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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045697/impact-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-on-treatment-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-children-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
George K Siberry, Anouk Amzel, Artur Ramos, Emilia D Rivadeneira
Children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience higher rates of virologic failure than adults. Human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) plays a major role in pediatric HIV treatment failure because nonsuppressive maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and breastfeeding as well as infant antiretroviral prophylaxis lead to high rates of pretreatment drug resistance to regimens most commonly used in children living with HIV...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044435/impact-of-clinical-parameters-in-the-intrahost-evolution-of-hiv-1-subtype-b-in-pediatric-patients-a-machine-learning-approach
#2
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Alberto Cobos, Marisa Navaro, José Tomas Ramos, Israel Pagán, África Holguín
Determining the factors modulating the genetic diversity of HIV-1 populations is essential to understand viral evolution. This study analyzes the relative importance of clinical factors in the intrahost HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) evolution and in the fixation of drug resistance mutations (DRM) during longitudinal pediatric HIV-1 infection. We recovered 162 partial HIV-1B pol sequences (from 3 to 24 per patient) from 24 perinatally infected patients from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1 infected children and adolescents in a time interval ranging from 2...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027480/a-learning-collaborative-approach-to-improve-primary-care-sti-screening
#3
M Diane McKee, Elizabeth Alderman, Deborah V York, Arthur E Blank, Rahil D Briggs, Kelsey E S Hoidal, Christopher Kus, Claudia Lechuga, Marie Mann, Paul Meissner, Nisha Patel, Andrew D Racine
The Bronx Ongoing Pediatric Screening (BOPS) project sought to improve screening for sexual activity and sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea and chlamydia [GCC] and HIV) in a primary care network, employing a modified learning collaborative, real-time clinical data feedback to practices, improvement coaching, and a pay-for-quality monetary incentive. Outcomes are compared for 11 BOPS-participating sites and 10 non-participating sites. The quarterly median rate for documenting sexual activity status increased from 55% to 88% (BOPS sites) and from 13% to 74% (non-BOPS sites)...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023357/pharmacokinetics-safety-and-efficacy-of-maraviroc-in-treatment-experienced-pediatric-patients-infected-with-ccr5-tropic-hiv-1
#4
Carlo Giaquinto, Muthuhadini Patience Mawela, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Marinella Della Negra, Ismail Haroon Mitha, Jan Fourie, Annie Fang, Elna van der Ryst, Srinivas Rao Valluri, Manoli Vourvahis, Rebecca Yanhui Zhang-Roper, Charles Craig, Lynn McFadyen, Andrew Clark, Jayvant Heera
BACKGROUND: Maraviroc is a CCR5 antagonist approved to treat adults infected with CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1. Study A4001031 was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of maraviroc in combination with optimized background therapy (OBT) in treatment-experienced pediatric patients infected with R5 HIV-1 and support registration of maraviroc for pediatric use. METHODS: This is an open-label, 2-stage, age-stratified, non-comparative multicenter study...
October 7, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023355/utility-of-mobile-communication-devices-as-a-tool-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-infected-children-and-young-adults-in-argentina
#5
Erica Stankievich, Adriana Malanca, Irene Foradori, Silvina Ivalo, Marcelo Losso
BACKGROUND: Optimal adherence is critical to achieve the benefits of antiretroviral treatment (ART). The aim of the study is to evaluate the use of mobile devices as a strategy to improve adherence to ART, measured by Viral Load (VL) in HIV+ patients less than 25 years of age. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a cohort of HIV+ patients less than 25 years of age. HIV+ patients, on ART, VL >1000 copies/mL, using mobile devices and suboptimal adherence (SOA) were included...
