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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351566/patterns-in-reef-fish-assemblages-insights-from-the-chagos-archipelago
#1
Melita Samoilys, Ronan Roche, Heather Koldewey, John Turner
Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350687/intraocular-currents-bernoulli-s-principle-and-non-drainage-scleral-buckling-for-rhegmatogenous-retinal-detachment
#2
D Wong, Y K Chan, T Bek, I Wilson, E Stefánsson
For many years, it is not fully understood how non-drainage scleral buckling surgery brings about spontaneous reattachment of the detached retina when retinal breaks remain open at the end of surgery. Various explanations have been put forward, but none more interesting than the effect of fluid currents associated with eye movements. One such explanation involved the physics of the Bernoulli's principle. Daniel Bernoulli was an eighteenth century Swiss mathematician and he described an equation based on the conservation of energy...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350241/the-airway-occlusion-pressure-p0-1-to-monitor-respiratory-drive-during-mechanical-ventilation-increasing-awareness-of-a-not-so-new-problem
#3
Irene Telias, Felipe Damiani, Laurent Brochard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347307/dynamics-of-nonspherical-microbubble-oscillations-above-instability-threshold
#4
Matthieu Guédra, Sarah Cleve, Cyril Mauger, Philippe Blanc-Benon, Claude Inserra
Time-resolved dynamics of nonspherical oscillations of micrometer-sized bubbles are captured and analyzed using high-speed imaging. The axisymmetry of the bubble shape is ensured with certainty for the first time from the recordings of two synchronous high-speed cameras located at 90^{∘}. The temporal dynamics of finite-amplitude nonspherical oscillations are then analyzed for various acoustic pressures above the instability threshold. The experimental results are compared with recent theories accounting for nonlinearities and mode coupling, highlighting particular effects inherent to these mechanisms (saturation of the instability, triggering of nonparametric shape modes)...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347053/radiation-pressure-driven-ion-weibel-instability-and-collisionless-shocks
#5
A Grassi, M Grech, F Amiranoff, A Macchi, C Riconda
The Weibel instability from counterstreaming plasma flows is a basic process highly relevant for collisionless shock formation in astrophysics. In this paper we investigate, via two- and three-dimensional simulations, suitable configurations for laboratory investigations of the ion Weibel instability (IWI) driven by a fast quasineutral plasma flow launched into the target via the radiation pressure of an ultra-high-intensity laser pulse ("hole-boring" process). The use of S-polarized light at oblique incidence is found to be an optimal configuration for driving IWI, as it prevents the development of surface rippling observed at normal incidence that would lead to strong electron heating and would favor competing instabilities...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347011/luminescence-from-cavitation-bubbles-deformed-in-uniform-pressure-gradients
#6
Outi Supponen, Danail Obreschkow, Philippe Kobel, Mohamed Farhat
Presented here are observations that demonstrate how the deformation of millimetric cavitation bubbles by a uniform pressure gradient quenches single-collapse luminescence. Our innovative measurement system captures a broad luminescence spectrum (wavelength range, 300-900 nm) from the individual collapses of laser-induced bubbles in water. By varying the bubble size, driving pressure, and perceived gravity level aboard parabolic flights, we probed the limit from aspherical to highly spherical bubble collapses...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345035/pressure-and-pipes-from-neuroimaging-to-virtual-measurement
#7
Marialuisa Zedde, Rosario Pascarella
Leng et al. [1] described the practical application of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) in 85 patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis, to virtually measure arterial pressure (AP) across the stenotic segment, according to the theory that translesional pressure gradient (PG) drives arteriologenesis and leptomeningeal collaterals (LMC) development. This is a fundamental pathophysiological issue about the risk of recurrent stroke downstream an intracranial artery stenosis and both the degree of stenosis and the collateral circulation affect it; in WASID trial [2] patients with severe (> 70%) intracranial stenosis and efficient collaterals had a lower risk of recurrent stroke than patients with poor collaterals...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341365/how-and-why-helium-permeates-non-porous-arsenolite-under-high-pressure
#8
Piotr Aleksander Guńka, Michał Hapka, Michael Hanfland, Maciej Dranka, Grzegorz Chałasiński, Janusz Zachara
Investigations into the helium permeation of arsenolite, the cubic, molecular arsenic(III) oxide polymorph As₄O₆, were carried out in order to understand how and why arsenolite helium clathrate As₄O₆∙2He is formed. High-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on arsenolite single crystals revealed that the permeation of helium into non-porous arsenolite depends on the time during which the crystal is subjected to high pressure and on the crystal history. The single crystal was totally transformed into As₄O₆·2He within 45 h under 5 GPa...
