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Sabrina Stocker, Florian Foschum, Philipp Krauter, Florian Bergmann, Ansgar Hohmann, Claudia Scalfi Happ, Alwin Kienle
Dairy products play an important role in our daily nutrition. As a turbid scattering medium with different kinds of particles and droplets, each alteration of these components changes the scattering properties of milk. The goal of this work is the determination of the amount of main scattering components, the fat droplets and the casein micelles, by understanding the light propagation in homogenized milk and in raw milk. To provide the absolute impact of these milk components, the geometrical and optical properties such as the size distribution and the refractive index (RI) of the components have to be examined...
October 21, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
J Brindley
Aim The focus of this review was to identify the role of reflection in continuing dental education. By understanding the expectations that our statutory regulative authority has of their registrants there is an opportunity to help to shape the continued professional development activities undertaken by current registrants in the future.Objective Conduct a review of General Dental Council (GDC) Fitness to Practise cases which were given conditions (restrictions) between February 2012 and November 2015, identifying relevant emergent outcomes in relation the Fitness to Practise (FTP) process...
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
Belfor Antonio Galaz, Rodrigo Hernan Acevedo
Ultrasound poroelastography is an imaging modality used to characterize the temporal behavior of soft tissue that can be modeled as a solid permeated by interconnected pores filled with liquid (poroelastic medium). It could be useful in the stage classification of lymphedema. Generally, time-constant models are applied to strain images, and precision of the fitting process, computational cost and versatility in response to changes in tissues properties are crucial aspects of clinical applications. In the work described here, we performed creep experiments on poroelastic phantoms and used rheologic models to visualize the changes in viscoelastic response associated with fluid mobility...
October 17, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Wenyan Ci, Yingping Huang
Visual odometry estimates the ego-motion of an agent (e.g., vehicle and robot) using image information and is a key component for autonomous vehicles and robotics. This paper proposes a robust and precise method for estimating the 6-DoF ego-motion, using a stereo rig with optical flow analysis. An objective function fitted with a set of feature points is created by establishing the mathematical relationship between optical flow, depth and camera ego-motion parameters through the camera's 3-dimensional motion and planar imaging model...
October 17, 2016: Sensors
Uwe Schneider, Fabiano Vasi, Jürgen Besserer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: When fractionation schemes for hypofractionation and stereotactic body radiotherapy are considered, a reliable cell survival model at high dose is needed for calculating doses of similar biological effectiveness. An alternative to the LQ-model is the track-event theory which is based on the probabilities for one- and two two-track events. A one-track-event (OTE) is always represented by at least two simultaneous double strand breaks. A two-track-event (TTE) results in one double strand break...
2016: PloS One
Kun Wang, Wenjun Zhu, Shifang Xiao, Jun Chen, Wangyu Hu
Large scale atomistic simulations with suitable interatomic potentials are widely employed by scientists or engineers of different areas. The quick generation of high-quality interatomic potentials is urgently needed. This largely relies on the developments of potential construction methods and algorithms in this area. Quantities of interatomic potential models have been proposed and parameterized with various methods, such as the analytic method, the force-matching approach and multi-object optimization method, in order to make the potentials more transferable...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Sebastian Zabierek, Jakub Zabierek, Adam Kwapisz, Marcin E Domzalski
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The patella plays an important role in knee biomechanics and provides anterior coverage of the knee joint. One to two percent of the population has an anatomical variant of patella called a bipartite patella that usually does not case pain. However, occasionally after injury or overuse during sport it can be a source of anterior knee pain. The purpose of this case report was to present a rare variant of bipartite patella and highlight conservative treatment of this condition...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Chunming Liu, Stefanie A Drew, Eric Borsting, Amy Escobar, Lawrence Stark, Christopher Chase
The purpose of this study is to examine the potential relationship between tonic accommodation (TA), near work induced TA-adaptation and the steady state closed-loop accommodation response (AR). Forty-two graduate students participated in the study. Various aspects of their accommodation system were objectively measured using an open-field infrared auto-refractor (Grand Seiko WAM-5500). Tonic accommodation was assessed in a completely dark environment. The association between TA and closed-loop AR was assessed using linear regression correlations and t-test comparisons...
October 17, 2016: Vision Research
Carlo Barnaba, Maria Teresa Rodríguez-Estrada, Giovanni Lercker, Hugo Sergio García, Ilce Gabriela Medina-Meza
In this work we studied the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) methyl esters on cholesterol photo-induced oxidation. The oxidative routes were modeled with a chemical reaction network (CRN), which represents the first application of CRN to the oxidative degradation of a food-related lipid matrix. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, T-I), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, T-II) and a mixture of both (T-III) were added to cholesterol using hematoporphyrin as sensitizer, and were exposed to a fluorescent lamp for 48h...