October 7, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021661/successful-renal-transplant-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#6
Anshuman Sood, David Hakim, Abhishek Bose
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a pathological state of the kidneys due to longstanding, uncontrolled HIV infection. With the rapid progression of HIVAN to end-stage kidney failure, there is a significant potential for renal transplantation to improve the quality of life in these patients. Numerous studies have been recently published documenting renal transplantation as a primary treatment for HIVAN. With the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, allograft and patient survival rates of HIV-infected persons are nearly identical to those who are HIV negative...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021402/hiv-exposed-infants-vaccinated-with-a-mf59-rgp120-vaccine-have-higher-magnitude-anti-v1v2-igg-responses-than-adults-immunized-with-the-same-vaccine
#7
Erin P McGuire, Youyi Fong, Christopher Toote, Coleen K Cunningham, Elizabeth J McFarland, William Borkowsky, Susan Barnett, Hannah L Itell, Amit Kumar, Glenda Gray, M Julianna McElrath, Georgia D Tomaras, Sallie R Permar, Genevieve G Fouda
In the RV144 vaccine trial, IgG responses against the HIV envelope variable loops 1 and 2 (V1V2) were associated with decreased HIV acquisition risk. We previously reported that infants immunized with a MF59 adjuvanted rgp120 vaccine developed higher magnitude anti-V1V2 IgG responses than adult RV144 vaccinees. To determine if the robust antibody response in infants is due to differences in vaccine regimens or to inherent differences between the adult and infant immune systems, we compared Env-specific IgG responses in adults and infants immunized with the same MF59 and Alum adjuvanted HIV envelope vaccines...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020335/hiv-drug-resistance-in-african-infants-and-young-children-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-a-multicounty-analysis
#8
Michael R Jordan, Martina Penazzato, Amandine Cournil, Adolfo Vubil, Ilesh Jani, Gillian Hunt, Sergio Carmona, Gugu Maphalala, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Christine Watera, Pontiano Kaleebu, Christine Chakanyuka Musanhu, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Janet Dzangare, Martine Peeters, Chunfu Yang, Neil Parkin, Silvia Bertagnolio
Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs have been scaled-up in many low- and middle-income countries; however, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) data amongst HIV-1-infected young children remain limited. Methods: Surveys of pre-treatment HIVDR amongst children younger than 18 months of age who were diagnosed with HIV through Early Infant Diagnosis were conducted in five sub-Saharan African countries (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe) between 2011 and 2014 following World Health Organization guidance...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991889/trends-in-drug-resistance-prevalence-hiv-1-variants-and-clinical-status-in-hiv-1-infected-pediatric-population-in-madrid-1993-2015-analysis
#9
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Sara Domínguez, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, Luis Prieto, Pablo Rojo, Pepa Mellado, Marisa Navarro, Rafael Delgado, José Tomas Ramos, África Holguín
BACKGROUND: The expanded use of long-term antiretroviral treatments in infected children may exacerbate the problem of drug resistance mutations (HIVDR) selection, which can compromise treatment efficiency. OBJECTIVE: We describe the temporal trends of HIVDR and the HIV-1 variants during 23 years (1993-March 2016) in the Madrid cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected patients with at least one available HIV-1 pol sequence/genotypic resistance profile, establishing different groups according to the sampling year of first resistance data...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991881/scaling-up-pediatric-hiv-testing-by-incorporating-provider-initiated-hiv-testing-into-all-child-health-services-in-hurungwe-district-zimbabwe
#10
Reuben Musarandega, Blessing Mutede, Agnes Mahomva, Wenceslas Nyamayaro, Angela Mushavi, Christina Lindan, Rhoderick Machekano
BACKGROUND: Practical ways are needed to scale-up pediatric HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa, where testing is usually limited to HIV-exposed children in maternal and child health clinics. METHODS: We implemented an enhanced pediatric HIV testing program in 33 health facilities in Zimbabwe by integrating HIV testing into all pediatric health services. We collected individual data on children tested by having healthcare workers complete a program-specific child health booklet...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987830/intracranial-meningioma-in-patients-younger-than-35-years-of-age-an-evolution-of-the-disease-in-the-era-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-retrospective-observational-study
#11
Mogwale Samson Motebejane, Ian Kaminsky, In Sup Choi
BACKGROUND: Intracranial meningiomas are more common among patients in their 5(th)-7(th) decades of life and rare in children and early adulthood. They constitute between 1.5% of all neoplasms in patients younger than 20 years of age but account for 13.5% of all neoplasms in patients aged between 20-34 years. They are often associated with hereditary or familial syndromes in pediatrics and young adults and tend to be of high grade. OBJECTIVES: We describe the histopathological subtypes of intracranial meningioma between HIV seropositive and the general patients population with intracranial meningiomas, younger than 35 years of age...
October 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983013/role-of-hiv-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-pediatric-hiv-cure-strategies-after-widespread-early-viral-escape
#12
Ellen M Leitman, Christina F Thobakgale, Emily Adland, M Azim Ansari, Jayna Raghwani, Andrew J Prendergast, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Photini Kiepiela, Joris Hemelaar, Jacqui Brener, Ming-Han Tsai, Masahiko Mori, Lynn Riddell, Graz Luzzi, Pieter Jooste, Thumbi Ndung'u, Bruce D Walker, Oliver G Pybus, Paul Kellam, Vivek Naranbhai, Philippa C Matthews, Astrid Gall, Philip J R Goulder
Recent studies have suggested greater HIV cure potential among infected children than adults. A major obstacle to HIV eradication in adults is that the viral reservoir is largely comprised of HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape variants. We here evaluate the potential for CTL in HIV-infected slow-progressor children to play an effective role in "shock-and-kill" cure strategies. Two distinct subgroups of children were identified on the basis of viral load. Unexpectedly, in both groups, as in adults, HIV-specific CTL drove the selection of escape variants across a range of epitopes within the first weeks of infection...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981334/adolescent-and-adult-hiv-providers-definitions-of-hiv-infected-youths-successful-transition-to-adult-care-in-the-united-states
#13
Morgan M Philbin, Amanda E Tanner, Alice Ma, Brittany D Chambers, Samuella Ware, Elizabeth N Kinnard, Sophia A Hussen, Sonia Lee, J Dennis Fortenberry
It is important for both individual- and population-level health that HIV-infected individuals progress through the Care Continuum. However, HIV-infected youth frequently disengage from care during transition from pediatric/adolescent to adult care; only 50% remain in adult care after 1 year. Understanding how providers define and approach a successful healthcare transition can improve the delivery of HIV-related services during critical years of HIV treatment. We conducted 58 staff interviews across 14 Adolescent Trials Network clinics (n = 30) and 20 adult clinics (n = 28)...
