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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#1
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541187/enhancement-of-group-perception-via-a-collaborative-brain-computer-interface
#2
Davide Valeriani, Riccardo Poli, Caterina Cinel
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at improving group performance in a challenging visual search task via a hybrid collaborative brain-computer interface (cBCI). METHODS: Ten participants individually undertook a visual search task where a display was presented for 250 ms, and they had to decide whether a target was present or not. Local temporal correlation common spatial pattern (LTCCSP) was used to extract neural features from response- and stimulus-locked EEG epochs. The resulting feature vectors were extended by including response times and features extracted from eye movements...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532347/strabismus-and-the-oculomotor-system-insights-from-macaque-models
#3
Vallabh E Das
Disrupting binocular vision in infancy leads to strabismus and oftentimes to a variety of associated visual sensory deficits and oculomotor abnormalities. Investigation of this disorder has been aided by the development of various animal models, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. In comparison to studies of binocular visual responses in cortical structures, investigations of neural oculomotor structures that mediate the misalignment and abnormalities of eye movements have been more recent, and these studies have shown that different brain areas are intimately involved in driving several aspects of the strabismic condition, including horizontal misalignment, dissociated deviations, A and V patterns of strabismus, disconjugate eye movements, nystagmus, and fixation switch...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523225/a-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-of-eye-movements-and-visual-word-reading
#4
Wei Zhou, Hua Shu
INTRODUCTION: The pattern of eye movements during reading is substantially correlated with linguistic factors. While there have been a large number of studies on the neural mechanisms of eye movements and word reading separately, a limited number of studies have compared the activation patterns of these two processes and discussed the associations of their corresponding brain regions within the framework of naturalistic reading. METHODS: This study conducted a meta-analysis of the existing functional magnetic resonance imaging literature on prosaccades and visual word reading using the activation likelihood estimation algorithm...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522097/sleep-spindle-density-in-narcolepsy
#5
Julie Anja Engelhard Christensen, Miki Nikolic, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521150/the-effects-of-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-on-dorsoventral-patterning-convergent-extension-and-neural-and-cardiac-development-of-zebrafish
#6
Jia Xu, Qiuping Zhang, Xu Li, Sihui Zhan, Lifeng Wang, Dongyan Chen
Currently, nanoparticles are widely used in biomedicine and industry. CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are versatile materials in our daily life and their toxicity has drawn extensive attention. In this study, we concentrate on the effect of CuO-NPs on early zebrafish development. The results reveal that CuO-NPs can induce abnormal phenotypes of a smaller head and eyes and delayed epiboly. The gene expression pattern shows that CuO-NPs spatially narrow the expression of dorsal genes chordin and goosecoid and alter the expression of dlx3, ntl and hgg which are related to the cell migration of gastrulation...
May 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513589/decoding-material-specific-memory-reprocessing-during-sleep-in-humans
#7
M Schönauer, S Alizadeh, H Jamalabadi, A Abraham, A Pawlizki, S Gais
Neuronal learning activity is reactivated during sleep but the dynamics of this reactivation in humans are still poorly understood. Here we use multivariate pattern classification to decode electrical brain activity during sleep and determine what type of images participants had viewed in a preceding learning session. We find significant patterns of learning-related processing during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, which are generalizable across subjects. This processing occurs in a cyclic fashion during time windows congruous to critical periods of synaptic plasticity...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512630/hand-grasping-synergies-as-biometrics
#8
Vrajeshri Patel, Poojita Thukral, Martin K Burns, Ionut Florescu, Rajarathnam Chandramouli, Ramana Vinjamuri
Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505502/sleep-in-the-northern-fur-seal
#9
REVIEW
Oleg I Lyamin, Lev M Mukhametov, Jerome M Siegel
The pattern of sleep in the fur seal, a semiaquatic pinniped, has several striking behavioral and physiological adaptations that allow this species to inhabit both the land and water environment. These features include unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS, also being unihemispheric waking), the ability to maintain movement for stabilization of the sleep posture and to briefly open one eye while having a sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in one hemisphere. In vivo microdialysis studies suggest that acetylcholine release is required for cortical activation during USWS, and that monoamines are not required for USWS...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503007/individual-differences-in-categorical-perception-of-speech-cue-weighting-and-executive-function
#10
Eun Jong Kong, Jan Edwards
This study examined individual differences in categorical perception and the use of multiple acoustic cues in the perception of the stop voicing contrast. Goals were to investigate whether gradiency of speech perception was related to listeners' differential sensitivity to acoustic cues and to individual differences in executive function. The experiment included two speech perception tasks (visual analogue scaling [VAS] and anticipatory eye movement [AEM]) administered to 30 English-speaking adults in two separate experimental sessions...
November 2016: Journal of Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493106/human-classifier-observers-can-deduce-task-solely-from-eye-movements
#11
Brett Bahle, Mark Mills, Michael D Dodd
Computer classifiers have been successful at classifying various tasks using eye movement statistics. However, the question of human classification of task from eye movements has rarely been studied. Across two experiments, we examined whether humans could classify task based solely on the eye movements of other individuals. In Experiment 1, human classifiers were shown one of three sets of eye movements: Fixations, which were displayed as blue circles, with larger circles meaning longer fixation durations; Scanpaths, which were displayed as yellow arrows; and Videos, in which a neon green dot moved around the screen...
