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Provoke epilepsy

Hae Yu Kim, Yun Jung Hur, Heung-Dong Kim, Kang Min Park, Sung Eun Kim, Tae Gyu Hwang
OBJECTIVE Thalamic stimulation can provoke electroencephalography (EEG) synchronization or desynchronization, which can help to reduce the occurrence of seizures in intractable epilepsy, though the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, the authors investigated changes in EEG electrical activity to better understand the seizure-reducing effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with intractable epilepsy. METHODS Electrical activation patterns in the epileptogenic brains of 3 patients were analyzed using classical low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis recursively applied (CLARA)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Han-Tao Li, Ching-Yi Lee, Siew-Na Lim, Chun-Wei Chang, Shih-Tseng Lee, Tony Wu
BACKGROUND: Surgical interventions are often used for freedom from seizure in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A patient with seizure foci in the left mesiotemporal region underwent limited-size stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RF-TC) over the left hippocampus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 37-year-old woman with febrile convulsion in her childhood was admitted to our neurologic department with complex partial seizure with secondary generalization...
September 4, 2016: World Neurosurgery
C Peters, R E Rosch, E Hughes, P C Ruben
Dravet syndrome is the prototype of SCN1A-mutation associated epilepsies. It is characterised by prolonged seizures, typically provoked by fever. We describe the evaluation of an SCN1A mutation in a child with early-onset temperature-sensitive seizures. The patient carries a heterozygous missense variant (c3818C > T; pAla1273Val) in the NaV1.1 brain sodium channel. We compared the functional effects of the variant vs. wild type NaV1.1 using patch clamp recordings from channels expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells at different temperatures (32, 37, and 40 °C)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Juan Leiva, Claudio Infante
Copper as a trace metal is involved in several neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Menkes, Wilson's, Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that acute perfusion of copper can inhibit long-term synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices. The objective of this work is to determine whether Cu perfusion can perturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices derived from pilocarpine treated epileptic rats. Field potential (FP) recordings of the CA1 neurons of rats with chronic epilepsy showed voltage and response duration decrease following copper sulfate perfusion...
April 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Anvesh Jackson, Louise Teo, Udaya Seneviratne
AIMS: (1) To delineate the challenges in seizure diagnosis in the first seizure clinic setting for adult patients of a teaching hospital, and (2) quantify the diagnostic accuracy of the referral source and the yield of routine investigations, including blood tests, EEGs, and neuroimaging. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients referred by the emergency department to the adult first seizure clinic and seen by the same epilepsy specialist between June 2007 and June 2011...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
A V Vasilenko, L S Onishchenko, S A Zhivolupov, S V Lobzin, N N Zabolotsky, T V Bodrova
AIM: Learning cycle «sleep-wake» is of great theoretical and practical importance because it allows to understand the general patterns of adaptive mechanisms of human interaction with the environment (neuroplasticity), violations of which are the basis of many diseases of the CNS, including epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Complex clinical and electroencephalographic (video-EEG monitoring with mandatory recording of sleep) study was carried out before and after prolonged sleep deprivation (for at least 1 day) of 178 patients with locally due to epilepsy (LEi)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Shang-Der Chen, Yu-Lin Wang, Sheng-Fu Liang, Fu-Zen Shaw
Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Szilvia A Nagy, Réka Horváth, Gábor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Péter Barsi, Flóra John, Andrea Horváth, Norbert Kovács, Péter Bogner, Hajnalka Ábrahám, Beáta Bóné, Csilla Gyimesi, Tamás Dóczi, József Janszky
In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), structural abnormalities are present not only in the hippocampus but also in the white matter with ipsilateral predominance. Although the timing of epilepsy onset is commonly associated with clinical and semiological dissimilarities, limited data exist regarding white matter diffusion changes with respect to age at epilepsy onset. The aim of this study was to investigate diffusion changes in the white matter of patients with unilateral MTLE-HS with respect to clinical parameters and to compare them with an age- and sex-matched healthy control group...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Johanna Palmio, Katriina Vuolteenaho, Kai Lehtimäki, Riina Nieminen, Jukka Peltola, Eeva Moilanen
PURPOSE: Adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, have gained increasing importance in pathophysiology of various neurological diseases including epilepsy. There are experimental data suggesting a role for leptin in the genesis of seizures and neuroprotection related to seizures. However there are no clinical studies on the effects of epileptic seizures on adipokines. METHODS: We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin and adipsin after provoked or unprovoked primary or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 13 female patients and seven controls...
July 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Detlev Boison
Epilepsy, one of the most prevalent neurological conditions, presents as a complex disorder of network homeostasis characterized by spontaneous non-provoked seizures and associated comorbidities. Currently used antiepileptic drugs have been designed to suppress neuronal hyperexcitability and thereby to suppress epileptic seizures. However, the current armamentarium of antiepileptic drugs is not effective in over 30% of patients, does not affect the comorbidities of epilepsy, and does not prevent the development and progression of epilepsy (epileptogenesis)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Adam J Noble, Anthony G Marson
OBJECTIVE: The advantages and disadvantages of using "epileptic" as a noun to describe someone with epilepsy have long been debated. Recent high-profile recommendations have stated that the term should not be used, including in English, as it perpetuates stigma. This decision was largely informed by a Brazilian Global Campaign Against Epilepsy study that reported experimental evidence indicating that, with students, the label evokes more negative attitudes than "person with epilepsy"...
