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Cristiane S Alves, Renato Vicentini, Gustavo T Duarte, Vitor F Pinoti, Michel Vincentz, Fabio T S Nogueira
The manuscript by Alves et al. entitled "Genome-wide identification and characterization of tRNA-derived RNA fragments in land plants" describes the identification and characterization of tRNAderived sRNA fragments in plants. By combining bioinformatic analysis and genetic and molecular approaches, we show that tRF biogenesis does not rely on canonical microRNA/siRNA processing machinery (i.e., independent of DICER-LIKE proteins). Moreover, we provide evidences that the Arabidopsis S-like Ribonuclease 1 (RNS1) might be involved in the biogenesis of tRFs...
September 28, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Kamilla Bąkowska-Żywicka, Marta Kasprzyk, Tomasz Twardowski
Recently, a number of ribosome-associated non-coding RNAs (rancRNAs) have been discovered in all three domains of life. In our previous studies, we have described several types of rancRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, derived from many cellular RNAs, including mRNAs, rRNAs, tRNAs and snoRNAs. Here, we present the evidence that the tRNA fragments from simple eukaryotic organism S. cerevisiae directly bind to the ribosomes. Interestingly, rancRNA-tRFs in yeast are derived from both, 5'- and 3'-part of the tRNAs and both types of tRFs associate with the ribosomes in vitro The location of tRFs within the ribosomes is distinct from classical A- and P-tRNA binding sites...
September 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Kevin A Goncalves, Lev Silberstein, Shuping Li, Nicolas Severe, Miaofen G Hu, Hailing Yang, David T Scadden, Guo-Fu Hu
Regulation of stem and progenitor cell populations is critical in the development, maintenance, and regeneration of tissues. Here, we define a novel mechanism by which a niche-secreted RNase, angiogenin (ANG), distinctively alters the functional characteristics of primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) compared with lineage-committed myeloid-restricted progenitor (MyePro) cells. Specifically, ANG reduces the proliferative capacity of HSPC while simultaneously increasing proliferation of MyePro cells...
August 11, 2016: Cell
Dario Veneziano, Sebastiano Di Bella, Giovanni Nigita, Alessandro Laganà, Afredo Ferro, Carlo M Croce
One of the most significant biological discoveries of the last decade is represented by the reality that the vast majority of the transcribed genomic output comprises diverse classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that may play key roles and/or be affected by many biochemical cellular processes (i.e., RNA editing), with implications in human health and disease. With 90% of the human genome being transcribed and novel classes of ncRNA emerging (tRNA-derived small RNAs and circular RNAs among others), the great majority of the human transcriptome suggests that many important ncRNA functions/processes are yet to be discovered...
August 12, 2016: Human Mutation
Andrew Schuster, Michael K Skinner, Wei Yan
Exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin during gestation promotes a higher incidence of various diseases in the subsequent unexposed F3 and F4 generations. This phenomenon is termed epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and has been shown to in part involve alterations in DNA methylation, but the role of other epigenetic mechanisms remains unknown. The current study investigated the alterations in small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) in the sperm from F3 generation control and vinclozolin lineage rats...
2016: Environmental Epigenetics
Menghong Yan, Qiwei Zhai
Many findings support the hypothesis that metabolic changes associated with environmental factors can be transmitted from father to offspring. The molecular mechanisms underlying the intergenerational transmission of metabolic changes remain to be fully explored. These acquired metabolic disorders in offspring may be partially explained by some potential epigenetic information carriers such as DNA methylation, histone modification and small non-coding RNAs. Recent evidence shows that sperm tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) as a type of paternal epigenetic information carrier may mediate intergenerational inheritance...
