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DHA AND retina

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644974/quantitative-metabolomics-of-photoreceptor-degeneration-and-the-effects-of-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium-transplantation
#1
Junhua Wang, Peter D Westenskow, Mingliang Fang, Martin Friedlander, Gary Siuzdak
Photoreceptor degeneration is characteristic of vision-threatening diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Photoreceptors are metabolically demanding cells in the retina, but specific details about their metabolic behaviours are unresolved. The quantitative metabolomics of retinal degeneration could provide valuable insights and inform future therapies. Here, we determined the metabolomic 'fingerprint' of healthy and dystrophic retinas in rat models using optimized metabolite extraction techniques...
October 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618287/bioactive-4-oxoheptanedioic-monoamide-derivatives-of-proteins-and-ethanolaminephospholipids-products-of-docosahexaenoate-oxidation
#2
Junhong Guo, Li Hong, Xiaoxia Z West, Hua Wang, Robert G Salomon
Oxidative stress causes lipid-derived oxidative modification of biomolecules that has been implicated in many pathological states. Phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids are major targets of free radical-initiated oxidation. Phospholipids that incorporate docosahexaenoate (DHA) are highly enriched in important neural structures including the brain and retina, where DHA comprises 40% and 60% of total fatty acids, respectively. Oxidative fragmentation of 2-docosahexaenoyl-1-palmityl-sn-glycerophosphocholine generates esters of 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (HOHA) and 4-keto-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (KOHA) with 2-lysophosphatidylcholine, HOHA-PC, and KOHA-PC...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367512/expression-profiling-of-ascorbic-acid-related-transporters-in-human-and-mouse-eyes
#3
Nan Ma, Carla Siegfried, Miyuki Kubota, Jie Huang, Ying Liu, Margaret Liu, Belinda Dana, Andrew Huang, David Beebe, Hong Yan, Ying-Bo Shui
PURPOSE: Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important antioxidant in the eye. Ascorbic acid is usually transported by sodium-dependent AsA transporters (SVCTs), and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) by glucose transporters (GLUTs). This study investigates these AsA-related transporters in human compared with mouse eyes. METHODS: Five pairs of human donor eyes and 15 pairs of mouse eyes were collected. Immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization were performed to detect SVCTs and GLUTs expression in the ciliary epithelium, retina, and lens epithelial cells (LECs)...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044510/long-term-feeding-of-atlantic-salmon-in-seawater-with-low-dietary-long-chain-n-3-fatty-acids-affects-tissue-status-of-the-brain-retina-and-erythrocytes
#4
N H Sissener, B E Torstensen, I Stubhaug, G Rosenlund
In two long-term feeding trials in seawater, Atlantic salmon were fed EPA+DHA in graded levels, from 1·3 to 7·4 % of fatty acids (FA, 4-24 g/kg feed) combined with approximately 10 % 18 : 3n-3, at 6 and 12°C. Dietary EPA appeared to be sufficient in all diet groups, as no differences were seen in polar lipid tissue concentrations of either the brain, retina or erythrocytes. For DHA, a reduction in tissue levels was observed with low dietary supply. Effects on brain DHA at ≤1·4 % EPA+DHA of dietary FA and retina DHA at ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA of dietary FA were only observed in fish reared at 6°C, suggesting an effect of temperature, whereas tissue levels of n-6 FA increased as a response to increased dietary n-6 FA in both the brain and the retina at both temperatures...
June 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26662863/synthesis-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-from-eicosapentaenoic-acid-in-retina-neurons-protects-photoreceptors-from-oxidative-stress
#5
María Victoria Simón, Daniela L Agnolazza, Olga Lorena German, Andrés Garelli, Luis E Politi, Martin-Paul Agbaga, Robert E Anderson, Nora P Rotstein
Oxidative stress is involved in activating photoreceptor death in several retinal degenerations. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the retina, protects cultured retina photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and promotes photoreceptor differentiation. Here, we investigated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a metabolic precursor to DHA, had similar effects and whether retinal neurons could metabolize EPA to DHA. Adding EPA to rat retina neuronal cultures increased opsin expression and protected photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by the oxidants paraquat and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
March 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26456696/visible-light-induced-lipid-peroxidation-of-unsaturated-fatty-acids-in-the-retina-and-the-inhibitory-effects-of-blueberry-polyphenols
#6
Yixiang Liu, Di Zhang, Jimei Hu, Guangming Liu, Jun Chen, Lechang Sun, Zedong Jiang, Xichun Zhang, Qingchou Chen, Baoping Ji
The lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in the retina not only threatens visual cells but also affects the physiological health of the retina. In this work, the potential damages caused by daily visible light exposure on retinal UFAs were evaluated via a simulated in vitro model. At the same time, the benefits of dietary supplementation of blueberries to the eyes were also assessed. After prolonged light exposure, lipid peroxidation occurred for both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids (DHA and AA, respectively)...
