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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655763/sleeping-oxygen-saturation-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-the-adaptation-of-postprandial-metabolic-function-in-insulin-sensitive-and-resistant-individuals-without-diabetes
#1
Karin A Garcia, William K Wohlgemuth, Ele Ferrannini, Andrea Mari, Alex Gonzalez, Armando J Mendez, Roberto Bizzotto, Jay S Skyler, Neil Schneiderman, Barry E Hurwitz
AIMS: Sleeping oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) and sleep stage duration have been linked with prediabetic alterations but the pathogenic pathways are not well understood. This study of insulin sensitive and resistant adults examined the effect on postprandial metabolic regulation of repeated mixed-meal challenges of different carbohydrate loading. The aim was to examine whether the relationship between lower sleeping oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) and poorer fasting and postprandial metabolic function may be linked with reduced slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) duration, independent of age, sex and total adiposity...
April 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655589/emerging-applications-of-eye-tracking-technology-in-dermatology
#2
REVIEW
Kevin K John, Jakob D Jensen, Andy J King, Manusheela Pokharel, Douglas Grossman
Eye-tracking technology has been used within a multitude of disciplines to provide data linking eye movements to visual processing of various stimuli (i.e., x-rays, situational positioning, printed information, and warnings). Despite the benefits provided by eye-tracking in allowing for the identification and quantification of visual attention, the discipline of dermatology has yet to see broad application of the technology. Notwithstanding dermatologists' heavy reliance upon visual patterns and cues to discriminate between benign and atypical nevi, literature that applies eye-tracking to the study of dermatology is sparse; and literature specific to patient-initiated behaviors, such as skin self-examination (SSE), is largely non-existent...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648870/the-role-of-preview-validity-in-predictability-and-frequency-effects-on-eye-movements-in-reading
#3
Adrian Staub, Kirk Goddard
A word's predictability, as measured by its cloze probability, has a robust influence on the time a reader's eyes spend on the word, with more predictable words receiving shorter fixations. However, several previous studies using the boundary paradigm have found no apparent effect of predictability on early reading time measures when the reader does not have valid parafoveal preview of the target word. The present study directly assesses this pattern in two experiments, demonstrating evidence for a null effect of predictability on first fixation and gaze duration with invalid preview, supported by Bayes factor analyses...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625692/young-drivers-perception-of-adult-and-child-pedestrians-in-potential-street-crossing-situations
#4
Līva Ābele, Sonja Haustein, Mette Møller
Despite overall improvements in road traffic safety, pedestrian accidents continue to be a serious public health problem. Due to lack of experience, limited cognitive and motoric skills, and smaller size, children have a higher injury risk as pedestrians than adults. To what extent drivers adjust their driving behaviour to children's higher vulnerability is largely unknown. To determine whether young male drivers' behaviour and scanning pattern differs when approaching a child and an adult pedestrian in a potential street-crossing situation, sixty-five young (18-24) male drivers' speed, lateral position and eye movements were recorded in a driving simulator...
April 3, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624773/sleep-disorders-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-10
#5
Ester London, Carlos H F Camargo, Alessandra Zanatta, Ana C Crippa, Salmo Raskin, Renato P Munhoz, Tetsuo Ashizawa, Hélio A G Teive
As sleep disturbances have been reported in spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), including types SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA13, identification and management of these disturbances can help minimise their impact on SCA patients' overall body functions and quality of life. To our knowledge, there are no studies that investigate sleep disturbances in SCA10. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess sleep disturbances in patients with SCA10. Twenty-three SCA10 patients and 23 healthy controls were recruited...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621249/understanding-the-mechanisms-behind-the-sexualized-body-inversion-hypothesis-the-role-of-asymmetry-and-attention-biases
#6
Carlotta Cogoni, Andrea Carnaghi, Aleksandra Mitrovic, Helmut Leder, Carlo Fantoni, Giorgia Silani
A controversial hypothesis, named the Sexualized Body Inversion Hypothesis (SBIH), claims similar visual processing of sexually objectified women (i.e., with a focus on the sexual body parts) and inanimate objects as indicated by an absence of the inversion effect for both type of stimuli. The current study aims at shedding light into the mechanisms behind the SBIH in a series of 4 experiments. Using a modified version of Bernard et al.´s (2012) visual-matching task, first we tested the core assumption of the SBIH, namely that a similar processing style occurs for sexualized human bodies and objects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614644/visual-processing-during-short-term-memory-binding-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Gerardo Fernández, David Orozco, Osvaldo Agamennoni, Marcela Schumacher, Silvana Sañudo, Juan Biondi, Mario A Parra