October 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976995/knowledge-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-ccmv-among-physical-and-occupational-therapists-in-the-united-states
#14
Kathleen M Muldoon, Amy Armstrong-Heimsoth, Jodi Thomas
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections cause more children to have permanent disabilities than Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and pediatric HIV/AIDS combined. The risk of infection during pregnancy can be significantly decreased using universal precautions, such as thorough handwashing and cleansing of surfaces and objects that have come into contact with infected body fluids. Children under 3 years of age are commonly asymptomatic excretors of CMV, with the highest viral loads present in saliva...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975510/hiv-status-disclosure-among-postpartum-women-in-zambia-with-varied-intimate-partner-violence-experiences
#15
Karen M Hampanda, Christine Tagliaferri Rael
HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women's status disclosure to male sexual partners is associated with improved HIV and maternal and child health outcomes. Yet, status disclosure remains a challenge for many women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly those who are fearful of violence. The objective of the present study is to advance the current understanding of the relationship between intimate partner violence against women and their HIV status disclosure behaviors. We specifically evaluate how the severity, frequency, and type of violence against postpartum HIV-positive women affect status disclosure within married/cohabiting couples...
October 3, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968170/broadening-eligibility-criteria-to-make-clinical-trials-more-representative-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-and-friends-of-cancer-research-joint-research-statement
#16
Edward S Kim, Suanna S Bruinooge, Samantha Roberts, Gwynn Ison, Nancy U Lin, Lia Gore, Thomas S Uldrick, Stuart M Lichtman, Nancy Roach, Julia A Beaver, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Paul J Hesketh, Andrea M Denicoff, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Eric Rubin, Pratik Multani, Tatiana M Prowell, Caroline Schenkel, Marina Kozak, Jeff Allen, Ellen Sigal, Richard L Schilsky
Purpose The primary purposes of eligibility criteria are to protect the safety of trial participants and define the trial population. Excessive or overly restrictive eligibility criteria can slow trial accrual, jeopardize the generalizability of results, and limit understanding of the intervention's benefit-risk profile. Methods ASCO, Friends of Cancer Research, and the US Food and Drug Administration examined specific eligibility criteria (ie, brain metastases, minimum age, HIV infection, and organ dysfunction and prior and concurrent malignancies) to determine whether to modify definitions to extend trials to a broader population...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964291/hiv-status-and-hearing-loss-among-children-between-6-and-12-years-of-age-at-a-large-urban-health-facility-in-south-western-uganda
#17
Doreen Nakku, Victoria Nyaiteera, Evelyn Llowet, Dennis Nanseera, Gladys Nakalema, Brian Westerberg, Francis Bajunirwe
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric HIV infection and treatment may increase the risk for hearing loss (HL), both sensorineural (SNHL) and conductive hearing loss (CHL). There is limited data on this subject, especially from sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among HIV positive and negative children, to determine the types of hearing loss and whether Nevirapine (NVP) based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with HL. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study at two tertiary health facilities in south western Uganda...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956954/hiv-related-chronic-lung-disease-in-adolescents-are-we-prepared-for-the-future
#18
Pierre Goussard, Robert P Gie
Chronic lung diseases (CLD) are the most chronic disease occurring in adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). In ALHIV who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) late in childhood, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans and interstitial pneumonitis are common. In adolescents who received ART early in life the spectrum of CLD has changed with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being common. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review CLD in ALHIV. We conducted a literature review of electronic databases focusing on CLD that were common prior to the introduction of ART (1996-2004), the present situation where ART is widely available (2005 to 2016), and articles which aided us speculating on the impact of HIV-related CLD in adolescents transitioning to adult HIV-clinics...
September 28, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953612/new-diagnoses-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-the-spanish-pediatric-hiv-cohort-corispe-from-2004-to-2013
#19
Santiago Jiménez de Ory, María Isabel González-Tomé, Claudia Fortuny, Maria Jose Mellado, Pere Soler-Palacin, Matilde Bustillo, José Tomas Ramos, Maria Angeles Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Luisa Navarro
Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased in industrialized countries in recent decades, but there are no studies on the mechanisms of HIV transmission among infected children in Spain. Our aim was to study the characteristics and trends of diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children in Spain from 2004 to 2013.Vertically HIV-infected children were selected if they were diagnosed from 2004 to 2013, were aged 0 to 18 years old, and were included in the Cohort of the Spanish Pediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe)...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943171/challenges-and-perspectives-of-compliance-with-pediatric-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
D L Dahourou, V Leroy
More than 3 million children aged less than 15years are infected with HIV worldwide, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The survival of HIV-infected children depends on their access to antiretroviral therapy whose success mainly depends on a good life-long compliance with antiretroviral therapy. Given its complexity and specificity, assessment and monitoring of pediatric compliance with antiretroviral therapy is a major challenge. There is no consensus on a gold standard for monitoring compliance with antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
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