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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636664/looking-at-paintings-in-the-vincent-van-gogh-museum-eye-movement-patterns-of-children-and-adults
#1
Francesco Walker, Berno Bucker, Nicola C Anderson, Daniel Schreij, Jan Theeuwes
In the present study, we examined the eye movement behaviour of children and adults looking at five Van Gogh paintings in the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. The goal of the study was to determine the role of top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the first stages of participants' aesthetic experience. Bottom-up processes were quantified by determining a salience map for each painting. Top-down processing was manipulated by first allowing participants to view the paintings freely, then providing background information about each painting, and then allowing them to view the paintings a second time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623400/a-novel-eyelid-motion-monitor
#2
Adi Hanuka, Maor Itzhak, Alon Berger, Mony Orbach, Eli Shoshan, Levi Schächter, Daniel Briscoe
BACKGROUND: Eyelid motion analysis can provide important information about ophthalmic, neurologic, and systemic diseases. Routine assessment of eyelid function is currently based mainly on clinical examination estimating Levator Function and static palpebral fissure measurements. Most clinical tools developed to date are cumbersome expensive and difficult to operate. Currently there is no widely available, affordable device providing user friendly precision based evaluation of eyelid kinematics...
June 16, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614367/pre-saccadic-perception-separate-time-courses-for-enhancement-and-spatial-pooling-at-the-saccade-target
#3
Antimo Buonocore, Alessio Fracasso, David Melcher
We interact with complex scenes using eye movements to select targets of interest. Studies have shown that the future target of a saccadic eye movement is processed differently by the visual system. A number of effects have been reported, including a benefit for perceptual performance at the target ("enhancement"), reduced influences of backward masking ("un-masking"), reduced crowding ("un-crowding") and spatial compression towards the saccade target. We investigated the time course of these effects by measuring orientation discrimination for targets that were spatially crowded or temporally masked...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611585/role-of-n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-aa-5-ht-in-sleep-wake-cycle-architecture-sleep-homeostasis-and-neurotransmitters-regulation
#4
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Sergio Machado, Nuno B Rocha, André B Veras, Geraldo A M Neto, Henning Budde, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval
The endocannabinoid system comprises several molecular entities such as endogenous ligands [anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes such as [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAHH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)], as well as the anandamide membrane transporter. Although the role of this complex neurobiological system in the sleep-wake cycle modulation has been studied, the contribution of the blocker of FAAH/transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) in sleep has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605546/plasticity-related-gene-expression-during-eszopiclone-induced-sleep
#5
Dmitry Gerashchenko, Ravi K Pasumarthi, Thomas S Kilduff
Study Objectives: Experimental evidence suggests that restorative processes depend on synaptic plasticity changes in the brain during sleep. We used the expression of plasticity-related genes to assess synaptic plasticity changes during drug-induced sleep. Methods: We first characterized sleep induced by eszopiclone in mice during baseline conditions and during the recovery from sleep deprivation. We then compared the expression of 18 genes and 2 miRNAs critically involved in synaptic plasticity in these mice...
June 12, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605513/a-quadrantic-bias-in-prefrontal-representation-of-visual-mnemonic-space
#6
Matthew L Leavitt, Florian Pieper, Adam J Sachs, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Single neurons in primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC) are known to encode working memory (WM) representations of visual space. Psychophysical studies have shown that the horizontal and vertical meridians of the visual field can bias spatial information maintained in WM. However, most studies and models have tacitly assumed that dLPFC neurons represent mnemonic space homogenously. The anatomical organization of these representations has also eluded clear parametric description. We investigated these issues by recording from neuronal ensembles in macaque dLPFC with microelectrode arrays while subjects performed an oculomotor delayed-response task...
June 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604053/are-fixations-in-static-natural-scenes-a-useful-predictor-of-attention-in-the-real-world
#7
Tom Foulsham, Alan Kingstone
Research investigating scene perception normally involves laboratory experiments using static images. Much has been learned about how observers look at pictures of the real world and the attentional mechanisms underlying this behaviour. However, the use of static, isolated pictures as a proxy for studying everyday attention in real environments has led to the criticism that such experiments are artificial. We report a new study that tests the extent to which the real world can be reduced to simpler laboratory stimuli...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597701/upper-limb-and-eye-movement-coordination-during-reaching-tasks-in-people-with-stroke
#8
Katie L Meadmore, Timothy A Exell, Jane H Burridge, Ann-Marie Hughes, Christopher T Freeman, Valerie Benson
PURPOSE: To enhance understanding of the relationship between upper limb and eye movements during reaching tasks in people with stroke. METHODS: Eye movements were recorded from 10 control participants and 8 chronic stroke participants during a visual orienting task (Experiment 1) and a series of reaching tasks (Experiment 2). Stroke participants completed the reaching tasks using (i) their less impaired upper limb, (ii) their more impaired upper limb without support, and (iii) their more impaired upper limb, with support (SaeboMAS gravitational support and/or electrical stimulation)...
June 9, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596743/general-and-food-specific-inhibitory-control-as-moderators-of-the-effects-of-the-impulsive-systems-on-food-choices
#9
Xuemeng Zhang, Shuaiyu Chen, Hong Chen, Yan Gu, Wenjian Xu
The present study aimed to extend the application of the reflective-impulsive model to restrained eating and explore the effect of automatic attention (impulsive system) on food choices. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effects of general inhibitory control (G-IC) and food-specific inhibitory control (F-IC) on successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs). Automatic attention was measured using "the EyeLink 1000," which tracked eye movements during the process of making food choices, and G-IC and F-IC were measured using the Stop-Signal Task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595130/cyclotorsion-measurement-using-scleral-blood-vessels
#10
Aydın Kaya, Ali Seydi Keçeli, Ahmet Burak Can, Hasan Basri Çakmak
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Measurements of the cyclotorsional movement of the eye are crucial in refractive surgery procedures. The planned surgery pattern may vary substantially during an operation because of the position and eye movements of the patient. Since these factors affect the outcome of an operation, eye registration methods are applied in order to compensate for errors. While the majority of applications are based on features of the iris, we propose a registration method which uses scleral blood vessels...
