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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031752/sleep-and-slow-wave-activity-in-depressed-adolescent-boys-a-preliminary-study
#1
Olena Santangeli, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Jussi Virkkala, Anu E Castaneda, Mauri Marttunen, Tiina Paunio, Anna S Urrila
OBJECTIVE: Adolescence is a vulnerable period of life that is characterized by increasing incidence of depression. Sleep disturbance is one of the diagnostic symptoms of depressive disorder. Adolescence is also characterized by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its regulation. The goal of this study was to assess sleep macroarchitecture and slow-wave activity (SWA) in depressed adolescent boys. METHODS: Eight non-medicated adolescent boys meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for depressive disorder and 10 age-matched healthy controls (average age 16...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031741/further-evidences-for-sleep-instability-and-impaired-spindle-delta-dynamics-in-schizophrenia-a-whole-night-polysomnography-study-with-neuroloop-gain-and-sleep-cycle-analysis
#2
Arun Sasidharan, Sunil Kumar, Ajay Kumar Nair, Ammu Lukose, Vrinda Marigowda, John P John, Bindu M Kutty
OBJECTIVE: Sleep offers a unique window into the brain dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Many past sleep studies have reported abnormalities in both macro-sleep architecture (like increased awakenings) as well as micro-sleep-architecture (like spindle deficits) in patients with schizophrenia (PSZ). The present study attempts to replicate previous reports of macro- and micro-sleep-architectural abnormalities in schizophrenia. In addition, the study also examined sleep-stage changes and spindle-delta dynamics across sleep-cycles to provide further evidence in support of the dysfunctional thalamocortical mechanisms causing sleep instability and poor sleep maintenance associated with schizophrenia pathophysiology...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031740/eyetracking-metrics-reveal-impaired-spatial-anticipation-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#3
Silvia Primativo, Camilla Clark, Keir Xx Yong, Nicholas C Firth, Jennifer Nicholas, Daniel Alexander, Jason D Warren, Jonathan D Rohrer, Sebastian J Crutch
Eyetracking technology has had limited application in the dementia field to date, with most studies attempting to discriminate syndrome subgroups on the basis of basic oculomotor functions rather than higher-order cognitive abilities. Eyetracking-based tasks may also offer opportunities to reduce or ameliorate problems associated with standard paper-and-pencil cognitive tests such as the complexity and linguistic demands of verbal test instructions, and the problems of tiredness and attention associated with lengthy tasks that generate few data points at a slow rate...
October 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023550/effects-of-acute-alcohol-ingestion-on-eye-movements-and-cognition-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#4
Jéssica Bruna Santana Silva, Eva Dias Cristino, Natalia Leandro de Almeida, Paloma Cavalcante Bezerra de Medeiros, Natanael Antonio Dos Santos
Alcohol is one of the most consumed psychoactive substances in the world, and the negative impact related to alcohol use has become a worldwide public health issue. Alcohol is able to affect diffusely several areas of the Central Nervous System, which could impair visual functions, including eye movements, and cognitive processes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake in eyes movements, as an indicator of cognitive processing underlying the visual search in a the Maze task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022962/retinal-necrosis-as-the-initial-presentation-of-primary-intraocular-lymphoma
#5
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Nirupama Raghothaman, Ranju Kharel, Nitin Kumar, Vikas Khetan
A 72 years old female presented with bilateral painless progressive loss of vision over one year. She was diagnosed as non-resolving bilateral panuveitis. Her visual acuity in right eye was hand movement close to face and left eye was perception of light with inaccurate projection of rays. Bilateral anterior chamber had 1+ cells and flares. Vitreous cells had 1+ cells and haze in right eye but the left eye had 3+ vitreous cells and haze. Right eye fundus had multiple, discrete sub retinal yellowish deposits with subretinal haemorrhage and macular edema with perivascular infiltrates...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022955/demographic-pattern-and-clinical-characteristics-of-optic-neuritis-in-a-tertiary-eye-care-centre
#6
Manita Sunam Godar, Ananda Kumar Sharma, Madhu Thapa, Sanjeeta Sitaula, Shanti Gurung
