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pattern of eye movement

Roger Johansson, Franziska Oren, Kenneth Holmqvist
When recalling something you have previously read, to what degree will such episodic remembering activate a situation model of described events versus a memory representation of the text itself? The present study was designed to address this question by recording eye movements of participants who recalled previously read texts while looking at a blank screen. An accumulating body of research has demonstrated that spontaneous eye movements occur during episodic memory retrieval and that fixation locations from such gaze patterns to a large degree overlap with the visuospatial layout of the recalled information...
February 19, 2018: Cognition
Jordana S Wynn, Rosanna K Olsen, Malcolm A Binns, Bradley R Buchsbaum, Jennifer D Ryan
Research using eye movement monitoring suggests that recapitulating the pattern of eye movements made during stimulus encoding at subsequent retrieval supports memory by reinstating the spatial layout of the encoded stimulus. In the present study, the authors investigated whether recapitulation of encoding fixations during a poststudy, stimulus-free delay period-an effect that has been previously linked to memory maintenance in younger adults-can support mnemonic performance in older adults. Older adults showed greater delay-period fixation reinstatement than younger adults, and this reinstatement supported age-equivalent performance on a subsequent visuospatial-memory-based change detection task, whereas in younger adults, the performance-enhancing effects of fixation reinstatement increased with task difficulty...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Sebastian S James, Chris Papapavlou, Alexander Blenkinsop, Alexander J Cope, Sean R Anderson, Konstantinos Moustakas, Kevin N Gurney
To date, realistic models of how the central nervous system governs behavior have been restricted in scope to the brain, brainstem or spinal column, as if these existed as disembodied organs. Further, the model is often exercised in relation to an in vivo physiological experiment with input comprising an impulse, a periodic signal or constant activation, and output as a pattern of neural activity in one or more neural populations. Any link to behavior is inferred only indirectly via these activity patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Laurène Leclair-Visonneau, Laurent Magy, Christelle Volteau, Thomas Clairembault, Séverine Le Dily, Cécile Préterre, Arnaud Peyre, Philippe Damier, Michel Neunlist, Yann Péréon, Pascal Derkinderen
Dysautonomic symptoms are frequent non-motor complaints in patients with Parkinson's disease. Numerous neuropathological studies have shown that Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease, are widely distributed throughout the peripheral autonomic nervous systems and across end organs. However, few investigations integrally explored the symptoms and physiology of dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease. We, therefore, performed a comprehensive evaluation of the autonomic function in a prospective group of 45 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Magdalena Ewa Król, Michał Król
The aim of the study was not only to demonstrate whether eye-movement-based task decoding was possible but also to investigate whether eye-movement patterns can be used to identify cognitive processes behind the tasks. We compared eye-movement patterns elicited under different task conditions, with tasks differing systematically with regard to the types of cognitive processes involved in solving them. We used four tasks, differing along two dimensions: spatial (global vs. local) processing (Navon, Cognit Psychol, 9(3):353-383 1977) and semantic (deep vs...
February 20, 2018: Psychological Research
Aline Frey, Benoît Lemaire, Laurent Vercueil, Anne Guérin-Dugué
We investigated how two different reading tasks, namely reading to memorize [Read & Memorize (RM)] and reading to decide whether a text was relevant to a given topic [Read & Decide (RD)], modulated both eye movements (EM) and brain activity. To this end, we set up an ecological paradigm using the eye fixation-related potentials (EFRP) technique, in which participants freely moved their eyes to process short paragraphs, while their electroencephalography (EEG) activity was recorded in synchronization with their EM...
February 15, 2018: Brain Topography
Gwyneth B Ross, Brittany Dowling, Nikolaus F Troje, Steven L Fischer, Ryan B Graham
INTRODUCTION: Movement screens are frequently used to identify abnormal movement patterns that may increase risk of injury or hinder performance. Abnormal patterns are often detected visually based on the observations of a coach or clinician. Quantitative, or data-driven methods can increase objectivity, remove issues related to inter-rater reliability and offer the potential to detect new and important features that may not be observable by the human eye. Applying principal components analysis (PCA) to whole-body motion data may provide an objective data-driven method to identify unique and statistically important movement patterns, an important first step to objectively characterize optimal patterns or identify abnormalities...
February 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sherri A Braksick, J Claude Hemphill, Jay Mandrekar, Eelco F M Wijdicks, Jennifer E Fugate
BACKGROUND: The Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) Score is a validated scale describing the essentials of a coma examination, including motor response, eye opening and eye movements, brainstem reflexes, and respiratory pattern. We incorporated the FOUR Score into the existing ICH Score and evaluated its accuracy of risk assessment in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to our institution from 2009 to 2012 with spontaneous ICH were reviewed...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Michael B Bone, Marie St-Laurent, Christa Dang, Douglas A McQuiggan, Jennifer D Ryan, Bradley R Buchsbaum
Half a century ago, Donald Hebb posited that mental imagery is a constructive process that emulates perception. Specifically, Hebb claimed that visual imagery results from the reactivation of neural activity associated with viewing images. He also argued that neural reactivation and imagery benefit from the re-enactment of eye movement patterns that first occurred at viewing (fixation reinstatement). To investigate these claims, we applied multivariate pattern analyses to functional MRI (fMRI) and eye tracking data collected while healthy human participants repeatedly viewed and visualized complex images...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
Given that eye movement control can be framed as an inferential process, how are the requisite forces generated to produce anticipated or desired fixation? Starting from a generative model based on simple Newtonian equations of motion, we derive a variational solution to this problem and illustrate the plausibility of its implementation in the oculomotor brainstem. We show, through simulation, that the Bayesian filtering equations that implement 'planning as inference' can generate both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Qian Chayn Sun, Jianhong Cecilia Xia, Jibo He, Jonathan Foster, Torbjörn Falkmer, Hoe Lee
Visual information for a driver is predominant during driving. Linking drivers' visual search patterns with motor behaviour helps understand how drivers perceived spatial and hazardous information to regulate their physical movements. Visual-motor coordination performance can be a sensitive indicator for driver competency assessment. Due to age-related cognitive decline, older drivers are likely inefficient in visual-motor coordination. While poor visual-motor coordination can cause risky behaviour behind the wheel, it is yet challenging to examine it owing to the complexity of driving behaviour...