January 17, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337799/ventilator-management-guided-by-driving-pressure-a-better-way-to-protect-the-lungs
#9
Neil MacIntyre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336499/ecologically-driven-ultrastructural-and-hydrodynamic-designs-in-stomatopod-cuticles
#10
Lessa Kay Grunenfelder, Garrett Milliron, Steven Herrera, Isaias Gallana, Nicholas Yaraghi, Nigel Hughes, Kenneth Evans-Lutterodt, Pablo Zavattieri, David Kisailus
Ecological pressures and varied feeding behaviors in a multitude of organisms have necessitated the drive for adaptation. One such change is seen in the feeding appendages of stomatopods, a group of highly predatory marine crustaceans. Stomatopods include "spearers," who ambush and snare soft bodied prey, and "smashers," who bludgeon hard-shelled prey with a heavily mineralized club. The regional substructural complexity of the stomatopod dactyl club from the smashing predator Odontodactylus scyllarus represents a model system in the study of impact tolerant biominerals...
January 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327943/phenotyping-pharyngeal-pathophysiology-using-polysomnography-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#11
Scott A Sands, Bradley A Edwards, Philip I Terrill, Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Ali Azarbarzin, Melania Marques, Lauren Hess, David P White, Andrew Wellman
RATIONALE: Therapies for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) could be administered based on a patient's own phenotypic causes ("traits") if a clinically-applicable approach were available. Here we present a novel approach to quantify two key contributors to OSA-pharyngeal collapsibility and compensatory muscle responsiveness-that is applicable to diagnostic polysomnography. METHODS: Based on physiological definitions, pharyngeal collapsibility determines the ventilation at normal (eupneic) ventilatory drive during sleep, and pharyngeal compensation determines the rise in ventilation accompanying a rising ventilatory drive...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326127/skill-sets-required-for-the-management-of-military-head-face-and-neck-trauma-a-multidisciplinary-consensus-statement
#12
John Breeze, R Blanch, J Baden, A M Monaghan, D Evriviades, S E Harrisson, S Roberts, A Gibson, N MacKenzie, D Baxter, A J Gibbons, S Heppell, J G Combes, R F Rickard
INTRODUCTION: The evolution of medical practice is resulting in increasing subspecialisation, with head, face and neck (HFN) trauma in a civilian environment usually managed by a combination of surgical specialties working as a team. However, the full combination of HFN specialties commonly available in the NHS may not be available in future UK military-led operations, necessitating the identification of a group of skill sets that could be delivered by one or more deployed surgeons. METHOD: A systematic review was undertaken to identify those surgical procedures performed to treat acute military head, face, neck and eye trauma...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324984/doca-salt-hypertension-activates-plgf-in-the-spleen-to-couple-sympathetic-drive-and-immune-system-activation
#13
Marialuisa Perrotta, Andrea Lori, Lorenzo Carnevale, Stefania Fardella, Giuseppe Cifelli, Roberta Iacobucci, Francesco Mastroiacovo, Daniele Iodice, Fabio Pallante, Marianna Storto, Giuseppe Lembo, Daniela Carnevale
Aims: Chronic increase of mineralocorticoids obtained by administration of Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) results in salt dependent hypertension in animals. Despite the lack of a generalized sympathoexcitation, DOCA-salt hypertension has been also associated to overdrive of peripheral nervous system in organs typically targeted by blood pressure (BP), as kidneys and vasculature. Aim of this study was to explore whether DOCA-salt recruits immune system by overactivating sympathetic nervous system in lymphoid organs and whether this is relevant for hypertension...
