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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197553/the-role-of-sirt1-in-epileptogenesis
#1
Alicia M Hall, Gary P Brennan, Tiffany M Nguyen, Akanksha Singh-Taylor, Hyun-Seung Mun, Mary J Sargious, Tallie Z Baram
The mechanisms by which brain insults lead to subsequent epilepsy remain unclear. Insults, including trauma, stroke, tumors, infections, and long seizures [status epilepticus (SE)], create a neuronal state of increased metabolic demand or decreased energy supply. Neurons express molecules that monitor their metabolic state, including sirtuins (Sirts). Sirtuins deacetylate cytoplasmic proteins and nuclear histones, and their epigenetic modulation of the chromatin governs the expression of many genes, influencing neuronal properties...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115172/protective-effects-of-gabapentin-against-the-seizure-susceptibility-and-comorbid-behavioral-abnormalities-in-the-early-socially-isolated-mice
#2
Shayan Amiri, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Hossein Amini-Khoei, Ali Razmi, Armin Shirzadian, Maryam Rahimi-Balaei, Carl O Olson, Arman Mohsenzadeh, Mojgan Rastegar, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari
Adolescence is a pivotal period of brain development during lifespan, which is sensitive to stress exposure. Early social isolation stress (SIS) is known to provoke a variety of psychiatric comorbidities as well as seizure risk. Psychiatric comorbidities present challenging dilemmas for treatment and management in people with seizure disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether gabapentin (GBP) as an anti-epileptic drug is able to alleviate the seizure activity as well as comorbid behavioral abnormalities in socially isolated mice...
January 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111355/epigenetics-in-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
K Kobow, I Blümcke
Approximately 50 million people have epilepsy, making it the most common chronic and severe neurological disease worldwide, with increased risk of mortality and psychological and socioeconomic consequences impairing quality of life. More than 30% of patients with epilepsy have inadequate control of their seizures with drug therapy. Any structural brain lesion can provoke epilepsy. However, progression of seizure activity as well as the development of drug-resistance remains difficult to predict, irrespective of the underlying epileptogenic condition, i...
January 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088383/evaluating-the-role-of-astrocytes-on-%C3%AE-estradiol-effect-on-seizures-of-pilocarpine-epileptic-model
#4
Masoumeh Sarfi, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Iran Goudarzi, Taghi Lashkar Boluki, Kataneh Abrari
Epilepsy with periodic and unpredictable seizures is associated with hippocampal glutamate toxicity and tissue reorganization. Astrocytes play an important role in mediating the neuroprotective effects of estradiol and reducing seizure severity. Accordingly, the protective effects of low and high doses of estradiol on behavioral, astrocytic involvement and neuronal survival aspects of Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy were investigated. Lithium- Pilocarpine (30mg/kg) model was used to provoke epilepsy. Βeta-estradiol (2,40μg/µl) was injected subcutaneously from 48 before to 48h after seizure induction...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001116/features-of-stimulus-specific-seizures-in-dogs-with-reflex-epilepsy-43-cases-2000-2014
#5
Linda Shell, Rachel Scariano, Mark Rishniw
OBJECTIVE To describe the occurrence and management of reflex epilepsy (ie, seizure activity triggered by exposure to specific locations or situations) in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 43 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Discussions by veterinarians participating in the Veterinary Information Network online community for the years 2000 through 2014 were reviewed to identify dogs with a diagnosis of reflex epilepsy and seizure activity in response to stimuli. History, signalment (including age at onset), the specific stimulus or stimuli that provoked seizures, treatments, and any concurrent neurologic diagnoses were recorded...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992429/high-prevalence-of-asymptomatic-neurocysticercosis-in-an-endemic-rural-community-in-peru
#6
Luz M Moyano, Seth E O'Neal, Viterbo Ayvar, Guillermo Gonzalvez, Ricardo Gamboa, Percy Vilchez, Silvia Rodriguez, Joe Reistetter, Victor C W Tsang, Robert H Gilman, Armando E Gonzalez, Hector H Garcia
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a population-based study of resident's ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454). We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927575/novel-mutation-in-a-patient-with-late-onset-glut1-deficiency-syndrome
#7
Sandra Juozapaite, Ruta Praninskiene, Birute Burnyte, Laima Ambrozaityte, Birute Skerliene
Glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by impaired glucose transport through blood brain barrier due to mutation in SLC2A1 gene, encoding transporter protein. Clinical spectrum includes various signs and symptoms, ranging from severe epileptic encephalopathy to movement disorders. The diagnosis of GLUT1-DS requires hypoglycorrhachia in the presence of normoglycaemia with a reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF):plasma glucose ratio. The absence of pathogenic mutation in SLC2A1 gene does not exclude the diagnosis...