January 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Brook A Shiferaw, Luke A Downey, Justine Westlake, Bronwyn Stevens, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, David J Berlowitz, Phillip Swann, Mark E Howard
Performance decrement associated with sleep deprivation is a leading contributor to traffic accidents and fatalities. While current research has focused on eye blink parameters as physiological indicators of driver drowsiness, little is understood of how gaze behaviour alters as a result of sleep deprivation. In particular, the effect of sleep deprivation on gaze entropy has not been previously examined. In this randomised, repeated measures study, 9 (4 male, 5 female) healthy participants completed two driving sessions in a fully instrumented vehicle (1 after a night of sleep deprivation and 1 after normal sleep) on a closed track, during which eye movement activity and lane departure events were recorded...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maital Neta, Michael D Dodd
Although some facial expressions provide clear information about people's emotions and intentions (happy, angry), others (surprise) are ambiguous because they can signal both positive (e.g., surprise party) and negative outcomes (e.g., witnessing an accident). Without a clarifying context, surprise is interpreted as positive by some and negative by others, and this valence bias is stable across time. When compared to fearful expressions, which are consistently rated as negative, surprise and fear share similar morphological features (e...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Han Zhang, Kevin Miller, Raymond Cleveland, Kai Cortina
The current research looked at how listening to music affects eye movements when college students read natural passages for comprehension. Two studies found that effects of music depend on both frequency of the word and dynamics of the music. Study 1 showed that lexical and linguistic features of the text remained highly robust predictors of looking times, even in the music condition. However, under music exposure, (a) readers produced more rereading, and (b) gaze duration on words with very low frequency were less predicted by word length, suggesting disrupted sublexical processing...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Natsuko Nakano, Fumiya Kinoshita, Hiroki Takada, Meiho Nakayama
Polysomnography (PSG), which records physiological phenomena including brain waves, breathing status, and muscle tonus, is useful for the diagnosis of sleep disorders as a gold standard. However, measurement and analysis are complex for several specific sleep disorders, such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Usually, brain waves during REM sleep indicate an awakening pattern under relaxed conditions of skeletal and antigravity muscles. However, these muscles are activated during REM sleep when patients suffer from RBD...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Baomin Li, Fenglei Yang
As a simulation of human expression recognition, the studies on automatic expression recognition expect to draw useful enlightenment through close, accurate observation on human expression processing via advanced devices. Eye-trackers are mostly used devices that are technically designed to obtain eye-movement data. However, due to the discrepancy between target faces, across-target analysis is limited in these studies, and this much reduces the chance of finding the latent eye-behavior patterns. Through the utilization of correspondences between targets, this study achieves an across-target analysis to explore the attention pattern in expression recognition...
January 30, 2018: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Annie-Claude Rochette, Isabelle Soulières, Claude Berthiaume, Roger Godbout
Delta EEG activity (0.75-3.75 Hz) during non-Rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep reflects the thalamo-cortical system contribution to memory consolidation. The functional integrity of this system is thought to be compromised in the Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This lead us to investigate the topography of NREM sleep Delta EEG activity in young adults with ASD and typically-developed individuals (TYP). The relationship between Delta EEG activity and sensory-motor procedural information was also examined using a rotary pursuit task...
January 30, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Hanne Halkinrud Thoen, Marcel E Sayre, Justin Marshall, Nicholas James Strausfeld
Stomatopods have an elaborate visual system served by a retina that is unique to this class of pancrustaceans. Its upper and lower eye hemispheres encode luminance and linear polarization while an equatorial band of photoreceptors termed the midband detects color, circularly polarized light and linear polarization in the ultraviolet (UV). In common with many malacostracan crustaceans, stomatopods have stalked eyes, but they can move these independently within three degrees of rotational freedom. Both eyes separately use saccadic and scanning movements but they can also move in a coordinated fashion to track selected targets or maintain a forward eyestalk posture during swimming...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Marcello Giannini, David M Alexander, Andrey R Nikolaev, Cees van Leeuwen
In spontaneous, stimulus-evoked, and eye-movement evoked EEG, the oscillatory signal shows large scale, dynamically organized patterns of phase. We investigated eye-movement evoked patterns in free-viewing conditions. Participants viewed photographs of natural scenes in anticipation of a memory test. From 200 ms intervals following saccades, we estimated the EEG phase gradient over the entire scalp, and the wave activity, i.e. the goodness of fit of a wave model involving a phase gradient assumed to be smooth over the scalp...
January 25, 2018: Brain Topography
Andrey Chetverikov, Maria Kuvaldina, W Joseph MacInnes, Ómar I Jóhannesson, Árni Kristjánsson
People often miss salient events that occur right in front of them. This phenomenon, known as change blindness, reveals the limits of visual awareness. Here, we investigate the role of implicit processing in change blindness using an approach that allows partial dissociation of covert and overt attention. Traditional gaze-contingent paradigms adapt the display in real time according to current gaze position. We compare such a paradigm with a newly designed mouse-contingent paradigm where the visual display changes according to the real-time location of a user-controlled mouse cursor, effectively allowing comparison of change detection with mainly overt attention (gaze-contingent display; Experiment 2) and untethered overt and covert attention (mouse-contingent display; Experiment 1)...
January 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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