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fetal eye movement

Chao-Hung Kuo, Lynn B McGrath, Joseph A Carnevale, Neena I Marupudi, Jeffery G Ojemann, Richard G Ellenbogen, Anthony C Wang
BACKGROUND: Duane syndrome is a congenital eye movement disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the abducens nucleus. Thrombogenic conditions during development may lead to vascular anomalies in Duane syndrome, however, the presence of a giant aneurysm in this patient population is a rarely documented phenomenon. CASE DESCRIPTION: We reported a case of a large cerebral aneurysm in a pediatric patient with Duane syndrome, and performed a review of the literatures to identify other potential cases and associations...
May 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Valentina Parma, Romain Brasselet, Stefania Zoia, Maria Bulgheroni, Umberto Castiello
The vast majority of humans are right-handed, but how and when this bias emerges during human ontogenesis is still unclear. We propose an approach that explains postnatal handedness starting from 18 gestational weeks using a kinematic analysis of different fetal arm movements recorded during ultrasonography. Based on the hand dominance reported postnatally at age 9, the fetuses were classified as right-handed (86%) or left-handed, in line with population data. We revealed that both right-handed and left-handed fetuses were faster to reach to targets requiring greater precision (i...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hikohiro Okawa, Seiichi Morokuma, Kana Maehara, Akiko Arata, Yoshiyuki Ohmura, Takashi Horinouchi, Yukuo Konishi, Kiyoko Kato
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep occurs throughout a relatively large proportion of early development, and normal REM activity appears to be required for healthy brain development. The eye movements (EMs) observed during REM sleep are the most distinctive characteristics of this state. EMs are used as an index of neurological function postnatally, but no specific indices of EM activity exist for fetuses. We aimed to identify and characterize EM activity, particularly EM bursts suggestive of REM periods, in fetuses with a gestational age between 24 and 39 weeks...
2017: PloS One
Angelina Paolozza, Douglas P Munoz, Donald Brien, James N Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Saccades are rapid eye movements that bring an image of interest onto the retina. Previous research has found that in healthy individuals performing eye movement tasks, the location of a previous visual target can influence performance of the saccade on the next trial. This rapid behavioral adaptation represents a form of immediate neural plasticity within the saccadic circuitry. Our studies have shown that children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are impaired on multiple saccade measures...
November 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Frances Dang, B Anne Croy, Patrick W Stroman, Ernesto A Figueiró-Filho
Preeclampsia (PE) is a significant gestational disorder that causes complications in 3-5% of all human pregnancies. Apart from the immediate risks and complications for mother and fetus, both additionally carry elevated lifelong risks for specific complications. Offspring of PE pregnancies (PE-F1) have higher risks for hypertension, stroke and cognitive impairment compared with well-matched offspring (F1) from uncomplicated pregnancies. Prior to the clinical onset of PE, placental angiokines secreted into the maternal plasma are deviated...
August 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Frederick A Jakobiec, Zeba A Syed, Anna M Stagner, Gerald J Harris, Jack Rootman, Michael K Yoon, Ilse Mombaerts
OBJECTIVE: To analyze overlaps between pregnancy and orbital inflammation (OI). DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Eight new cases from 1997 to 2015 and 2 previously published cases were identified for inclusion in this investigation to provide the fullest clinical picture. Medical records, imaging studies, and the results of biopsies were reviewed. RESULTS: Three categories of association were discovered: (1) OI arising for the first time during pregnancy (5 cases); (2) OI arising within 3 months of delivery (2 cases); and (3) previously diagnosed OI reactivated or exacerbated by pregnancy (3 cases)...
June 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Matthew T Rätsep, Andrew F Hickman, B Anne Croy
Preeclampsia (PE) is a significant gestational disorder affecting 3-5% of all human pregnancies. In many PE pregnancies, maternal plasma is deficient in placental growth factor (PGF), a placentally-produced angiokine. Beyond immediate fetal risks associated with acute termination of the pregnancy, offspring of PE pregnancies (PE-F1) have higher long-term risks for hypertension, stroke, and cognitive impairment compared to F1s from uncomplicated pregnancies. At present, mechanisms that explain PE-F1 gains in postpartum risks are poorly understood...
