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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230526/sensitivity-to-image-recurrence-across-eye-movement-like-image-transitions-through-local-serial-inhibition-in-the-retina
#1
Vidhyasankar Krishnamoorthy, Michael Weick, Tim Gollisch
Standard models of stimulus encoding in the retina postulate that image presentations activate neurons according to the increase of preferred contrast inside the receptive field. During natural vision, however, images do not arrive in isolation, but follow each other rapidly, separated by sudden gaze shifts. We here report that, contrary to standard models, specific ganglion cells in mouse retina are suppressed after a rapid image transition by changes in visual patterns across the transition, but respond with a distinct spike burst when the same pattern reappears...
February 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230394/the-onset-and-time-course-of-semantic-priming-during-rapid-recognition-of-visual-words
#2
Renske S Hoedemaker, Peter C Gordon
In 2 experiments, we assessed the effects of response latency and task-induced goals on the onset and time course of semantic priming during rapid processing of visual words as revealed by ocular response tasks. In Experiment 1 (ocular lexical decision task), participants performed a lexical decision task using eye movement responses on a sequence of 4 words. In Experiment 2, the same words were encoded for an episodic recognition memory task that did not require a metalinguistic judgment. For both tasks, survival analyses showed that the earliest observable effect (divergence point [DP]) of semantic priming on target-word reading times occurred at approximately 260 ms, and ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the magnitude of the priming effect increased as a function of response time...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229642/sleep-loss-and-recovery-after-administration-of-drugs-related-to-different-arousal-systems-in-rats
#3
T Hajnik, A Tóth, Ö Szalontai, M Pethő, L Détári
Sleep is homeostatically regulated suggesting a restorative function. Sleep deprivation is compensated by an increase in length and intensity of sleep. In this study, suppression of sleep was induced pharmacologically by drugs related to different arousal systems. All drugs caused non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep loss followed by different compensatory processes. Apomorphine caused a strong suppression of sleep followed by an intense recovery. In the case of fluoxetine and eserine, recovery of NREM sleep was completed by the end of the light phase due to the biphasic pattern demonstrated for these drugs first in the present experiments...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229031/characterization-of-sleep-architecture-in-down-syndrome-patients-pre-and-post-airway-surgery
#4
Mark Mims, Prasad John Thottam, Dennis Kitsko, Amber Shaffer, Sukgi Choi
OBJECTIVES: To define obstructive sleep architecture patterns in Down syndrome (DS) children as well as changes to sleep architecture patterns postoperatively. STUDY DESIGN: The study was a retrospective review. METHODS: Forty-five pediatric DS patients who underwent airway surgery between 2003 and 2014 at a tertiary children's hospital for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were investigated. Postoperative changes in respiratory parameters and sleep architecture (SA) were assessed and compared to general pediatric normative data using paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank test...
January 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223957/eeg-brain-activity-in-dynamic-health-qigong-training-same-effects-for-mental-practice-and-physical-training
#5
Diana Henz, Wolfgang I Schöllhorn
In recent years, there has been significant uptake of meditation and related relaxation techniques, as a means of alleviating stress and fostering an attentive mind. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have reported changes in spectral band frequencies during Qigong meditation indicating a relaxed state. Much less is reported on effects of brain activation patterns induced by Qigong techniques involving bodily movement. In this study, we tested whether (1) physical Qigong training alters EEG theta and alpha activation, and (2) mental practice induces the same effect as a physical Qigong training...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208099/the-impact-of-walking-while-using-a-smartphone-on-pedestrians-awareness-of-roadside-events
#6
Ming-I Brandon Lin, Yu-Ping Huang
Previous studies have shown that using a cell phone to talk or text while walking changes gait kinematics and encourages risky street-crossing behaviors. However, less is known about how the motor-cognitive interference imposed by smartphone tasks affects pedestrians' situational awareness to environmental targets relevant to pedestrian safety. This study systematically investigated the influence of smartphone use on detection of and responses to a variety of roadside events in a semi-virtual walking environment...
