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Nadia J Sweis
OBJECTIVES: To highlight the physical, psychological, social, and economic reasons related to sex differences in smoking behaviors in Jordan. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among Jordanian adult smokers. RESULTS: Sex was a significant predictor of physical reasons related to smoking; when controlling for other factors (t765 = 5.027; P < 0.001), women were more affected by physical factors than were men...
March 12, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
John W Garrett, Yinsheng Li, Ke Li, Guang-Hong Chen
PURPOSE: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to somewhat alleviate the breast tissue overlapping issues of two dimensional (2D) mammography.However, the improvement in current DBT systems over mammography is still limited.Statistical image reconstruction (SIR) methods have the potential to reduce through-plane artifacts in DBT, and thus may be used to further reduce anatomical clutter. The purpose of this work was to study the impact of SIR on anatomical clutter in the reconstructed DBT image volumes...
March 15, 2018: Medical Physics
C N Ezisi, B I Eze, O Okoye, O Arinze
Objective: To assess the awareness of work-related ocular health hazards and utilization of personal protective eye devices (PPEDs) among stone quarry workers in Abakaliki, southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional survey of stone quarry industry workers in Abakiliki, conducted between March and April, 2012, data on participants' socio-demographics, job characteristics, PPED awareness, and utilization were collected. Descriptive and analytical statistics were performed...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Sarah Sims, Mary Leamy, Nigel Davies, Katy Schnitzler, Ros Levenson, Felicity Mayer, Robert Grant, Sally Brearley, Stephen Gourlay, Fiona Ross, Ruth Harris
BACKGROUND: Intentional rounding (IR) is a structured process whereby nurses conduct one to two hourly checks with every patient using a standardised protocol. OBJECTIVE: A realist synthesis of the evidence on IR was undertaken to develop IR programme theories of what works, for whom, in what circumstances and why. METHODS: A three-stage literature search and a stakeholder consultation event was completed. A variety of sources were searched, including AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, HMIC, Google and Google Scholar, for published and unpublished literature...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Bruno Monteiro de Moura, Ewertton de Souza Bezerra, Lars Louis Andersen, Silas Nery de Oliveira, Fernando Diefenthaeler
Understanding the influence of strength training intensity on subsequent recovery in elderly is important to avoid reductions in physical function during the days following training. Twenty-two elderly were randomized in two groups: G70 (65.9 ± 4.8 years, n = 11) and G95 (66.9 ± 5.1, n = 11). Baseline tests included maximum voluntary isometric contraction (peak torque and rate of torque development - RTD), countermovement jump, and functional capacity (timed up and go, stairs ascent and descent)...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Sana B Ali, Juana Romero, Kevin Morrison, Baria Hafeez, Jessica S Ancker
OBJECTIVES:  Although electronic patient portals are offered by most health care organizations, poor usability and poor fit to patient needs may pose barriers to adoption. We collaborated with an academic hospital to conduct iterative user evaluation of a newly deployed portal designed to deliver inpatient data upon hospital discharge. METHODS:  Three evaluators applied heuristic usability evaluation and conducted 23 individual user testing sessions with patients with chronic disease or managing the care of family members with chronic disease...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Luisella M Vigna, Amelia Brunani, Francesca Gori, Fabio Mussino, Silvia C M Tomaino, Gianna M Agnelli, Dario Consonni, Luciano Riboldi
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and work-ability may be influenced by reduced performance, associated diseases, and obesogenic environment. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-six male (46.7 ± 10.6 years; BMI 33.3 ± 4.4 kg/m) and 658 female (48.4 ± 9.7 years; BMI 33.6 ± 5.4 kg/m) were enrolled. They were classified by Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) and interviewed for "perceived" work-ability. RESULTS: Total work ability score was 1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Yuhong Xiang, Jean Donley, Elena Seletskaia, Sonal Shingare, John Kamerud, Boris Gorovits
In ligand binding assays (LBA), the concentration to response data is a nonlinear relationship driven by the law of mass action. Four parameter logistic (4PL) and five parameter logistic (5PL) curve fitting models are two widely accepted and validated models for LBA calibration curve data. Selection of the appropriate regression model and weighting function are key components of LBA development. Assessment of selected model and weighting function should be performed during assay development and confirmed later during validation...