October 28, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26345097/the-ins-and-outs-of-maternal-fetal-fatty-acid-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Rafał Bobiński, Monika Mikulska
Fatty acids (FAs) are one the most essential substances in intrauterine human growth. They are involved in a number of energetic and metabolic processes, including the growth of cell membranes, the retina and the nervous system. Fatty acid deficiency and disruptions in the maternal-placental fetal metabolism of FAs lead to malnutrition of the fetus, hypotrophy and preterm birth. What is more, metabolic diseases and cardiovascular conditions may appear later in life. Meeting a fetus' need for FAs is dependent on maternal diet and on the efficiency of the placenta in transporting FAs to fetal circulation...
2015: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26204250/light-lipids-and-photoreceptor-survival-live-or-let-die
#8
Olga Lorena German, Daniela L Agnolazza, Luis E Politi, Nora P Rotstein
Due to its constant exposure to light and its high oxygen consumption the retina is highly sensitive to oxidative damage, which is a common factor in inducing the death of photoreceptors after light damage or in inherited retinal degenerations. The high content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the retina, has been suggested to contribute to this sensitivity. DHA is crucial for developing and preserving normal visual function. However, further roles of DHA in the retina are still controversial...
September 26, 2015: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26171898/supplementation-with-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-lcpufa-to-breastfeeding-mothers-for-improving-child-growth-and-development
#9
REVIEW
Mario F Delgado-Noguera, Jose Andres Calvache, Xavier Bonfill Cosp, Eleni P Kotanidou, Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou
BACKGROUND: Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are the most abundant fatty acids in the brain and are necessary for growth and maturation of an infant's brain and retina. LCPUFAs are named "essential" because they cannot be synthesised efficiently by the human body and come from maternal diet. It remains controversial whether LCPUFA supplementation to breastfeeding mothers is beneficial for the development of their infants. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of supplementation with LCPUFA in breastfeeding mothers in the cognitive and physical development of their infants as well as safety for the mother and infant...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26148923/fish-a-mediterranean-source-of-n-3-pufa-benefits-do-not-justify-limiting-consumption
#10
REVIEW
Angel Gil, Fernando Gil
Fish is an important source of energy, high-quality proteins, fat, vitamins and minerals. Within lipids, n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly EPA and DHA, play an important role in health promotion and disease prevention. In contrast to the potential health benefits of dietary fish intake, certain chemical pollutants, namely heavy metals and some organic compounds, contained in seafood have emerged as an issue of concern, particularly for frequent fish consumers and sensitive groups of populations. The present review summarises the health benefits and risks of fish consumption...
April 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26042773/dietary-supplement-enriched-in-antioxidants-and-omega-3-protects-from-progressive-light-induced-retinal-degeneration
#11
Khaoula Ramchani-Ben Othman, Christine Cercy, Mohamed Amri, Michel Doly, Isabelle Ranchon-Cole
In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD)...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25889793/oral-consumption-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-increases-serum-bdnf-levels-in-healthy-adult-humans
#12
Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem, Behnam Kamalidehghan, Nima Shekarriz, Argavan Baseerat, Nima Molavi, Masoud Mehrpour, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Mahdi Tondar, Fatemeh Ahmadipour, Goh Yong Meng
BACKGROUND AIMS: Dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids have remarkable impacts on the levels of DHA in the brain and retina. Low levels of DHA in plasma and blood hamper visual and neural development in children and cause dementia and cognitive decline in adults. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) changes with dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake. BDNF is known for its effects on promoting neurogenesis and neuronal survival. METHODS: In this study, we examined the effect of the oral consumption of α-Linolenic acid (ALA) on blood levels of BDNF and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in healthy adult humans...
2015: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25657100/incorporation-of-lutein-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-from-dietary-microalgae-into-the-retina-in-quail
#13
Coralie Schnebelen-Berthier, Niyazi Acar, Philippe Pouillart, Clementine Thabuis, Bertrand Rodriguez, Flore Depeint, Elise Clerc, Adeline Mathiaud, Anne Bourdillon, Blandine Baert, Lionel Bretillon, Jean-Michel Lecerf
Lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since microalgae are potent natural sources of these nutrients, their nutritional value should be evaluated based on the bioavailability of lutein and DHA for the retina via the plasmatic compartment. In this study, quail were fed for 5 months either with a diet supplemented or deprived with microalgae rich in lutein and DHA. In the microalgae-fed group, the retinal concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin gradually increased whereas in plasma, these compounds started to increase from the first month of supplementation...
March 2015: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25596942/dha-inhibited-ages-induced-retinal-microglia-activation-via-suppression-of-the-ppar%C3%AE-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-reduction-of-signal-transducers-in-the-ages-rage-axis-recruitment-into-lipid-rafts
#14
Li Wang, Ka Chen, Kai Liu, Yong Zhou, Ting Zhang, Bin Wang, Mantian Mi
Recent studies revealed that dietary intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) prevented diabetic retinopathy (DR), but the underlying mechanism was not fully understood. Retinal microglia are a specialized population of macrophages in retina. Considerable evidence has shown that microglia activation may trigger neuronal death and vascular dysfunction in DR. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHA on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced microglia activation using an in vitro microglia culture system, and concurrently to explore the mediating mechanisms...