September 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Srinivasan Asha, Eppurath V Soniya
Small RNAs derived from transfer RNAs were recently assigned as potential gene regulatory candidates for various stress responses in eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the cloning and identification of tRNA derived small RNAs from black pepper plants in response to the infection of the quick wilt pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. 5'tRFs cloned from black pepper were validated as highly expressed during P. capsici infection. A high-throughput systematic analysis of the small RNAome (sRNAome) revealed the predominance of 5'tRFs in the infected leaf and root...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ken Ikeuchi, Toshifumi Inada
Dom34-Hbs1 stimulates degradation of aberrant mRNAs lacking termination codons by dissociating ribosomes stalled at the 3' ends, and plays crucial roles in Nonstop Decay (NSD) and No-Go Decay (NGD). In the dom34Δ mutant, nonstop mRNA is degraded by sequential endonucleolytic cleavages induced by a stalled ribosome at the 3' end. Here, we report that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for the endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosome at the 3' end of mRNA in dom34Δ mutant cells. Asc1/RACK1 facilitates degradation of truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in the absence of Dom34 and exosome-dependent decay...
2016: Scientific Reports
Shozo Honda, Yohei Kirino
Sex hormones and their receptors play critical roles in the genesis and progression of breast and prostate cancers. We recently discovered that sex hormone signaling pathways promote the expression of specific tRNA halves termed Sex HOrmone-dependent TRNA-derived RNAs (SHOT-RNAs). Functional involvement of SHOT-RNAs in cell proliferation suggests a novel tRNA-engaged pathway in tumorigenesis.
March 2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Jin Liu, Luyao Shao, Phong Trang, Zhu Yang, Michael Reeves, Xu Sun, Gia-Phong Vu, Yu Wang, Hongjian Li, Congyi Zheng, Sangwei Lu, Fenyong Liu
An external guide sequence (EGS) is a RNA sequence which can interact with a target mRNA to form a tertiary structure like a pre-tRNA and recruit intracellular ribonuclease P (RNase P), a tRNA processing enzyme, to degrade target mRNA. Previously, an in vitro selection procedure has been used by us to engineer new EGSs that are more robust in inducing human RNase P to cleave their targeted mRNAs. In this study, we constructed EGSs from a variant to target the mRNA encoding herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) major transcription regulator ICP4, which is essential for the expression of viral early and late genes and viral growth...
2016: Scientific Reports
Wenna Zhang, Christoph J Thieme, Gregor Kollwig, Federico Apelt, Lei Yang, Nikola Winter, Nadine Andresen, Dirk Walther, Friedrich Kragler
In plants, protein-coding mRNAs can move via the phloem vasculature to distant tissues, where they may act as non-cell-autonomous signals. Emerging work has identified many phloem-mobile mRNAs, but little is known regarding RNA motifs triggering mobility, the extent of mRNA transport, and the potential of transported mRNAs to be translated into functional proteins after transport. To address these aspects, we produced reporter transcripts harboring tRNA-like structures (TLSs) that were found to be enriched in the phloem stream and in mRNAs moving over chimeric graft junctions...
June 2016: Plant Cell
Ling-Ling Zheng, Wei-Lin Xu, Shun Liu, Wen-Ju Sun, Jun-Hao Li, Jie Wu, Jian-Hua Yang, Liang-Hu Qu
tRNA-derived small RNA fragments (tRFs) are one class of small non-coding RNAs derived from transfer RNAs (tRNAs). tRFs play important roles in cellular processes and are involved in multiple cancers. High-throughput small RNA (sRNA) sequencing experiments can detect all the cellular expressed sRNAs, including tRFs. However, distinguishing genuine tRFs from RNA fragments generated by random degradation remains a major challenge. In this study, we developed an integrated web-based computing system, tRF2Cancer, to accurately identify tRFs from sRNA deep-sequencing data and evaluate their expression in multiple cancers...
July 8, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Shawn M Lyons, Chris Achorn, Nancy L Kedersha, Paul J Anderson, Pavel Ivanov
Stress-induced angiogenin (ANG)-mediated tRNA cleavage promotes a cascade of cellular events that starts with production of tRNA-derived stress-induced RNAs (tiRNAs) and culminates with enhanced cell survival. This stress response program relies on a subset tiRNAs that inhibit translation initiation and induce the assembly of stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes with cytoprotective and pro-survival properties. SG-promoting tiRNAs bear oligoguanine motifs at their 5'-ends, assemble G-quadruplex-like structures and interact with the translational silencer YB-1...