June 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593605/online-webcam-based-eye-tracking-in-cognitive-science-a-first-look
#11
Kilian Semmelmann, Sarah Weigelt
Online experimentation is emerging in many areas of cognitive psychology as a viable alternative or supplement to classical in-lab experimentation. While performance- and reaction-time-based paradigms are covered in recent studies, one instrument of cognitive psychology has not received much attention up to now: eye tracking. In this study, we used JavaScript-based eye tracking algorithms recently made available by Papoutsaki et al. (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2016) together with consumer-grade webcams to investigate the potential of online eye tracking to benefit from the common advantages of online data conduction...
June 7, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588526/reading-words-or-pictures-eye-movement-patterns-in-adults-and-children-differ-by-age-group-and-receptive-language-ability
#12
Licong An, Yifang Wang, Yadong Sun
This study was conducted to explore the differences in the degree of attention given to Chinese print and pictures by children and adults when they read picture books with and without Chinese words. We used an eye tracker from SensoMotoric Instruments to record the visual fixations of the subjects. The results showed that the adults paid more attention to Chinese print and looked at the print sooner than the children did. The stronger the children's receptive language abilities were, the less time it took them to view the pictures...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584667/melatonin-secretion-pattern-in-critically-ill-patients-a-pilot-descriptive-study
#13
Yuliya Boyko, René Holst, Poul Jennum, Helle Oerding, Miki Nikolic, Palle Toft
Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin secretion and sleep patterns differed in these patients with and without remifentanil infusion. Eight patients were included. Blood-melatonin was taken every 4th hour, and polysomnography was carried out continually during a 48-hour period...
2017: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#14
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575720/local-aspects-of-sleep-and-wakefulness
#15
REVIEW
Francesca Siclari, Giulio Tononi
Slow waves, the hallmark of NREM (Non Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, are not uniformly distributed across the cortical surface, but can occur locally and asynchronously across brain regions. Their regional distribution and amplitude is affected by brain maturation and by time spent awake, mediated in part by experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength. Recent studies have shown that local low-frequency oscillations (<10Hz) can also occur in REM sleep and during wakefulness, leading to region-specific cognitive errors...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570621/effect-of-glaucoma-on-eye-movement-patterns-and-laboratory-based-hazard-detection-ability
#16
Samantha Sze-Yee Lee, Alex A Black, Joanne M Wood
PURPOSE: The mechanisms underlying the elevated crash rates of older drivers with glaucoma are poorly understood. A key driving skill is timely detection of hazards; however, the hazard detection ability of drivers with glaucoma has been largely unexplored. This study assessed the eye movement patterns and visual predictors of performance on a laboratory-based hazard detection task in older drivers with glaucoma. METHODS: Participants included 30 older drivers with glaucoma (71±7 years; average better-eye mean deviation (MD) = -3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567024/dissociating-attention-and-eye-movements-in-a-quantitative-analysis-of-attention-allocation
#17
Gene M Heyman, Jaime Montemayor, Katherine A Grisanzio
In a recent paper, we introduced a method and equation for inferring the allocation of attention on a continuous scale. The size of the stimuli, the estimated size of the fovea, and the pattern of results implied that the subjects' responses reflected shifts in covert attention rather than shifts in eye movements. This report describes an experiment that tests this implication. We measured eye movements. The monitor briefly displayed (e.g., 130 ms) two small stimuli (≈1.0° × 1.2°), situated one atop another...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564687/scan-patterns-during-real-world-scene-viewing-predict-individual-differences-in-cognitive-capacity
#18
Taylor R Hayes, John M Henderson
From the earliest recordings of eye movements during active scene viewing to the present day, researchers have commonly reported individual differences in eye movement scan patterns under constant stimulus and task demands. These findings suggest viewer individual differences may be important for understanding gaze control during scene viewing. However, the relationship between scan patterns and viewer individual differences during scene viewing remains poorly understood because scan patterns are difficult to analyze...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560797/the-effects-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-deprivation-during-late-pregnancy-on-newborns-sleep
#19
B S Aswathy, Velayudhan M Kumar, Kamalesh K Gulia
Sleep deprivation during pregnancy is an emerging concern, as it can adversely affect the development of the offspring brain. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of deprivation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep during the third term of pregnancy on the sleep-wake profiles of neonates in the Wistar rat model. Sleep-wake patterns were assessed through electrophysiological measures and behavioural observations during postnatal days 1-21 on pups born to REM sleep-deprived dams and control rats. Pups of REM sleep-deprived dams had active sleep that was not only markedly higher in percentage during all the days studied, but also had reduced latency during later postnatal days 15-21...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558612/recognition-of-facial-expressions-by-urban-internet-addicted-left-behind-children-in-china
#20
Ying Ge, Xiaofang Zhong, Wenbo Luo
Internet addition affects facial expression recognition of individuals. However, evidences of facial expression recognition from different types of addicts are insufficient. The present study addressed the question by adopting eye-movement analytical method and focusing on the difference in facial expression recognition between internet-addicted and non-internet-addicted urban left-behind children in China. Sixty 14-year-old Chinese participants performed tasks requiring absolute recognition judgment and relative recognition judgment...
June 2017: Psychological Reports
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