December 5, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889818/somatosensory-reflex-seizures-in-a-child-with-epilepsy-related-to-novel-scn1a-mutation
#8
Pinar Arican, Nihal Olgac Dundar, Dilek Cavusoglu, Taha Resid Ozdemır, Pinar Gencpinar
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in SCN1A have been reported in patients with different types of epilepsy, including generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy, and other infantile epileptic encephalopathies. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 10-month-old girl presented with reflex epileptic seizures provoked by somatosensory stimuli with a novel de novo mutation of SCN1A gene. She was observed to have seizures with eye deviation, unresponsiveness provoked by somatosensory stimuli of the face...
November 26, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858372/severe-respiratory-acidosis-in-status-epilepticus-as-a-possible-etiology-of-sudden-death-in-lesch-nyhan-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Alison Christy, William Nyhan, Jenny Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is an X-linked disorder of purine metabolism, associated with self-mutilation, dystonia, and chorea. Seizures are uncommon in LND. Patients with LND are at risk for sudden and unexpected death. The etiology of this is unknown, but appears to occur from a respiratory process. We propose that respiratory failure secondary to subclinical seizure may lead to sudden death in these patients. CASE: We report a case of an 11-year-old boy with LND who had two episodes of nocturnal gasping...
November 18, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852771/reduced-efficacy-of-the-kcc2-cotransporter-promotes-epileptic-oscillations-in-a-subiculum-network-model
#10
Anatoly Buchin, Anton Chizhov, Gilles Huberfeld, Richard Miles, Boris S Gutkin
: Pharmacoresistant epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition in which a basal brain hyperexcitability results in paroxysmal hypersynchronous neuronal discharges. Human temporal lobe epilepsy has been associated with dysfunction or loss of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in a subset of pyramidal cells in the subiculum, a key structure generating epileptic activities. KCC2 regulates intraneuronal chloride and extracellular potassium levels by extruding both ions. Absence of effective KCC2 may alter the dynamics of chloride and potassium levels during repeated activation of GABAergic synapses due to interneuron activity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636181/modification-of-electrophysiological-activity-pattern-after-anterior-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-intractable-epilepsy-report-of-3-cases
#11
Hae Yu Kim, Yun Jung Hur, Heung-Dong Kim, Kang Min Park, Sung Eun Kim, Tae Gyu Hwang
OBJECTIVE Thalamic stimulation can provoke electroencephalography (EEG) synchronization or desynchronization, which can help to reduce the occurrence of seizures in intractable epilepsy, though the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, the authors investigated changes in EEG electrical activity to better understand the seizure-reducing effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with intractable epilepsy. METHODS Electrical activation patterns in the epileptogenic brains of 3 patients were analyzed using classical low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis recursively applied (CLARA)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601154/seizure-freedom-after-limited-hippocampal-radiofrequency-thermocoagulation
#12
Han-Tao Li, Ching-Yi Lee, Siew-Na Lim, Chun-Wei Chang, Shih-Tseng Lee, Tony Wu
BACKGROUND: Surgical interventions are often used for freedom from seizure in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A patient with seizure foci in the left mesiotemporal region underwent limited-size stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RF-TC) over the left hippocampus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 37-year-old woman with febrile convulsion in her childhood was admitted to our neurologic department with complex partial seizure with secondary generalization...