PURPOSE: To study the demographic pattern and clinical characteristics of optic neuritis cases in a tertiary eye care centre in Nepal. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. METHODOLOGY: Complete ocular examination was done in all the newly diagnosed cases of optic neuritis presenting from January 1st 2012 to June 30th 2013. Demographic pattern, clinical features, visual acuity, colour vision, contrast sensitivity and visual field defects were studied...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021548/a-self-avoiding-walk-with-neural-delays-as-a-model-of-fixational-eye-movements
#7
Carl J J Herrmann, Ralf Metzler, Ralf Engbert
Fixational eye movements show scaling behaviour of the positional mean-squared displacement with a characteristic transition from persistence to antipersistence for increasing time-lag. These statistical patterns were found to be mainly shaped by microsaccades (fast, small-amplitude movements). However, our re-analysis of fixational eye-movement data provides evidence that the slow component (physiological drift) of the eyes exhibits scaling behaviour of the mean-squared displacement that varies across human participants...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018561/disturbed-eeg-sleep-paranoid-cognition-and-somatic-symptoms-identify-veterans-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Harvey Moldofsky, Lorne Rothman, Robert Kleinman, Shawn G Rhind, J Donald Richardson
BACKGROUND: Chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) behavioural symptoms and medically unexplainable somatic symptoms are reported to occur following the stressful experience of military combatants in war zones. AIMS: To determine the contribution of disordered EEG sleep physiology in those military combatants who have unexplainable physical symptoms and PTSD behavioural difficulties following war-zone exposure. METHOD: This case-controlled study compared 59 veterans with chronic sleep disturbance with 39 veterans with DSM-IV and clinician-administered PTSD Scale diagnosed PTSD who were unresponsive to pharmacological and psychological treatments...
November 2016: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994302/observing-eye-movements-and-the-influence-of-cognition-during-a-symbol-search-task-a-comparison-across-three-age-groups
#9
Maxine Perrin, Manon Robillard, Annie Roy-Charland
This study examined eye movements during a visual search task as well as cognitive abilities within three age groups. The aim was to explore scanning patterns across symbol grids and to better understand the impact of symbol location in AAC displays on speed and accuracy of symbol selection. For the study, 60 students were asked to locate a series of symbols on 16 cell grids. The EyeLink 1000 was used to measure eye movements, accuracy, and response time. Accuracy was high across all cells. Participants had faster response times, longer fixations, and more frequent fixations on symbols located in the middle of the grid...
October 10, 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993717/plasticity-may-change-inputs-as-well-as-processes-structures-and-responses
#10
Lisa M Oakes
Significant work has documented neuroplasticity in development, demonstrating that developmental pathways are shaped by experience. Plasticity is often discussed in terms of the results of differences in input; differences in brain structures, processes, or responses reflect differences in experience. In this paper, I discuss how developmental plasticity also effectively changes input into the system. That is, structures and processes change in response to input, and those changed structures and processes influence future inputs...
April 2017: Cognitive Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986596/palisade-endings-of-extraocular-muscles-develop-postnatally-following-different-time-courses
#11
Roland Blumer, Johannes Streicher, María A Davis-López de Carrizosa, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor
Purpose: To analyze in a frontal-eyed mammal (cat) the postnatal development of palisade endings in extraocular muscles (EOMs) and to compare the spatiotemporal and quantitative patterns of palisade endings among individual rectus muscles. Methods: Cats of different ages ranging from birth to adult stage were studied. EOM whole-mount preparations were fluorescently labeled using six combinations of triple staining and analyzed in the confocal laser scanning microscope...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983917/influence-of-the-location-and-type-of-epileptogenic-lesion-on-scalp-interictal-epileptiform-discharges-and-high-frequency-oscillations
#12
Carolina Cuello-Oderiz, Nicolas von Ellenrieder, François Dubeau, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: To increase the diagnostic power of scalp electroencephalography (EEG) by investigating whether lesion type and location influence the morphology of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) and the likelihood that IEDs and high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are present. METHODS: We studied EEG activity in epilepsy patients with lesional epilepsy. Lesions were classified by type and by location (region and depth). We marked a maximum of 50 IEDs during deep non-rapid eye movement sleep...