June 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Emanuela Claudia Turco, Elena Pavlidis, Carlotta Facini, Carlotta Spagnoli, Anna Andreolli, Rosalia Geraci, Francesco Pisani
Myoclonic epilepsy with reflex seizures in infancy is an extremely rare condition, in which seizures are provoked mainly by auditory or auditory-tactile stimuli. To increase the awareness of pediatricians regarding this underrecognized condition, we describe a child with seizures provoked only by the tactile stimulation of specific areas of the head and face.
June 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
András Horváth, Anikó Papp, Anna Szűcs
Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) or arousal parasomnias are prevalent conditions in children and young adults, apparently provoked by any medical, physical, mental, or pharmacologic/toxic agent disturbing normal biorhythm and causing sleep fragmentation or abundant amount of slow wave sleep. The nadir and the ascending slope of the first sleep cycle of night sleep are the typical periods when NREM parasomnias, especially sleepwalking may occur on sleep-microstructural level; microarousals are the typical moments allowing NREM parasomnias...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
Ralph G Andrzejak, Christian Rummel, Florian Mormann, Kaspar Schindler
Conceptually and structurally simple mathematical models of coupled oscillator networks can show a rich variety of complex dynamics, providing fundamental insights into many real-world phenomena. A recent and not yet fully understood example is the collapse of coexisting synchronous and asynchronous oscillations into a globally synchronous motion found in networks of identical oscillators. Here we show that this sudden collapse is promoted by a further decrease of synchronization, rather than by critically high synchronization...
2016: Scientific Reports
Martin Kurthen
The Swiss Guideline concerning epilepsy and driving has recently been revised. Recommendations have changed significantly in several respects. Some modifications arise indirectly from a change in the overall concept of epilepsy. As a consequence of the application of the new ILAE definition and diagnostic criteria for epilepsy, there are now cases in which the diagnosis of epilepsy is established even after one single seizure. Furthermore, a concept of imminent epilepsy was introduced to identify patients without seizures, but with a high risk of a first seizure within twelve months...
October 28, 2015: Praxis
Gary P Brennan, Deblina Dey, Yuncai Chen, Katelin P Patterson, Eric J Magnetta, Alicia M Hall, Celine M Dube, Yu-Tang Mei, Tallie Z Baram
Insult-provoked transformation of neuronal networks into epileptic ones involves multiple mechanisms. Intervention studies have identified both dysregulated inflammatory pathways and NRSF-mediated repression of crucial neuronal genes as contributors to epileptogenesis. However, it remains unclear how epilepsy-provoking insults (e.g., prolonged seizures) induce both inflammation and NRSF and whether common mechanisms exist. We examined miR-124 as a candidate dual regulator of NRSF and inflammatory pathways. Status epilepticus (SE) led to reduced miR-124 expression via SIRT1--and, in turn, miR-124 repression--via C/EBPα upregulated NRSF...
March 15, 2016: Cell Reports
Sallie Baxendale
Epilepsy remains an attractive vehicle for filmmakers in the twenty-first century. This review examines the themes of twenty-one films, released between 2000 and 2014, that feature a character with epilepsy or a pivotal scene involving a seizure. Epilepsy continues to be associated with the supernatural in modern cinematic output. Demonic possession and epilepsy now share a similar cinematic lexicon. Unfortunately, the overlap is more than just visual. Supernatural treatments of narratives that claim to be 'based on a true story' of someone with epilepsy continue to blur the lines between medical and spiritual realms...
April 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Ahmed H Subki, Aishah S Alasmari, Fadi M Jan, Feras A Moria, Mohammed M Jan
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe epilepsy syndrome characterized by early onset of multiple types of seizures. We report the first case of reflex seizures triggered by diaper change in a girl at 9 months old and 2 years old with a mutation in the SCN1A gene causing DS. Reflex seizures have been reported in patients with DS provoked by increased body temperature or visual stimulation. The case we report widens the spectrum of triggers causing reflex seizures in children with DS. Cortical hyperexcitability resulting from the genetic defect explains the tendency to experience such reflex seizures...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Michael Trimble, Dale C Hesdorffer
Epilepsy is a disorder that has been used by dramatists in various ways over the ages and therefore highlights the views of the disorder as people saw it at the time the plays were written and performed. In the 6th century BC, links between tragedy and epilepsy were developed by Greek playwrights, especially Euripides, in Iphigenia among the Taureans and Heracles where epilepsy and madness associated with extreme violence occur together. Both Heracles and Orestes have episodes after a long period of physical exhaustion and nutritional deprivation...
April 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Gregory K Bergey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Assessment of the patient with a first seizure is a common and important neurologic issue. Less than 50% of patients who have a first unprovoked seizure have a second seizure; thus, the evaluation should focus on determining the patient's risk of seizure recurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of population studies, including some classic reports, have identified the relative risk factors for subsequent seizure recurrence. The 2014 update of the International League Against Epilepsy definition of epilepsy incorporates these findings, and in 2015, the American Academy of Neurology published a guideline that analyzed the available data...
February 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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