for the cases of high-energy electron beam irradiation and X-ray laser pulses. The damage processes and their time-scales are compared and relevant elastic, inelastic, and photoelectron cross sections are given...
July 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652897/low-level-laser-therapy-in-russia-history-science-and-practice
#12
REVIEW
Sergey Vladimirovich Moskvin
In Russia (formerly USSR) study of biomodulation action (BMA) mechanisms of low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) began in 1964, immediately after the development of lasers. During the period from 1965 to 1972 several dozens of scientific conferences were held, hundreds of studies were published. Generally, secondary mechanisms and results of LILI effect on patients with various diseases were studied. This data was immediately implemented into practical medicine in the fields of oncology, surgery, dermatology and dentistry, and since 1974 low level laser therapy (LLLT) is included in the standard of state medical care...
2017: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609301/a-light-weight-compact-proton-gantry-design-with-a-novel-dose-delivery-system-for-broad-energetic-laser-accelerated-beams
#13
U Masood, T E Cowan, W Enghardt, K M Hofmann, L Karsch, F Kroll, U Schramm, J J Wilkens, J Pawelke
Proton beams may provide superior dose-conformity in radiation therapy. However, the large sizes and costs limit the widespread use of proton therapy (PT). The recent progress in proton acceleration via high-power laser systems has made it a compelling alternative to conventional accelerators, as it could potentially reduce the overall size and cost of the PT facilities. However, the laser-accelerated beams exhibit different characteristics than conventionally accelerated beams, i.e. very intense proton bunches with large divergences and broad-energy spectra...
July 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546559/mapping-few-femtosecond-slices-of-ultra-relativistic-electron-bunches
#14
Tim Plath, Christoph Lechner, Velizar Miltchev, Philipp Amstutz, Nagitha Ekanayake, Leslie Lamberto Lazzarino, Theophilos Maltezopoulos, Jörn Bödewadt, Tim Laarmann, Jörg Roßbach
Free-electron lasers are unique sources of intense and ultra-short x-ray pulses that led to major scientific breakthroughs across disciplines from matter to materials and life sciences. The essential element of these devices are micrometer-sized electron bunches with high peak currents, low energy spread, and low emittance. Advanced FEL concepts such as seeded amplifiers rely on the capability of analyzing and controlling the electron beam properties with few-femtosecond time resolution. One major challenge is to extract tomographic slice parameters instead of projected electron beam properties...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545054/an-optimized-small-animal-tumour-model-for-experimentation-with-low-energy-protons
#15
Elke Beyreuther, Kerstin Brüchner, Mechthild Krause, Margret Schmidt, Rita Szabo, Jörg Pawelke
BACKGROUND: The long-term aim of developing laser based particle acceleration towards clinical application requires not only substantial technological progress, but also the radiobiological characterization of the resulting ultra-short and ultra-intensive particle beam pulses. After comprehensive cell studies a mouse ear tumour model was established allowing for the penetration of low energy protons (~20 MeV) currently available at laser driven accelerators. The model was successfully applied for a first tumour growth delay study with laser driven electrons, whereby the need of improvements crop out...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508042/toward-continuous-wave-operation-of-organic-semiconductor-lasers
#16
Atula S D Sandanayaka, Toshinori Matsushima, Fatima Bencheikh, Kou Yoshida, Munetomo Inoue, Takashi Fujihara, Kenichi Goushi, Jean-Charles Ribierre, Chihaya Adachi
The demonstration of continuous-wave lasing from organic semiconductor films is highly desirable for practical applications in the areas of spectroscopy, data communication, and sensing, but it still remains a challenging objective. We report low-threshold surface-emitting organic distributed feedback lasers operating in the quasi-continuous-wave regime at 80 MHz as well as under long-pulse photoexcitation of 30 ms. This outstanding performance was achieved using an organic semiconductor thin film with high optical gain, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and no triplet absorption losses at the lasing wavelength combined with a mixed-order distributed feedback grating to achieve a low lasing threshold...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492049/a-review-of-laser-and-light-therapy-in-melasma
#17
REVIEW
M K Trivedi, F C Yang, B K Cho
Melasma is a dysregulation of the homeostatic mechanisms that control skin pigmentation and excess pigment is produced. Traditional treatment approaches with topical medications and chemical peels are commonly used but due to the refractory and recurrent nature of melasma, patients often seek alternative treatment strategies such as laser and light therapy. Several types of laser and light therapy have been studied in the treatment of melasma. Intense pulsed light, low fluence Q-switched lasers, and non-ablative fractionated lasers are the most common lasers and light treatments that are currently performed...
March 2017: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485872/new-lasers-and-light-sources-old-and-new-risks
#18
REVIEW
Uwe Paasch, Antje Schwandt, Nikolaus Seeber, Gerd Kautz, Sonja Grunewald, Merete Haedersdal
Recent developments (new wavelengths, treatment concepts, and combinations) in the field of lasers, intense pulsed light (IPL), LED, as well as new energy and light sources have opened up new therapeutic options that extend beyond mere aesthetic indications. Thus, while fractional lasers used to be employed to merely treat wrinkles, the same devices - in the context of laser-assisted drug delivery - have now become important tools in the treatment of scars, field cancerization, and epithelial tumors. The requirements posed to physicians, both with respect to establishing the indication and conducting treatment, have been growing along with the increase in technological complexity as well as the rising number of comorbidities and comedications in a patient population that continues to age...
May 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474903/reduction-of-intrinsic-electron-emittance-from-photocathodes-using-ordered-crystalline-surfaces
#19
Siddharth Karkare, Jun Feng, Xumin Chen, Weishi Wan, F Javier Palomares, T-C Chiang, Howard A Padmore
The generation of intense electron beams with low emittance is key to both the production of coherent x rays from free electron lasers, and electron pulses with large transverse coherence length used in ultrafast electron diffraction. These beams are generated today by photoemission from disordered polycrystalline surfaces. We show that the use of single crystal surfaces with appropriate electronic structures allows us to effectively utilize the physics of photoemission to generate highly directed electron emission, thus reducing the emittance of the electron beam being generated...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463283/high-resolution-flash-three-dimensional-lidar-systems-based-on-polarization-modulation
#20
Peng Zhang, Xiaoping Du, Jiguang Zhao, Yishuo Song, Hang Chen
Two high resolution flash LIDAR systems based on polarization modulation are demonstrated in this paper. One utilizes a polarization beam splitter (PBS) and two charge coupled device (CCD) arrays; the other utilizes a micro-polarizer array and a CCD array. Compared with the traditional flash LIDAR systems, the main advantage of the presented flash LIDAR systems is replacing high bandwidth detectors with a polarization modulator and low bandwidth detectors. The polarization modulator is used to modulate the polarization state of the received laser pulse in time and the range information can be mapped into the intensity received by the low bandwidth detectors...
May 1, 2017: Applied Optics
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