December 2016: Placenta
Serafín Pérez-Cerezales, Priscila Ramos-Ibeas, Angela Lopez-Cardona, Eva Pericuesta, Raúl Fernandez-Gonzalez, Belen Pintado, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán
The contribution of the contents of spermatozoa to the development of the embryo is currently being considered wider than was previously thought. Recent findings point to the participation of epigenetic marks present in the retained histones of mature spermatozoa on embryo and fetal development. Here we created a novel conditional transgenic mouse that expresses lysine (K) demethylase 1a (Kdm1a) during spermatogenesis when the testicles are subjected to heat stress. Using these animals under these conditions we were able to reduce the methylation level of histone 3 at lysines 4 and 9 (H3K4 and H3K9, respectively) in mature spermatozoa...
December 18, 2015: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Michael A Corner, Carlos H Schenck
An overview is presented of the literature dealing with sleep-like motility and concomitant neuronal activity patterns throughout the life cycle in vertebrates, ectothermic as well as endothermic. Spontaneous, periodically modulated, neurogenic bursts of non-purposive movements are a universal feature of larval and prenatal behavior, which in endothermic animals (i.e. birds and mammals) continue to occur periodically throughout life. Since the entire body musculature is involved in ever-shifting combinations, it is proposed that these spontaneously active periods be designated as 'rapid-BODY-movement' (RBM) sleep...
December 2015: Neuroscience Bulletin
Uiko Hanaoka, Toshiyuki Hata, Kenji Kanenishi, Mohamed Ahmed Mostafa AboEllail, Rina Uematsu, Yukihiko Konishi, Takashi Kusaka, Junko Noguchi, Genzo Marumo, Oliver Vasilj, Asim Kurjak
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the ethnic difference in fetal behavior between Asian and Caucasian populations. METHODS: Fetal behavior was assesed by Kurjak's antenatal neurodevelopmental test (KANET) using four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound between 28 and 38 weeks of gestation. Eighty-nine Japanese (representative of Asians) and seventy-eight Croatian (representative of Caucasians) pregnant women were studied. The total value of KANET score and values of each parameter (eight parameters) were compared...
March 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Angelina Paolozza, Rebecca Munn, Douglas P Munoz, James N Reynolds
BACKGROUND: We examined the accuracy and characteristics of saccadic eye movements in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared with typically developing control children. Previous studies have found that children with FASD produce saccades that are quantifiably different from controls. Additionally, animal studies have found sex-based differences for behavioral effects after prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, we hypothesized that eye movement measures will show sexually dimorphic results...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Supriya K, Suchitra Thunga, Athira Narayanan, Prakhar Singh
A 20-year-old woman, primigravida at 36(+4) weeks' gestation presented with malaise, vomiting for 1 week, yellowish discoloration of the eyes for 3 days and loss of fetal movements. A clinical diagnosis of acute fatty liver with intrauterine fetal demise was made. Labor was induced with prostaglandin E2 gel and delivered vaginally. The post-partum period was complicated by atonic post-partum hemorrhage, an episode of seizure, recurrent hypoglycemic attack, hypokalemia and continuing coagulopathy. Supportive management in the intensive care unit using blood and blood products and injection recombinant activated factor VIIa to arrest the bleeding resulted in a successful outcome...
