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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909230/postural-stability-and-trunk-muscle-responses-to-the-static-and-perturbed-balance-tasks-in-individuals-with-and-without-symptomatic-degenerative-lumbar-disease
#1
Yun-Chung Lin, Chi-Chien Niu, Mohammad Nikkhoo, Meng-Ling Lu, Wen-Chien Chen, Chen-Ju Fu, Chih-Hsiu Cheng
BACKGROUND: Degenerative lumbar diseases (DLDs) are characterized by motor functional deficits and postural instability. In this study, we investigated the differences in the trunk muscle responses to postural control between the presurgical DLD patients and healthy individuals while performing the static and perturbed balance tasks. METHODS: Thirty-five DLD patients (aged 61.1 ± 8.0 years) and thirty-five asymptomatic controls (aged 62.9 ± 3.7 years) participated in this study...
June 11, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903449/neuro-ophthalmologic-assessment-and-investigations-in-children-and-adults-with-cerebellar-diseases
#2
Alexander A Tarnutzer, Dominik Straumann, Michael S Salman
In this chapter, we present the bedside assessment and laboratory tests that are available for the neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation of children and adults with cerebellar diseases. In the evaluation of a patient with cerebellar dysfunction, recognizing the pattern of ocular motor and / or vestibular impairment is often a key step to the correct diagnosis. The cerebellum is very important in processing a wide range of different eye movements, including angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes, otolith-ocular reflexes, fixation and gaze holding, smooth pursuit eye movements, saccadic eye movements, optokinetic response, ocular alignment, and vergence...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899718/analogical-reasoning-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-evidence-from-an-eye-tracking-approach
#3
Enda Tan, Xueyuan Wu, Tracy Nishida, Dan Huang, Zhe Chen, Li Yi
The present study examined analogical reasoning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its relationship with cognitive and executive functioning and processing strategies. Our findings showed that although children with ASD were less competent in solving analogical problems than typically developing children, this inferior performance was attributable to general cognitive impairments. Eye-movement analyses revealed that children with ASD paid less attention to relational items and showed fewer gaze shifts between relational locations...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899029/comparison-of-decision-related-signals-in-sensory-and-motor-preparatory-responses-of-neurons-in-area-lip
#4
S Shushruth, Mark Mazurek, Michael N Shadlen
Neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of Macaques exhibit both sensory and oculomotor preparatory responses. During perceptual decision making, the preparatory responses have been shown to track the state of the evolving evidence leading to the decision. The sensory responses are known to reflect categorical properties of visual stimuli, but it is not known if these responses also track evolving evidence. We recorded neural responses from LIP of two female rhesus monkeys during a direction discrimination task...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894769/sleep-patterns-deteriorate-over-time-in-chronic-corticosterone-treated-rats
#5
Xiang-Yu Cui, Guang Yang, Su-Ying Cui, Qing Cao, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Hui Ye, Xue-Qiong Zhang, Zi-Jun Wang, Yong-He Zhang
Repeated corticosterone (CORT) injections reliably produce depressive-like behavior in rodents. Our previous study showed that sleep parameters were altered in rats after daily injections of CORT for 7 days, and sleep disturbances appeared to be correlated with depressive-like behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate time-dependent correlations between changes in sleep parameters and the formation of depressive-like behavior in rats after more prolonged treatment with CORT. Rats received daily injections of CORT (40 mg/kg, s...
June 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892048/thalamic-dual-control-of-sleep-and-wakefulness
#6
Thomas C Gent, Mojtaba Bandarabadi, Carolina Gutierrez Herrera, Antoine R Adamantidis
Slow waves (0.5-4 Hz) predominate in the cortical electroencephalogram during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in mammals. They reflect the synchronization of large neuronal ensembles alternating between active (UP) and quiescent (Down) states and propagating along the neocortex. The thalamic contribution to cortical UP states and sleep modulation remains unclear. Here we show that spontaneous firing of centromedial thalamus (CMT) neurons in mice is phase-advanced to global cortical UP states and NREM-wake transitions...