May 10, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489896/short-term-activity-cycles-impede-information-transmission-in-ant-colonies
#12
Thomas O Richardson, Jonas I Liechti, Nathalie Stroeymeyt, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Laurent Keller
Rhythmical activity patterns are ubiquitous in nature. We study an oscillatory biological system: collective activity cycles in ant colonies. Ant colonies have become model systems for research on biological networks because the interactions between the component parts are visible to the naked eye, and because the time-ordered contact network formed by these interactions serves as the substrate for the distribution of information and other resources throughout the colony. To understand how the collective activity cycles influence the contact network transport properties, we used an automated tracking system to record the movement of all the individuals within nine different ant colonies...
May 10, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471729/distinct-hippocampal-versus-frontoparietal-network-contributions-to-retrieval-and-memory-guided-exploration
#13
Donna J Bridge, Neal J Cohen, Joel L Voss
Memory can profoundly influence new learning, presumably because memory optimizes exploration of to-be-learned material. Although hippocampus and frontoparietal networks have been implicated in memory-guided exploration, their specific and interactive roles have not been identified. We examined eye movements during fMRI scanning to identify neural correlates of the influences of memory retrieval on exploration and learning. After retrieval of one object in a multiobject array, viewing was strategically directed away from the retrieved object toward nonretrieved objects, such that exploration was directed toward to-be-learned content...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460376/encoding-of-rapid-time-varying-information-is-impaired-in-poor-readers
#14
Richard Johnston, Nicola J Pitchford, Neil W Roach, Timothy Ledgeway
A characteristic set of eye movements and fixations are made during reading, so the position of words on the retinae is constantly being updated. Effective decoding of print requires this temporal stream of visual information to be segmented or parsed into its constituent units (e.g., letters or words). Poor readers' difficulties with word recognition could arise at the point of segmenting time-varying visual information, but the mechanisms underlying this process are little understood. Here, we used random-dot displays to explore the effects of reading ability on temporal segmentation...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455768/sleep-disturbance-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-of-objective-measures
#15
REVIEW
Mingyue Hu, Ping Zhang, Chen Li, Yongfei Tan, Guichen Li, Duo Xu, Li Chen
Sleep disturbance frequently occurs in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and appears to be involved in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cognitive decline. The aim of this systematic review is to clarify whether patients with MCI demonstrate alterations in certain sleep parameters: total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), sleep latency (SL), rapid eye movement latency (REML), percent of rapid eye movement (REM%), arousal index (AI), wake after sleep onset (WASO), slow-wave sleep (SWS), periodic leg movement in sleep (PLMS), and cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) through polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy...
April 28, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453952/where-is-the-locus-of-the-lowercase-advantage-during-sentence-reading
#16
Manuel Perea, Eva Rosa, Ana Marcet
While most models of visual word identification and reading posit that a word's visual codes are rapidly transformed onto case-invariant representations (i.e., table and TABLE would equally activate the word unit corresponding to "table"), a number of experiments have shown a lowercase advantage in various word identification and reading tasks. In the present experiment, we examined the locus of this lowercase advantage by comparing the pattern of eye movements when reading sentences in lowercase vs. uppercase...
April 25, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450841/gaze-behavior-consistency-among-older-and-younger-adults-when-looking-at-emotional-faces
#17
Laurence Chaby, Isabelle Hupont, Marie Avril, Viviane Luherne-du Boullay, Mohamed Chetouani
The identification of non-verbal emotional signals, and especially of facial expressions, is essential for successful social communication among humans. Previous research has reported an age-related decline in facial emotion identification, and argued for socio-emotional or aging-brain model explanations. However, more perceptual differences in the gaze strategies that accompany facial emotional processing with advancing age have been under-explored yet. In this study, 22 young (22.2 years) and 22 older (70...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449905/sleep-wake-patterns-non-rapid-eye-movement-and-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-cycles-in-teenage-narcolepsy
#18
Xing Xu, Huijuan Wu, Jianhua Zhuang, Kun Chen, Bei Huang, Zhengqing Zhao, Zhongxin Zhao
BACKGROUND: To further characterize sleep disorders associated with narcolepsy, we assessed the sleep-wake patterns, rapid eye movement (REM), and non-REM (NREM) sleep cycles in Chinese teenagers with narcolepsy. METHODS: A total of 14 Chinese type 1 narcoleptic patients (13.4 ± 2.6 years of age) and 14 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects (13.6 ± 1.8 years of age) were recruited. Ambulatory 24-h polysomnography was recorded for two days, with test subjects adapting to the instruments on day one and the study data collection performed on day two...
May 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446896/fixation-patterns-of-chinese-participants-while-identifying-facial-expressions-on-chinese-faces
#19
Mu Xia, Xueliu Li, Haiqing Zhong, Hong Li
Two experiments in this study were designed to explore a model of Chinese fixation with four types of native facial expressions-happy, peaceful, sad, and angry. In both experiments, participants performed an emotion recognition task while their behaviors and eye movements were recorded. Experiment 1 (24 participants, 12 men) demonstrated that both eye fixations and durations were lower for the upper part of the face than for the lower part of the face for all four types of facial expression. Experiment 2 (20 participants, 6 men) repeated this finding and excluded the disturbance of fixation point...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444788/night-sleep-in-patients-with-vegetative-state
#20
Yuri G Pavlov, Steffen Gais, Friedemann Müller, Monika Schönauer, Barbara Schäpers, Jan Born, Boris Kotchoubey
Polysomnographic recording of night sleep was carried out in 15 patients with the diagnosis vegetative state (syn. unresponsive wakefulness syndrome). Sleep scoring was performed by three raters, and confirmed by means of a spectral power analysis of the electroencephalogram, electrooculogram and electromyogram. All patients but one exhibited at least some signs of sleep. In particular, sleep stage N1 was found in 13 patients, N2 in 14 patients, N3 in nine patients, and rapid eye movement sleep in 10 patients...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
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