August 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Darrell Green, William D Fraser, Tamas Dalmay
The cellular lifetime includes stages such as differentiation, proliferation, division, senescence and apoptosis. These stages are driven by a strictly ordered process of transcription dynamics. Molecular disruption to RNA polymerase assembly, chromatin remodelling and transcription factor binding through to RNA editing, splicing, post-transcriptional regulation and ribosome scanning can result in significant costs arising from genome instability. Cancer development is one example of when such disruption takes place...
June 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Yuri Pekarsky, Veronica Balatti, Alexey Palamarchuk, Lara Rizzotto, Dario Veneziano, Giovanni Nigita, Laura Z Rassenti, Harvey I Pass, Thomas J Kipps, Chang-Gong Liu, Carlo M Croce
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common human leukemia, and transgenic mouse studies indicate that activation of the T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (TCL1) oncogene is a contributing event in the pathogenesis of the aggressive form of this disease. While studying the regulation of TCL1 expression, we identified the microRNA cluster miR-4521/3676 and discovered that these two microRNAs are associated with tRNA sequences and that this region can produce two small RNAs, members of a recently identified class of small noncoding RNAs, tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs)...
May 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michael Olvedy, Mauro Scaravilli, Youri Hoogstrate, Tapio Visakorpi, Guido Jenster, Elena S Martens-Uzunova
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in developed countries. Although its genetic background is thoroughly investigated, rather little is known about the role of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA) in this disease. tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) represent a new class of sncRNAs, which are present in a broad range of species and have been reported to play a role in several cellular processes. Here, we analyzed the expression of tRFs in fresh frozen patient samples derived from normal adjacent prostate and different stages of PCa by RNA-sequencing...
April 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Yu Fu, Inhan Lee, Yong Sun Lee, Xiaoyong Bao
tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are an emerging class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). A growing number of reports have shown that tRFs are not random degradation products but are functional ncRNAs made of specific tRNA cleavage. They play regulatory roles in several biological contexts such as cancer, innate immunity, stress responses, and neurological disorders. In this review, we summarize the biogenesis and functions of tRFs.
December 2015: Genomics & Informatics
Qing Li, Bin Hu, Guo-Wen Hu, Chun-Yuan Chen, Xin Niu, Juan Liu, Shu-Min Zhou, Chang-Qing Zhang, Yang Wang, Zhi-Feng Deng
Ischemic injuries will lead to necrotic tissue damage, and post-ischemia angiogenesis plays critical roles in blood flow restoration and tissue recovery. Recently, several types of small RNAs have been reported to be involved in this process. In this study, we first generated a rat brain ischemic model to investigate the involvement of new types of small RNAs in ischemia. We utilized deep sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to demonstrate that the level of small RNA fragments derived from tRNAs strikingly increased in the ischemic rat brain...
2016: Scientific Reports
Brian J Reon, Anindya Dutta
Advances in DNA and RNA sequencing technologies have completely transformed the field of genomics. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) is now a widely used and accessible technology that allows scientists to sequence an entire transcriptome or genome in a timely and cost-effective manner. Application of HTS techniques has led to many key discoveries, including the identification of long noncoding RNAs, microDNAs, a family of small extrachromosomal circular DNA species, and tRNA-derived fragments, which are a group of small non-miRNAs that are derived from tRNAs...
April 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Qi Chen, Menghong Yan, Zhonghong Cao, Xin Li, Yunfang Zhang, Junchao Shi, Gui-hai Feng, Hongying Peng, Xudong Zhang, Ying Zhang, Jingjing Qian, Enkui Duan, Qiwei Zhai, Qi Zhou
Increasing evidence indicates that metabolic disorders in offspring can result from the father's diet, but the mechanism remains unclear. In a paternal mouse model given a high-fat diet (HFD), we showed that a subset of sperm transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs), mainly from 5' transfer RNA halves and ranging in size from 30 to 34 nucleotides, exhibited changes in expression profiles and RNA modifications. Injection of sperm tsRNA fractions from HFD males into normal zygotes generated metabolic disorders in the F1 offspring and altered gene expression of metabolic pathways in early embryos and islets of F1 offspring, which was unrelated to DNA methylation at CpG-enriched regions...
January 22, 2016: Science
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