October 15, 2016: Steroids
Guglielmo Ronco, Marco Zappa, Silvia Franceschi, Sara Tunesi, Adele Caprioglio, Massimo Confortini, Annarosa Del Mistro, Francesca Carozzi, Nereo Segnan, Manuel Zorzi, Paolo Giorgi-Rossi
BACKGROUND: Women positive to human papillomavirus (HPV+) testing at cervical screening need triage, typically cytology and immediate colposcopy in case of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or worse (ASCUS+) or, in cytology-normal HPV+ women, HPV test repeat after 1 year and colposcopy referral if still HPV+. Our hypothesis was that substantial variations in triage positivity and sensitivity may produce little variation in overall referral to colposcopy and on sensitivity of the entire screening process...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Roberta Fida, Heather K Spence Laschinger, Michael P Leiter
BACKGROUND: Incivility has negative consequences in the workplace and remains a prevalent issue in nursing. Research has consistently linked incivility to nurse burnout and, in turn, to poor mental health and turnover intentions. To retain high-quality nurses, it is important to understand what factors might protect nurses from the negative effects of workplace mistreatment. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the role of relational occupational coping self-efficacy in protecting nurses from workplace incivility and related burnout and turnover intentions...
October 14, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Mahendra Kumar Prajapat, Isha Shroff, R G Brajesh, Supreet Saini
Cooperation benefits individual cells in a microbial population by helping accomplish tasks which are difficult or non-beneficial for individuals in the population to carry out by themselves. Hence, numerous examples exist of bacteria cooperating and working towards a common objective. The sharing of a common public good via quorum sensing is one of the ways of cooperation among individuals of many microbial populations. However, cheaters exploit cooperators in a population by not contributing to the production of the common goods but enjoy benefits from goods secreted by cooperating individuals...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Yook Chin Chia
: Many cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction tools have been developed in an attempt to identify those at highest risk in order for them to benefit from interventional treatment. The first CVD risk tool that was developed was the coronary heart disease risk tool by the Framingham Heart Study in 1998 (1). However the Framingham Risk Score could overestimate (or underestimate) risk in populations other than the US population. Hence several other risk engines have also been developed, primarily for a better fit in the communities in which the tools are to be used (2, 3)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Päivi Kolu, Kari Tokola, Markku Kankaanpää, Jaana Suni
STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study, part of a randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and neuromuscular fitness with direct health-care costs and sickness-related absence among nursing personnel with nonspecific low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Low back pain creates a huge economic burden due to increased sick leave and use of health-care services. METHODS: Female nursing personnel with nonspecific low back pain were included (n = 219)...
October 6, 2016: Spine
Quynh C Nguyen, Dapeng Li, Hsien-Wen Meng, Suraj Kath, Elaine Nsoesie, Feifei Li, Ming Wen
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that where people live, play, and work can influence health and well-being. However, the dearth of neighborhood data, especially data that is timely and consistent across geographies, hinders understanding of the effects of neighborhoods on health. Social media data represents a possible new data resource for neighborhood research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build, from geotagged Twitter data, a national neighborhood database with area-level indicators of well-being and health behaviors...
October 17, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Anne-Sophie Voisin, Alexandre Fellous, Ryan L Earley, Frédéric Silvestre
17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is one of the most potent endocrine disrupting compounds found in the aquatic environments, and is known to strongly alter fish reproduction and fitness. While the effects of direct exposure to EE2 are well studied in adults, there is an increasing need to assess the impacts of exposure during early life stages. Sensitivity to pollutants during this critical window can potentially affect the phenotype later in life or in subsequent generations. This study investigated phenotypic outcome of early-life exposure to 17-α-ethinylestradiol during development and in adults of the mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus...
October 4, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Göran Arnqvist, David Berger
Sexual selection can increase rates of adaptation by imposing stronger selection in males, thereby allowing efficient purging of the mutation load on population fitness at a low demographic cost. Indeed, sexual selection tends to be male-biased throughout the animal kingdom, but little empirical work has explored the ecological sensitivity of this sex difference. In this study, we generated theoretical predictions of sex-specific strengths of selection, environmental sensitivities and genotype-by-environment interactions, and tested them in seed beetles by manipulating either larval host plant or rearing temperature...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Merlin L Robb, Jintanat Ananworanich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the characteristics of transmission during acute HIV infection (AHI) may inform targets for vaccine-induced immune interdiction. Individuals treated in AHI with a small HIV reservoir size may be ideal candidates for therapeutic HIV vaccines aiming for HIV remission (i.e. viremic control after treatment interruption). RECENT FINDINGS: The AHI period is brief and peak viremia predicts a viral set point that occurs 4-5 weeks following infection...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Michelle M Martel, Pedro M Pan, Maurício S Hoffmann, Ary Gadelha, Maria C do Rosário, Jair J Mari, Gisele G Manfro, Eurípedes C Miguel, Tomás Paus, Rodrigo A Bressan, Luis A Rohde, Giovanni A Salum
High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Nicolas Geades, Benjamin A E Hunt, Simon M Shah, Andrew Peters, Olivier E Mougin, Penny A Gowland
PURPOSE: To develop a method that fits a multipool model to z-spectra acquired from non-steady state sequences, taking into account the effects of variations in T1 or B1 amplitude and the results estimating the parameters for a four-pool model to describe the z-spectrum from the healthy brain. METHODS: We compared measured spectra with a look-up table (LUT) of possible spectra and investigated the potential advantages of simultaneously considering spectra acquired at different saturation powers (coupled spectra) to provide sensitivity to a range of different physicochemical phenomena...
October 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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