March 13, 2018: AAPS Journal
Emanuele D'Artibale, Paul B Laursen, John B Cronin
Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Doreen Huppert, Dominik Straumann, Mans Magnusson, Ilmari Pyykkö, Thomas Brandt
A common European Community driving licence was established in 1980. However, there are major differences among the countries as regards medical conditions that legally affect driving ability. This article discusses various assessment guidelines for dizzy patients. These range from a total absence of specified binding requirements in Finland or regulations open to clinical interpretation in Switzerland, to inappropriately strict regulations in Germany. We focus on requirements for patients with vestibular disorders in Germany which have been in force since 2014...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Jeanne M Ferrante, Eric K Shaw, Jennifer E Bayly, Jenna Howard, M Nell Quest, Elizabeth C Clark, Connie Pascal
BACKGROUND: Many primary care practices participating in patient-centered medical home (PCMH) transformation initiatives are expanding the work roles of their medical assistants (MAs). Little is known about attitudes of MAs or barriers and facilitators to these role changes. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of qualitative cross-case comparison study of 15 New Jersey primary care practices participating in a PCMH project during 2012 to 2013. Observation field notes and in-depth and key informant interviews (with physicians, office managers, staff and care coordinators) were iteratively analyzed using grounded theory...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Abhishek Kumar Tiwari, Rakesh Kumar, Dharmendra Tripathi, Subham Badhyal
In vivo studies suggest that cyclic and low-magnitude loading can be useful over pharmaceutical drugs in normalizing bone loss as it encourages osteogenesis (i.e. new bone formation) at the sites of elevated strain magnitude. In silico models assumed normal strain or strain energy density (SED) as the stimulus to predict loading-induced osteogenesis, however, these models may have limited success in fitting the in vivo new bone formation at several instances. For example, rest-inserted cyclic loading amplifies the new bone formation as compared to continuous-cyclic loading even though similar strain magnitude were induced in both the cases...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Samantha Mellen, Maria de Ferrars, Claire Louise Chapman, Sarah Bevan, James Turvill, Daniel Charles Turnock
BACKGROUND: Faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is increasingly being used to triage symptomatic patients for suspected colorectal cancer. However, there are limited data on the effect of pre-analytical factors on faecal haemoglobin (f-Hb) when measured by FIT. The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of f-Hb in faeces and to compare two methods of f-Hb sampling for FIT. METHODS: Six patients provided faeces for f-Hb measurement which were transferred into specialised collection devices at baseline and at 1, 2, 3 and 7 days after storage at either room temperature or 4°C...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Daniel Montemayor, Eva Rivera, Seogjoo J Jang
Light harvesting 2 (LH2) complex is a primary component of the photosynthetic unit of purple bacteria that is responsible for harvesting and relaying excitons. The electronic absorption line shape of LH2 contains two major bands at 800 nm and 850 nm wavelength regions. Under low light condition, some species of purple bacteria replace LH2 with LH3, a variant form with almost the same structure as the former but with distinctively different spectral features. The major difference between the absorption line shapes of LH2 and LH3 is the shift of the 850 nm band of the former to a new 820 nm region...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jane S Richardson, Christopher J Williams, Bradley J Hintze, Vincent B Chen, Michael G Prisant, Lizbeth L Videau, David C Richardson
Traditionally, validation was considered to be a final gatekeeping function, but refinement is smoother and results are better if model validation actively guides corrections throughout structure solution. This shifts emphasis from global to local measures: primarily geometry, conformations and sterics. A fit into the wrong local minimum conformation usually produces outliers in multiple measures. Moving to the right local minimum should be prioritized, rather than small shifts across arbitrary borderlines...
February 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Ehsan Shakeri, Gholamreza Latif-Shabgahi, Amir Esmaeili Abharian
In recent years, many efforts have been made to present optimal strategies for cancer therapy through the mathematical modelling of tumour-cell population dynamics and optimal control theory. In many cases, therapy effect is included in the drift term of the stochastic Gompertz model. By fitting the model with empirical data, the parameters of therapy function are estimated. The reported research works have not presented any algorithm to determine the optimal parameters of therapy function. In this study, a logarithmic therapy function is entered in the drift term of the Gompertz model...
April 2018: IET Systems Biology
Fatima Padilla-Cabal, Dietmar Georg, Hermann Fuchs
PURPOSE: The feasibility of Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) based proton therapy is based, among several other factors, on the implementation of appropriate extensions on current dose calculation methods. This work aims to develop a pencil beam algorithm (PBA) for dose calculation of proton beams within magnetic field regions of up to 3T. METHODS: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE 7.1/GEANT4.9.4p02 toolkit were performed to generate calibration and benchmarking data for the PBA...
March 12, 2018: Medical Physics
Diego Z Carvalho, Erik K St Louis, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri
Importance: Aging is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which has been linked to cognitive decline in the elderly. However, whether EDS is associated with the pathologic processes of Alzheimer disease remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether EDS at baseline is associated with a longitudinal increase in regional β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in a cohort of elderly individuals without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective analysis included participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Nathan W Burke, Russell Bonduriansky
Facultative reproductive strategies that incorporate both sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction should be optimal, yet are rarely observed in animals. Resolving this paradox requires an understanding of the economics of facultative asexuality. Recent work suggests that switching from parthenogenesis to sex can be costly and that females can resist mating to avoid switching. However, it remains unclear whether these costs and resistance behaviors are dependent on female age. We addressed these questions in the Cyclone Larry stick insect, Sipyloidea larryi , by pairing females with males (or with females as a control) in early life prior to the start of parthenogenetic reproduction, or in mid- or late life after a period of parthenogenetic oviposition...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xiangrong Li, Kaiwei Wang, Yanru Peng
The interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with proteins is a topic of high relevance for the medical application of nanomaterials. In the study, a comprehensive investigation was performed for the binding properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to pepsin. The results indicate that the binding of AgNPs to pepsin may be a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that AgNPs binds to pepsin is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy, and the major driving forces are hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions...
March 9, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
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