June 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879654/visually-detected-non-rapid-eye-movement-stage-2-sleep-spindle-density-at-age-five-years-predicted-prosocial-behavior-positively-and-hyperactivity-scores-negatively-at-age-nine-years
#7
Thorsten Mikoteit, Serge Brand, Sonja Perren, Agnes von Wyl, Kai von Klitzing, Jennifer Kurath, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Martin Hatzinger
OBJECTIVE: A higher density of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spindles has been cross-sectionally associated with more efficient cortical-subcortical connectivity, superior intellectual and learning abilities, and healthier emotional and behavioral traits. In the present study, we explored to what extent sleep spindle density (SSD) at age five years could predict emotional and behavioral traits at six and nine years. METHODS: A total of 19 healthy preschoolers at age five years underwent in-home sleep EEG recordings for visual scoring of non-rapid eye movement stage 2 (NREM-S2) sleep spindles, and SSD in NREM-S2 was calculated...
April 25, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869026/failure-to-detect-function-word-repetitions-and-omissions-in-reading-are-eye-movements-to-blame
#8
Adrian Staub, Sophia Dodge, Andrew L Cohen
We tested whether failure to notice repetitions of function words during reading (e.g., Amanda jumped off the the swing and landed on her feet.) is due to the eyes' tendency to skip one of the instances of the word. Eye movements were recorded during reading of sentences with repetitions of the word the or repetitions of a noun, after which readers were asked whether an error was present. A repeated the was detected on 46% of trials overall. On trials on which both instances of the were fixated, detection was still only 66%...
June 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867729/structural-and-functional-brain-mapping-correlates-of-impaired-eye-movement-control-in-parkinsonian-syndromes-a-systems-based-concept
#9
REVIEW
Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Jan Kassubek
The investigation of the human oculomotor system by eye movement recordings provides an approach to behavior and its alterations in disease. The neurodegenerative process underlying parkinsonian syndromes, including Parkinson's disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multisystem atrophy (MSA) changes structural and functional brain organization, and thus affects eye movement control in a characteristic manner. Video-oculography has been established as a non-invasive recording device for eye movements, and systematic investigations of eye movement control in a clinical framework have emerged as a functional diagnostic tool in neurodegenerative parkinsonism...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867419/in-home-sleep-recordings-in-military-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-reveal-less-rem-and-deep-sleep-1-hz
#10
Julie A Onton, Scott C Matthews, Dae Y Kang, Todd P Coleman
Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often report suboptimal sleep quality, often described as lack of restfulness for unknown reasons. These experiences are sometimes difficult to objectively quantify in sleep lab assessments. Here, we used a streamlined sleep assessment tool to record in-home 2-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) with concurrent collection of electrodermal activity (EDA) and acceleration. Data from a single forehead channel were transformed into a whole-night spectrogram, and sleep stages were classified using a fully automated algorithm...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867413/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-the-occipital-place-area-biases-gaze-during-scene-viewing
#11
George L Malcolm, Edward H Silson, Jennifer R Henry, Chris I Baker
We can understand viewed scenes and extract task-relevant information within a few hundred milliseconds. This process is generally supported by three cortical regions that show selectivity for scene images: parahippocampal place area (PPA), medial place area (MPA) and occipital place area (OPA). Prior studies have focused on the visual information each region is responsive to, usually within the context of recognition or navigation. Here, we move beyond these tasks to investigate gaze allocation during scene viewing...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867321/source-modeling-auditory-processes-of-eeg-data-using-eeglab-and-brainstorm
#12
Maren Stropahl, Anna-Katharina R Bauer, Stefan Debener, Martin G Bleichner
Electroencephalography (EEG) source localization approaches are often used to disentangle the spatial patterns mixed up in scalp EEG recordings. However, approaches differ substantially between experiments, may be strongly parameter-dependent, and results are not necessarily meaningful. In this paper we provide a pipeline for EEG source estimation, from raw EEG data pre-processing using EEGLAB functions up to source-level analysis as implemented in Brainstorm. The pipeline is tested using a data set of 10 individuals performing an auditory attention task...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866327/the-effect-of-four-user-interface-concepts-on-visual-scan-pattern-similarity-and-information-foraging-in-a-complex-decision-making-task
#13
Sandra D Starke, Chris Baber
User interface (UI) design can affect the quality of decision making, where decisions based on digitally presented content are commonly informed by visually sampling information through eye movements. Analysis of the resulting scan patterns - the order in which people visually attend to different regions of interest (ROIs) - gives an insight into information foraging strategies. In this study, we quantified scan pattern characteristics for participants engaging with conceptually different user interface designs...