July 2015: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Veronika Schöpf, Thomas Schlegl, Andras Jakab, Gregor Kasprian, Ramona Woitek, Daniela Prayer, Georg Langs
While the visuomotor system is known to develop rapidly after birth, studies have observed spontaneous activity in vertebrates in visually excitable cortical areas already before extrinsic stimuli are present. Resting state networks and fetal eye movements were observed independently in utero, but no functional brain activity coupled with visual stimuli could be detected using fetal fMRI. This study closes this gap and links in utero eye movement with corresponding functional networks. BOLD resting-state fMRI data were acquired from seven singleton fetuses between gestational weeks 30-36 with normal brain development...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Uğur Keskin, Kazim Emre Karasahin, Mustafa Ulubay, Ulaş Fidan, Sadettin Gungor, Ali Ergun
Intrauterine fetal transfusion needs extensive experience and requires excellent eye-hand coordination, good equipment and experienced team workers to achieve success. While the needle is in the umbilical vein, an assistant withdraws and/or transfuses blood. The needle point should be kept still to prevent lacerations and dislodging. We propose a simple set for Intrauterine Fetal blood transfusion is constructed by readily available materials in every clinic to minimize needle tip movement and movements during syringe attachments and withdrawals during the intrauterine fetal transfusion...
November 2015: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
M Gartz Hanson, Veronica L Fregoso, Justin D Vrana, Chandra L Tucker, Lee A Niswander
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are autosomal recessive disorders in humans characterized by skeletal, eye and brain abnormalities. Despite the fact that neurological deficits, including peripheral nervous system (PNS) defects, can be observed at birth in some PBD patients including those with PEX10 mutations, the embryological basis of the PNS defects is unclear. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified a mouse model for Pex10 deficiency that exhibits neurological abnormalities during fetal development...
November 1, 2014: Developmental Biology
Sinem Akkas-Yazici, Gulcin Benbir, Naci Kocer, Cengiz Yalcinkaya
Cerebellum is highly vulnerable in the prenatal period. Increasing experience with fetal imaging studies has demonstrated that unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia (UCH) is mainly prenatally acquired, representing disruption rather than a true malformation. Here, we report the case of a 17-month-old boy presented with a sudden onset of abnormal eye movements, who was diagnosed during routine fetal screening with UCH and brain stem hypoplasia and suffered from cerebral palsy; however, no posterior arterial system pathology was detected on cranial magnetic resonance images at that time...
December 2014: Neuropediatrics
Anne Chetty, Michelle Bennett, Linh Dang, Daisy Nakamura, Gong-Jie Cao, Sana Mujahid, MaryAnn Volpe, Ira Herman, S Patricia Becerra, Heber C Nielsen
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a chronic lung disease of preterm infants characterized by arrested microvascularization and alveolarization. Studies show the importance of proangiogenic factors for alveolarization, but the importance of antiangiogenic factors is unknown. We proposed that hyperoxia increases the potent angiostatin, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), in neonatal lungs, inhibiting alveolarization and microvascularization. Wild-type (WT) and PEDF(-/-) mice were exposed to room air (RA) or 0...
March 2015: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Angelina Paolozza, Sarah Treit, Christian Beaulieu, James N Reynolds
Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between response inhibition during the performance of saccadic eye movement tasks and DTI measures of the corpus callosum in children with or without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)...
2014: NeuroImage: Clinical
D A Adler, S Ammanuel, J Lei, T Dada, T Borbiev, M V Johnston, S D Kadam, I Burd
Intrauterine infection or inflammation in preterm neonates is a known risk for adverse neurological outcomes, including cognitive, motor and behavioral disabilities. Our previous data suggest that there is acute fetal brain inflammation in a mouse model of intrauterine exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We hypothesized that the in utero inflammation induced by LPS produces long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) biomarkers of neurodegeneration in the exposed mice that could be determined by using continuous quantitative video/EEG/electromyogram (EMG) analyses...
September 5, 2014: Neuroscience
Kasey S Hemington, James N Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) exhibit cognitive deficits that can be probed using eye movement tasks. We employed a recently developed, single-sensor electroencephalographic (EEG) recording device in measuring EEG activity during the performance of an eye movement task probing working memory in this population. METHODS: Children with FASD (n=18) and typically developing children (n=19) performed a memory-guided saccade task requiring the participant to remember the spatial location of one, two or three stimuli...
December 2014: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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