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) typically present with attentional and oculomotor abnormalities that can have an impact on visual processing and associated cognitive functions. Over the last few years, we have witnessed a shift toward the analyses of eye movement behaviors as a means to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of common disorders such as AD. However, little work has been done to unveil the link between eye moment abnormalities and poor performance on cognitive tasks known to be markers for AD patients, such as the short-term memory-binding task...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613977/scanning-behaviour-and-daytime-driving-performance-of-older-adults-with-glaucoma
#8
Samantha Sze-Yee Lee, Alex A Black, Joanne M Wood
PURPOSE: To assess the link between visual scanning behaviour and closed-road driving performance in older drivers with glaucomatous visual impairment. METHODS: Participants included 13 older drivers with glaucoma (mean age=72.0±6.7▒y; average better-eye mean deviation [MD])=-2.9±2.1▒dB, average worse-eye MD=-12.5±7.1▒dB) and ten visually-normal controls (mean age=70.6±7.4▒y). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, useful field-of-view (UFoV), and motion sensitivity were assessed...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610356/spatial-eye-hand-coordination-during-bimanual-reaching-is-not-systematically-coded-in-either-lip-or-prr
#9
Eric Mooshagian, Lawrence H Snyder
We often orient to where we are about to reach. Spatial and temporal correlations in eye and arm movements may depend on the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Spatial representations of saccade and reach goals preferentially activate cells in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) and the parietal reach region (PRR), respectively. With unimanual reaches, eye and arm movement patterns are highly stereotyped. This makes it difficult to study the neural circuits involved in coordination. Here, we employ bimanual reaching to two different targets...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603656/guiding-low-spatial-ability-individuals-through-visual-cueing-the-dual-importance-of-where-and-when-to-look
#10
Victoria A Roach, Graham M Fraser, James H Kryklywy, Derek G V Mitchell, Timothy D Wilson
Research suggests that spatial ability may predict success in complex disciplines including anatomy, where mastery requires a firm understanding of the intricate relationships occurring along the course of veins, arteries, and nerves, as they traverse through and around bones, muscles, and organs. Debate exists on the malleability of spatial ability, and some suggest that spatial ability can be enhanced through training. It is hypothesized that spatial ability can be trained in low-performing individuals through visual guidance...
March 30, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597138/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-or-epileptic-seizure-during-sleep-a-video-analysis-of-motor-events
#11
Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Ovidio Solano, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Aurélie Pierre-Justin, Ana Gales, Vincent Navarro, Michel Baulac, Claude Adam, Sophie Dupont, Isabelle Arnulf
PURPOSE: To compare the motor semiology of sleep behavior disorder (RBD) during rapid eye movement (REM) with epileptic seizures in non-REM and REM sleep. METHODS: We analyzed the types and frequency of motor events from videos of patients with RBD (n = 15, mean age 64.8 years, 179 motor episodes) and patients with epilepsy (n = 15, mean age 34.4 years, 87 sleep-related epileptic seizures including 34 during REM sleep). RESULTS: Patients with sleep-related epileptic seizures more often woke up abruptly (28% vs...
March 21, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581380/effects-of-ageing-on-cortical-neural-dynamics-and-local-sleep-homeostasis-in-mice
#12
Laura E McKillop, Simon P Fisher, Nanyi Cui, Stuart N Peirson, Russell G Foster, Keith A Wafford, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy
Healthy ageing is associated with marked effects on sleep, including its daily amount and architecture, as well as the specific electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations. Neither the neurophysiological underpinnings, nor the biological significance of these changes are understood, and crucially the question remains whether ageing is associated with reduced sleep need or a diminished capacity to generate sufficient sleep. Here we tested the hypothesis that ageing may affect local cortical networks, disrupting the capacity to generate and sustain sleep oscillations, and with it the local homeostatic response to sleep loss...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558514/auditory-noise-increases-the-allocation-of-attention-to-the-mouth-and-the-eyes-pay-the-price-an-eye-tracking-study
#13
Magdalena Ewa Król
We investigated the effect of auditory noise added to speech on patterns of looking at faces in 40 toddlers. We hypothesised that noise would increase the difficulty of processing speech, making children allocate more attention to the mouth of the speaker to gain visual speech cues from mouth movements. We also hypothesised that this shift would cause a decrease in fixation time to the eyes, potentially decreasing the ability to monitor gaze. We found that adding noise increased the number of fixations to the mouth area, at the price of a decreased number of fixations to the eyes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552711/eye-gaze-patterns-associated-with-aggressive-tendencies-in-adolescence
#14