January 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323536/high-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-renders-spontaneous-effort-non-injurious
#14
Caio C A Morais, Yukiko Koyama, Takeshi Yoshida, Glauco M Plens, Susimeire Gomes, Cristhiano L A S Lima, Ozyres P Ramos, Sérgio M Pereira, Naomasa Kawaguchi, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Akinori Uchiyama, João B Borges, Marcos F Vidal Melo, Mauro R Tucci, Marcelo B P Amato, Brian P Kavanagh, Eduardo L V Costa, Yuji Fujino
RATIONALE: In ARDS, atelectatic 'solid-like' lung tissue impairs transmission of negative 'swings' in pleural pressure (Ppl) resulting from diaphragmatic contraction. The localization of more negative Ppl proportionally increases dependent lung stretch by drawing gas either from other lung regions, e.g., non-dependent lung (Pendelluft) or from the ventilator. Lowering of the level of spontaneous effort and/or converting solid-like to fluid-like lung might render spontaneous effort non-injurious...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321898/sap-flow-characteristics-and-responses-to-summer-rainfall-for-pinus-tabulaeformis-and-hippophae-rhamnoides-in-the-loess-hilly-region-of-china
#15
Xu Wu, Yakun Tang, Yunming Chen, Jie Wen, Yuli Xie, Senbao Lu
As a major driving element of the structure and function of arid and semiarid ecosystems, rainfall is the essential factor limiting plant biological processes. To clarify the characteristics of transpiration and responses to summer rainfall, sap flow density (Fd) of Pinus tabulaeformis and Hippophae rhamnoides was monitored using thermal dissipation probes. In addition, midday leaf water potential (ψm) and leaf stomatal conductance (Gs) were also analyzed to determine water use strategies. The results indicated that the diurnal variation in the normalized Fd values exhibited a single-peak curve for P...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320169/short-medium-and-long-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-in-wildlife-from-paddy-fields-in-the-yangtze-river-delta
#16
Xinyu Du, Bo Yuan, Yihui Zhou, Jonathan P Benskin, Yanling Qiu, Ge Yin, Jianfu Zhao
Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were added to Annex A of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in April, 2017. As a consequence of this regulation, increasing production and usage of alternatives, such as medium- and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs and LCCPs, respectively), is expected. Little is known about the environmental fate and behavior of MCCPs and LCCPs. In the present study, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were analyzed in nine wildlife species from paddy fields in the Yangtze River Delta, China, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318469/numerical-simulation-of-ion-transport-in-a-nano-electrospray-ion-source-at-atmospheric-pressure
#17
Wei Wang, Steve Bajic, Benzi John, David R Emerson
Understanding ion transport properties from the ion source to the mass spectrometer (MS) is essential for optimizing device performance. Numerical simulation helps in understanding of ion transport properties and, furthermore, facilitates instrument design. In contrast to previously reported numerical studies, ion transport simulations in a continuous injection mode whilst considering realistic space-charge effects have been carried out. The flow field was solved using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, and a particle-in-cell (PIC) method was applied to solve a time-dependent electric field with local charge density...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318223/investigating-isomer-specific-photoprotection-in-a-model-plant-sunscreen
#18
M D Horbury, A L Flourat, S E Greenough, F Allais, V G Stavros
Sinapate esters are used throughout the plant kingdom, for example in photoprotection from ultraviolet radiation. Sinapate esters are naturally produced in their E-isomeric form; however, upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation, photoisomerization drives Z-isomer formation. To elucidate the photoprotection capacity of E vs. Z forms of sinapate esters, we explore the photochemistry of the model system, Z-ethyl sinapate. Following a novel Z-ethyl sinapate synthesis, we demonstrate that photoprotection is isomer independent...
January 10, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306483/left-ventricular-volume-time-relation-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#19
Michinari Hieda, Joshua Parker, Tanya Rajabi, Naoki Fujimoto, Paul S Bhella, Anand Prasad, Jeffrey L Hastings, Satyam Sarma, Benjamin D Levine
Elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures are commonly reported in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and are associated with impaired relaxation in diastole. Relaxation has been assessed by Doppler, but the methods for doing so are indirect and heavily influenced by loading conditions. The aim of this study is to assess LV volume-time relation in patients with HFpEF, when correcting for left atrial driving pressure and chamber size, using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI)...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304821/impact-of-the-hiv-1-genetic-background-and-hiv-1-population-size-on-the-evolution-of-raltegravir-resistance
#20
Axel Fun, Thomas Leitner, Linos Vandekerckhove, Martin Däumer, Alexander Thielen, Bernd Buchholz, Andy I M Hoepelman, Elizabeth H Gisolf, Pauline J Schipper, Annemarie M J Wensing, Monique Nijhuis
BACKGROUND: Emergence of resistance against integrase inhibitor raltegravir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients is generally associated with selection of one of three signature mutations: Y143C/R, Q148K/H/R or N155H, representing three distinct resistance pathways. The mechanisms that drive selection of a specific pathway are still poorly understood. We investigated the impact of the HIV-1 genetic background and population dynamics on the emergence of raltegravir resistance...
January 5, 2018: Retrovirology
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