February 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193862/differential-modulation-of-global-and-local-neural-oscillations-in-rem-sleep-by-homeostatic-sleep-regulation
#7
Bowon Kim, Bernat Kocsis, Eunjin Hwang, Youngsoo Kim, Robert E Strecker, Robert W McCarley, Jee Hyun Choi
Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187309/eye-movement-during-retrieval-of-emotional-autobiographical-memories
#8
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Pascal Antoine, Muriel Boucart, Quentin Lenoble
This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades...
February 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187157/distinct-eye-movement-patterns-enhance-dynamic-visual-acuity
#9
Dimitrios J Palidis, Pearson A Wyder-Hodge, Jolande Fooken, Miriam Spering
Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185225/faces-elicit-different-scanning-patterns-depending-on-task-demands
#10
Isabelle Boutet, Chantal L Lemieux, Marc-André Goulet, Charles A Collin
Eye movements were recorded while participants discriminated upright and inverted faces that differed with respect to either configural or featural information. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) whether featural and configural information processing elicit different scanning patterns; (2) whether fixations on a specific region of the face dominate scanning patterns. Results from two experiments were compared to examine whether participants' prior knowledge of the kind of information that would be relevant for the task (i...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181718/segmented-sleep-in-a-nonelectric-small-scale-agricultural-society-in-madagascar
#11
David R Samson, Melissa B Manus, Andrew D Krystal, Efe Fakir, James J Yu, Charles L Nunn
OBJECTIVES: We studied sleep in a rural population in Madagascar to (i) characterize sleep in an equatorial small-scale agricultural population without electricity, (ii) assess whether sleep is linked to noise levels in a dense population, and (iii) examine the effects of experimentally introduced artificial light on sleep timing. METHODS: Using actigraphy, sleep-wake patterns were analyzed for both daytime napping and nighttime wakefulness in 21 participants for a sum total of 292 days...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178773/postural-control-of-individuals-with-chronic-stroke-compared-to-healthy-participants-tug-frt-and-center-of-pressure-movement
#12
Sigal Portnoy, Shlomit Reif, Tom Mendelboim, Debbie Rand
BACKGROUND: Balance impairments are common following stroke, and may lead to loss of independent functional mobility and falls. Previous studies strived to come up with precise measures of postural control, which will provide a better prognostic power for the health status and safety of the individual. To date, the degree of difference in postural control measures between individuals with chronic stroke and healthy participants is not reported. Also there are no reported correlations between these measures and the Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and the Functional Reach Test (FRT)...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173973/personality-and-addictive-behaviours-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-and-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#13
Fahd Baig, Michael A Lawton, Michal Rolinski, Claudio Ruffmann, Johannes C Klein, Kannan Nithi, David Okai, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Michele T M Hu
INTRODUCTION: Changes in personality have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD), with suggestion that those with established disease tend to be risk averse with a disinclination for addictive behaviour. However, little is known about the earliest and prodromal stages. Personality and its relationship with addictive behaviours can help answer important questions about the mechanisms underlying PD and addiction. METHODS: 941 population-ascertained PD subjects within 3...
February 1, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163692/modifications-of-visual-field-asymmetries-for-face-categorization-in-early-deaf-adults-a-study-with-chimeric-faces
#14
Marjorie Dole, David Méary, Olivier Pascalis
Right hemisphere lateralization for face processing is well documented in typical populations. At the behavioral level, this right hemisphere bias is often related to a left visual field (LVF) bias. A conventional mean to study this phenomenon consists of using chimeric faces that are composed of the left and right parts of two faces. In this paradigm, participants generally use the left part of the chimeric face, mostly processed through the right optic tract, to determine its identity, gender or age. To assess the impact of early auditory deprivation on face processing abilities, we tested the LVF bias in a group of early deaf participants and hearing controls...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152341/an-eye-movement-analysis-of-web-usability-differences-between-older-adults-with-and-without-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Marten Haesner, Johan Chandra, Anika Steinert, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen
Older adults are exposed to computer-based applications daily. However, most websites and applications are not specifically developed for older adults. Studies have shown that older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) behave differently from older adults without MCI in website usage. Eye tracking is a valuable tool to assess users' eye movement behavior in relation to website usability. Understanding the differences in web navigational behavior between older adults with and without MCI would be helpful for developing websites for this target group...