Cameron Laue, Marcus Griffey, Ping-I Lin, Kirk Wallace, Menno van der Schoot, Paul Horn, Ernest Pedapati, Drew Barzman
Social information processing theory hypothesizes that aggressive children pay more attention to cues of hostility and threat in others' behavior, consequently leading to over-interpretation of others' behavior as hostile. While there is abundant evidence of aggressive children demonstrating hostile attribution biases, less well documented is whether such biases stem from over-attendance and hypersensitivity to hostile cues in social situations. Over-attendance to hostile cues would be typified by deviations at any stage of the multi-stage process of social information processing models...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552396/-in-vivo-retinal-imaging-for-fixational-eye-motion-detection-using-a-high-speed-digital-micromirror-device-dmd-based-ophthalmoscope
#15
Kari V Vienola, Mathi Damodaran, Boy Braaf, Koenraad A Vermeer, Johannes F de Boer
Retinal motion detection with an accuracy of 0.77 arcmin corresponding to 3.7 µm on the retina is demonstrated with a novel digital micromirror device based ophthalmoscope. By generating a confocal image as a reference, eye motion could be measured from consecutively measured subsampled frames. The subsampled frames provide 7.7 millisecond snapshots of the retina without motion artifacts between the image points of the subsampled frame, distributed over the full field of view. An ophthalmoscope pattern projection speed of 130 Hz enabled a motion detection bandwidth of 65 Hz...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529085/a-non-invasive-quantitative-study-of-broadband-spectral-responses-in-human-visual-cortex
#16
Eline R Kupers, Helena X Wang, Kaoru Amano, Kendrick N Kay, David J Heeger, Jonathan Winawer
Currently, non-invasive methods for studying the human brain do not routinely and reliably measure spike-rate-dependent signals, independent of responses such as hemodynamic coupling (fMRI) and subthreshold neuronal synchrony (oscillations and event-related potentials). In contrast, invasive methods-microelectrode recordings and electrocorticography (ECoG)-have recently measured broadband power elevation in field potentials (~50-200 Hz) as a proxy for locally averaged spike rates. Here, we sought to detect and quantify stimulus-related broadband responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523822/using-dual-eye-tracking-to-uncover-personal-gaze-patterns-during-social-interaction
#17
Shane L Rogers, Craig P Speelman, Oliver Guidetti, Melissa Longmuir
We report the personal eye gaze patterns of people engaged in face-to-face getting acquainted conversation. Considerable differences between individuals are underscored by a stability of eye gaze patterns within individuals. Results suggest the existence of an eye-mouth gaze continuum. This continuum includes some people showing a strong preference for eye gaze, some with a strong preference for mouth gaze, and others distributing their gaze between the eyes and mouth to varying extents. Additionally, we found evidence of within-participant consistency not just for location preference but also for the duration of fixations upon the eye and mouth regions...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519477/parieto-frontal-networks-for-eye-hand-coordination-and-movements
#18
Alexandra Battaglia-Mayer, Roberto Caminiti
Eye-hand coordination lies at the core of our daily actions and interactions with objects and people around us, and is central to understanding how the brain creates internal models of the action space and generates movement within it. Eye-hand coordination remains a very complex and elusive problem, which is further complicated by its distributed representation in the brain. In fact, evolution did not confine such a crucial function to a single area, but rather assigned it to several distributed cortical and subcortical systems, where encoding mechanisms can satisfy multiple demands and the consequences of lesions are less disruptive...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518571/functional-correlate-and-delineated-connectivity-pattern-of-human-motion-aftereffect-responses-substantiate-a-subjacent-visual-vestibular-interaction
#19
Ria Maxine Rühl, Thomas Bauermann, Marianne Dieterich, Peter Zu Eulenburg
The visual motion aftereffect (MAE) is the most prominent aftereffect in the visual system. Regarding its function, Psychophysical studies suggest its function to be a form of sensory error correction, possibly also triggered by incongruent visual-vestibular stimulation. Several observational imaging experiments have deducted an essential role for region MT+ in the perception of a visual MAE but not provided conclusive evidence. Potential confounders with the MAE such as ocular motor performance, attention, and vection sensations have also never been controlled for...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516516/examining-the-visual-processing-patterns-of-lonely-adults
#20
Munirah Bangee, Pamela Qualter
Prior research has shown that loneliness is associated with hypervigilance to social threats, with eye-tracking research showing lonely people display a specific attentional bias when viewing social rejection and social exclusion video footage (Bangee, Harris, Bridges, Rotenberg & Qualter, 2014; Qualter, Rotenberg, Barrett et al., 2013). The current study uses eye-tracker methodology to examine whether that attentional bias extends to negative emotional faces and negative social non-rejecting stimuli, or whether it could be explained only as a specific bias to social rejection/exclusion...
March 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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