April 2015: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25482945/dihydroartemisinin-targets-vegfr2-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-endothelial-cells-to-inhibit-angiogenesis
#15
Fengyun Dong, Xia Zhou, Changsheng Li, Suhua Yan, Xianming Deng, Zhiqun Cao, Liqun Li, Bo Tang, Thaddeus D Allen, Ju Liu
The anti-malarial agent dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has strong anti-angiogenic activity. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying this effect of DHA on angiogenesis. We found that DHA shows a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation and migration of in HUVECs. DHA specifically down-regulates the mRNA and protein expression of VEGFR2 in endothelial cells. Treatment with DHA increases IκB-α protein and blocks nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In addition, DHA directly regulates VEGFR2 promoter activity through p65 binding motif, and decreases the binding activity of p65 and VEGFR2 promoter, suggesting defective NF-κB signaling may underlie the observed effects of DHA on VEGFR2 expression...
2014: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25346883/dyslexia-the-role-of-vision-and-visual-attention
#16
John Stein
Dyslexia is more than just difficulty with translating letters into sounds. Many dyslexics have problems with clearly seeing letters and their order. These difficulties may be caused by abnormal development of their visual "magnocellular" (M) nerve cells; these mediate the ability to rapidly identify letters and their order because they control visual guidance of attention and of eye fixations. Evidence for M cell impairment has been demonstrated at all levels of the visual system: in the retina, in the lateral geniculate nucleus, in the primary visual cortex and throughout the dorsal visuomotor "where" pathway forward from the visual cortex to the posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices...
2014: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25108204/docosahexaenoic-acid-aggravates-photooxidative-damage-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-via-lipid-peroxidation
#17
Yixiang Liu, Di Zhang, Yongpei Wu, Baoping Ji
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with important functions in normal human retinal activity and vision development, is recommended to promote brain and eye development. However, recent research has revealed that increased DHA level in the retina due to linoleic acid-rich diet heightens the vulnerability of the retina to photooxidative stress. Thus, many scholars have analyzed the potential risks of DHA intake on retinal damage. This study evaluated the potential adverse effects of DHA intake on individuals usually exposed to high-light intensity conditions using a visible light-induced retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell damage model in vitro...
November 2014: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24809445/intravitreal-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-a-rabbit-model-preclinical-safety-assessment
#18
Rosa Dolz-Marco, Roberto Gallego-Pinazo, M Dolores Pinazo-Duran, Sheila Pons-Vázquez, Joan Carles Domingo-Pedro, Manuel Díaz-Llopis
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the retinal toxicity of a single dose of intravitreal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in rabbit eyes over a short-term period. METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand albino rabbits were selected for this pre-clinical study. Six concentrations of DHA (Brudy Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain) were prepared: 10 mg/50 µl, 5 mg/50 µl, 2'5 mg/50 µl, 50 µg/50 µl, 25 µg/50 µl, and 5 µg/50 µl. Each concentration was injected intravitreally in the right eye of two rabbits...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24805262/four-year-placebo-controlled-trial-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-x-linked-retinitis-pigmentosa-dhax-trial-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dennis R Hoffman, Dianna K Hughbanks-Wheaton, N Shirlene Pearson, Gary E Fish, Rand Spencer, Alison Takacs, Martin Klein, Kirsten G Locke, David G Birch
IMPORTANCE: X-linked retinitis pigmentosa is a severe inherited retinal degenerative disease with a frequency of 1 in 100,000 persons. Because no cure is available for this orphan disease and treatment options are limited, slowing of disease progression would be a meaningful outcome. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether high-dose docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, slows progression of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa measured by cone electroretinography (ERG)...
July 2014: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24721514/potential-for-daily-supplementation-of-n-3-fatty-acids-to-reverse-symptoms-of-dry-eye-in-mice
#20
Akiko Harauma, Junpei Saito, Yoshitake Watanabe, Toru Moriguchi
The purpose of this study was to determine the change in tear volume, as a predominant symptom of dry eye syndrome, in dietary n-3 fatty acid deficient mice compared with n-3 fatty acid adequate mice. The tear volume in n-3 fatty acid deficient mice was significantly lower than that in n-3 fatty acid adequate mice. In addition, the concentration of n-3 fatty acid in the lacrimal and meibomian glands, which affects the production of tears, was markedly decreased compared with n-3 fatty acid adequate mice. However, the tear volume recovered almost completely after one week of continuous administration of fish oil containing EPA and DHA in n-3 fatty acid deficient mice...
June 2014: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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