February 2, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151950/eye-movements-during-silent-and-oral-reading-in-a-regular-orthography-basic-characteristics-and-correlations-with-childhood-cognitive-abilities-and-adolescent-reading-skills
#16
Magdalena Krieber, Katrin D Bartl-Pokorny, Florian B Pokorny, Dajie Zhang, Karin Landerl, Christof Körner, Franz Pernkopf, Thomas Pock, Christa Einspieler, Peter B Marschik
The present study aimed to define differences between silent and oral reading with respect to spatial and temporal eye movement parameters. Eye movements of 22 German-speaking adolescents (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were recorded while reading an age-appropriate text silently and orally. Preschool cognitive abilities were assessed at the participants' age of 5;7 (years;months) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The participants' reading speed and reading comprehension at the age of 13;6 (years;months) were determined using a standardized inventory to evaluate silent reading skills in German readers (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145840/geographic-variation-in-use-of-vestibular-testing-among-medicare-beneficiaries
#17
Meredith E Adams, Schelomo Marmor, Bevan Yueh, Robert L Kane
Objective There is a lack of consensus regarding the indications for vestibular testing in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders. Geographic variation in health services utilization is associated with lack of consensus. To understand the variation in current practice, we investigated the patterns of use of vestibular testing and diagnosis codes for dizziness and balance disorders among individuals ≥65 years of age across different regions of the United States. Study Design Cross-sectional study...
February 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144037/automated-analysis-of-connected-speech-reveals-early-biomarkers-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-patients-with-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#18
Jan Hlavnička, Roman Čmejla, Tereza Tykalová, Karel Šonka, Evžen Růžička, Jan Rusz
For generations, the evaluation of speech abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) has been limited to perceptual tests or user-controlled laboratory analysis based upon rather small samples of human vocalizations. Our study introduces a fully automated method that yields significant features related to respiratory deficits, dysphonia, imprecise articulation and dysrhythmia from acoustic microphone data of natural connected speech for predicting early and distinctive patterns of neurodegeneration...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140339/three-dimensional-conformal-graphene-microstructure-for-flexible-and-highly-sensitive-electronic-skin
#19
Jun Yang, Qincui Ran, Dapeng Wei, Tai Sun, Leyong Yu, Xuefen Song, Lichun Pu, Haofei Shi, Chunlei Du
We demonstrate a highly stretchable electronic skin (E-skin) based on the facile combination of microstructured graphene nanowalls (GNWs) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The microstructure of the GNWs was endowed by conformally growing them on the unpolished silicon wafer without the aid of nanofabrication technology. Then a stamping transfer method was used to replicate the micropattern of the unpolished silicon wafer. Due to the large contact interface between the 3D graphene network and the PDMS, this type of E-skin worked under a stretching ratio of nearly 100%, and showed excellent mechanical strength and high sensitivity, with a change in relative resistance of up to 6500% and a gauge factor of 65...
January 31, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139718/foveal-processing-difficulty-does-not-affect-parafoveal-preprocessing-in-young-readers
#20
Christina Marx, Stefan Hawelka, Sarah Schuster, Florian Hutzler
Recent evidence suggested that parafoveal preprocessing develops early during reading acquisition, that is, young readers profit from valid parafoveal information and exhibit a resultant preview benefit. For young readers, however, it is unknown whether the processing demands of the currently fixated word modulate the extent to which the upcoming word is parafoveally preprocessed - as it has been postulated (for adult readers) by the foveal load hypothesis. The present study used the novel incremental boundary technique to assess whether 4(th) and 6(th) Graders exhibit an effect of foveal load...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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