July 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864615/subtle-behavioural-responses-during-negative-emotion-reactivity-and-down-regulation-in-bipolar-disorder-a-facial-expression-and-eye-tracking-study
#14
Ingrid Broch-Due, Hanne Lie Kjærstad, Lars Vedel Kessing, Kamilla Miskowiak
Abnormal processing of emotional information and regulation are core trait-related features of bipolar disorder (BD) but evidence from behavioural studies is conflicting. This study aimed to investigate trait-related abnormalities in emotional reactivity and regulation in BD using novel sensitive behavioural measures including facial expressions and eye movements. Fifteen patients with BD in full or partial remission and 16 healthy controls (HCs) were given a computerised task in which they were instructed to 'react to' unpleasant and neutral pictures or 'dampen' their emotional response to aversive pictures...
August 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860176/who-did-what-a-causal-role-for-cognitive-control-in-thematic-role-assignment-during-sentence-comprehension
#15
Malathi Thothathiri, Christine T Asaro, Nina S Hsu, Jared M Novick
Thematic role assignment - generally, figuring out who did what to whom - is a critical component of sentence comprehension, which is influenced by both syntactic and semantic cues. Conflict between these cues can result in temporary consideration of multiple incompatible interpretations during real-time sentence processing. We tested whether the resolution of syntax-semantics conflict can be expedited by the online engagement of cognitive control processes that are routinely used to regulate behavior across domains...
May 31, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849166/increase-lipid-tear-thickness-after-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-injection-in-patients-with-blepharospasm-and-hemifacial-spasm
#16
Ren-Wen Ho, Po-Chiung Fang, Tsai-Ling Chao, Chun-Chih Chien, Ming-Tse Kuo
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) and aqueous tear production after botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) injection in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS). Eleven and six patients with BEB and HFS, respectively, who received BoNT injection were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. The blepharospasm disability index (BSDI), blink pattern, dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test 1 findings, LLT, eyelid performance, and corneal integrity were evaluated before and after treatment...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845411/eye-movements-evoked-by-pulsed-infrared-radiation-of-the-rat-vestibular-system
#17
Weitao Jiang, Suhrud M Rajguru
Light at infrared wavelengths has been demonstrated to modulate the pattern of neural signals transmitted from the angular motion sensing semicircular canals of the vestibular system to the brain. In the present study, we have characterized physiological eye movements evoked by focused, pulsed infrared radiation (IR) stimuli directed at an individual semicircular canal in a mammalian model. Pulsed IR (1863 nm) trains were directed at the posterior semicircular canal in a rat using 200-400 µm optical fibers...
May 29, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804297/a-single-episode-of-binge-alcohol-drinking-causes-sleep-disturbance-disrupts-sleep-homeostasis-and-downregulates-equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-1
#18
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Binge alcohol drinking, a risky pattern of alcohol consumption, has severe consequences toward health and well-being of an individual, his family and society. Although, binge drinking has detrimental effects on sleep, underlying mechanisms are unknown. We used adult male C57BL/6J mice and exposed them to a single, four-hour session of binge alcohol self-administration, in stress-free environment, to examine neuronal mechanisms affecting sleep. We first verified binge pattern of alcohol consumption. When allowed to self-administer alcohol in a non-stressful environment, mice consumed alcohol in a binge pattern...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792440/looking-at-the-eyes-interferes-with-facial-emotion-recognition-in-alexithymia
#19
Esther Fujiwara
Alexithymia refers to difficulties in identifying, differentiating, and describing feelings. This personality trait is highly prevalent in many psychiatric conditions and may drive associated social-emotional problems, including the ability to decode emotions in faces. This study probed alexithymic problems with identifying clear and ambiguous blends of emotions in faces and their underlying visual attention patterns. Using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, students with high alexithymia (HA, n = 73) or low alexithymia (LA, n = 76) were enrolled in this study...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790476/-erratum-to-translation-and-validation-of-the-four-scale-for-children-and-its-use-as-outcome-predictor-a-pilot-study
#20
Sofia Simões Ferreira, Daniel Meireles, Alexandra Pinto, Francisco Abecasis
The article "Translation and Validation of the FOUR Scale for Children and its Use as Outcome Predictor: A Pilot Study", published by Acta Médica Portuguesa on September 2017 [Acta Med Port 2017 Sep;30(9):599-607] exhibited the mistake detailed here below: On page 600, paragrapah 4, where it reads: "(...) only the last two are assessed by the GCS and depth of coma may not be accurately detected.4" It should read: "(…) GCS does not include important indicators for an adequate evaluation of coma severity, that is, it only evaluates the cortical function, not including brainstem function evaluation parameters such as respiratory pattern, pupil size and reflexes, nor eye movements; as such it may not detect the coma depth properly...
March 29, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
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