September 4, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582020/temperature-dependent-changes-in-neuronal-dynamics-in-a-patient-with-an-scn1a-mutation-and-hyperthermia-induced-seizures
#13
C Peters, R E Rosch, E Hughes, P C Ruben
Dravet syndrome is the prototype of SCN1A-mutation associated epilepsies. It is characterised by prolonged seizures, typically provoked by fever. We describe the evaluation of an SCN1A mutation in a child with early-onset temperature-sensitive seizures. The patient carries a heterozygous missense variant (c3818C > T; pAla1273Val) in the NaV1.1 brain sodium channel. We compared the functional effects of the variant vs. wild type NaV1.1 using patch clamp recordings from channels expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells at different temperatures (32, 37, and 40 °C)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548095/administration-of-copper-reduced-the-hyper-excitability-of-neurons-in-ca1-hippocampal-slices-from-epileptic-rats
#14
Juan Leiva, Claudio Infante
Copper as a trace metal is involved in several neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Menkes, Wilson's, Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that acute perfusion of copper can inhibit long-term synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices. The objective of this work is to determine whether Cu perfusion can perturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices derived from pilocarpine treated epileptic rats. Field potential (FP) recordings of the CA1 neurons of rats with chronic epilepsy showed voltage and response duration decrease following copper sulfate perfusion...
April 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506513/challenges-in-the-first-seizure-clinic-for-adult-patients-with-epilepsy
#15
Anvesh Jackson, Louise Teo, Udaya Seneviratne
AIMS: (1) To delineate the challenges in seizure diagnosis in the first seizure clinic setting for adult patients of a teaching hospital, and (2) quantify the diagnostic accuracy of the referral source and the yield of routine investigations, including blood tests, EEGs, and neuroimaging. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients referred by the emergency department to the adult first seizure clinic and seen by the same epilepsy specialist between June 2007 and June 2011...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500879/-significance-of-sleep-deprivation-in-the-development-of-local-epilepsy-from-neuroplasticity-opinion
#16
A V Vasilenko, L S Onishchenko, S A Zhivolupov, S V Lobzin, N N Zabolotsky, T V Bodrova
AIM: Learning cycle «sleep-wake» is of great theoretical and practical importance because it allows to understand the general patterns of adaptive mechanisms of human interaction with the environment (neuroplasticity), violations of which are the basis of many diseases of the CNS, including epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Complex clinical and electroencephalographic (video-EEG monitoring with mandatory recording of sleep) study was carried out before and after prolonged sleep deprivation (for at least 1 day) of 178 patients with locally due to epilepsy (LEi)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445726/rapid-amygdala-kindling-causes-motor-seizure-and-comorbidity-of-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-rats
#17
Shang-Der Chen, Yu-Lin Wang, Sheng-Fu Liang, Fu-Zen Shaw
Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232377/age-at-onset-and-seizure-frequency-affect-white-matter-diffusion-coefficient-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Szilvia A Nagy, Réka Horváth, Gábor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Péter Barsi, Flóra John, Andrea Horváth, Norbert Kovács, Péter Bogner, Hajnalka Ábrahám, Beáta Bóné, Csilla Gyimesi, Tamás Dóczi, József Janszky
In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), structural abnormalities are present not only in the hippocampus but also in the white matter with ipsilateral predominance. Although the timing of epilepsy onset is commonly associated with clinical and semiological dissimilarities, limited data exist regarding white matter diffusion changes with respect to age at epilepsy onset. The aim of this study was to investigate diffusion changes in the white matter of patients with unilateral MTLE-HS with respect to clinical parameters and to compare them with an age- and sex-matched healthy control group...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179311/csf-and-plasma-adipokines-after-tonic-clonic-seizures
#19
Johanna Palmio, Katriina Vuolteenaho, Kai Lehtimäki, Riina Nieminen, Jukka Peltola, Eeva Moilanen
PURPOSE: Adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, have gained increasing importance in pathophysiology of various neurological diseases including epilepsy. There are experimental data suggesting a role for leptin in the genesis of seizures and neuroprotection related to seizures. However there are no clinical studies on the effects of epileptic seizures on adipokines. METHODS: We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin and adipsin after provoked or unprovoked primary or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 13 female patients and seven controls...
July 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147960/the-biochemistry-and-epigenetics-of-epilepsy-focus-on-adenosine-and-glycine
#20
REVIEW
Detlev Boison
Epilepsy, one of the most prevalent neurological conditions, presents as a complex disorder of network homeostasis characterized by spontaneous non-provoked seizures and associated comorbidities. Currently used antiepileptic drugs have been designed to suppress neuronal hyperexcitability and thereby to suppress epileptic seizures. However, the current armamentarium of antiepileptic drugs is not effective in over 30% of patients, does not affect the comorbidities of epilepsy, and does not prevent the development and progression of epilepsy (epileptogenesis)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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