October 6, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982125/social-partnering-alters-sleep-in-fear-conditioned-wistar-rats
#13
Jamie K DaSilva, Eram Husain, Yanlin Lei, Graziella L Mann, Adrian R Morrison, Shanaz Tejani-Butt
Social support, when provided following a traumatic experience, is associated with a lower incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Our hypothesis was that providing a social interaction period with a naive conspecific would improve sleep architecture in response to cued fear conditioning in Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to either the socially isolated or socially partnered groups. Rats assigned to the socially isolated group were individually housed following electrode implantation and fear conditioning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972121/gaze-stabilizing-central-vestibular-neurons-project-asymmetrically-to-extraocular-motoneuron-pools
#14
David Schoppik, Isaac H Bianco, David A Prober, Adam D Douglass, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M B Li, Joel S F Greenwood, Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, Alexander F Schier
Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations -- such as asymmetric connectivity -- to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically-defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958044/altered-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-idiopathic-hypersomnia
#15
Soufiane Boucetta, Jacques Montplaisir, Antonio Zadra, Francis Lachapelle, Jean-Paul Soucy, Paul Gravel, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu
Objectives: Idiopathic hypersomnia is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness despite normal or long sleep time. Its pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. This pilot study aims at characterizing the neural correlates of idiopathic hypersomnia using single photon emission computed tomography. Methods: Thirteen participants with idiopathic hypersomnia and sixteen healthy controls were scanned during resting wakefulness using a high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography scanner with 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer to assess cerebral blood flow...
August 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956242/polysomnographic-findings-in-craniopharyngioma-patients
#16
Line Pickering, Marianne Klose, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Poul Jennum
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether damage to the hypothalamus due to craniopharyngioma or consequent surgery may involve the sleep-wake regulatory system, resulting in sleep disturbances and sleepiness. METHODS: Seven craniopharyngioma patients and 10 healthy controls were evaluated with sleep questionnaires including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, polysomnography, and a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Five patients and eight controls had lumbar puncture performed to determine hypocretin-1 levels...
September 27, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953620/different-patterns-in-mental-rotation-of-facial-expressions-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-patients
#17
Won Joon Lee, Soo-Hee Choi, Joon Hwan Jang, Jee Youn Moon, Yong Chul Kim, EunChung Noh, Jung Eun Shin, HyunSoon Shin, Do-Hyung Kang
Although facial pain expressions are considered to be the most visible pain behaviors, it is known that the association between pain intensity and facial pain expression is weak for chronic pain. The authors hypothesized that the facial pain expressiveness was altered in chronic pain and investigated it with a mental rotation task using various facial expression, which seems to be associated with actual facial movements. As a task stimulus, 4 types of facial expression stimuli consisted of upper (tightening of eye and furrowed brows) and lower (raising upper lip) pain-specific facial expressions, and upper (eyeball deviation) and lower (tongue protrusion) facial movements not using facial muscles were used...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952413/distinct-eye-movements-for-different-cognitive-processes-as-expressed-in-the-face-recognition-task
#18
Ohad Parag, Eli Vakil
Contemporary research literature indicates that eye movements during the learning and testing phases can predict and affect future recognition processes. Nevertheless, only partial information exists regarding eye movements in the various components of recognition processes: Hits, Correct rejections, Misses and False Alarms (FA). In an attempt to address this issue, participants in this study viewed human faces in a yes/no recognition memory paradigm. They were divided into two groups - one group that carried out the testing phase immediately after the learning phase (n = 30) and another group with a 15-minute delay between phases (n = 28)...
September 27, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944469/probing-early-motion-processing-with-eye-movements-differences-of-vestibular-migraine-migraine-with-and-without-aura-in-the-attack-free-interval
#19
S Rogalinski, H A Rambold
BACKGROUND: Migraineurs, in between headache attacks, have a different sensitivity to sensory motion stimuli compared to non-migraineurs. METHODS: This cross-sectional laboratory study examines the motion processing in migraineurs using ocular following responses (OFR) elicited by large field random dot patterns and open-loop smooth pursuit eye movements (PS) elicited by a single target moving on a homogenous background. Eye movements were recorded with a video-oculographic system (EyeSeeTec(®) ) and stimuli presented on a CRT at 100 Hz repetition rate to horizontal stimuli of a velocity of 2...
September 25, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939975/ketamine-induced-glutamatergic-mechanisms-of-sleep-and-wakefulness-insights-for-developing-novel-treatments-for-disturbed-sleep-and-mood
#20
Wallace C Duncan, Elizabeth D Ballard, Carlos A Zarate
Ketamine, a drug with rapid antidepressant effects and well-described effects on slow wave sleep (SWS), is a useful intervention for investigating sleep-wake mechanisms involved in novel therapeutics. The drug rapidly (within minutes to hours) reduces depressive symptoms in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD), including those with treatment-resistant depression. Ketamine treatment elevates extracellular glutamate in the prefrontal cortex. Glutamate, in turn, plays a critical role as a proximal element in a ketamine-initiated molecular cascade that increases synaptic strength and plasticity, which ultimately results in rapidly improved mood...
September 23, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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