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driving pressure

Riccardo Toninato, Silvia Scuri, Vincenzo Tarzia, Gino Gerosa, Francesca M Susin
PURPOSE: The gold standard therapy for patients with advanced heart failure is heart transplant. The gap between donors and patients in waiting lists promoted the development of circulatory support devices, such as the total artificial heart (TAH). Focusing on in vitro tests performed with CardioWest™ TAH (CW) driven by the SynCardia Freedom® portable driver (FD) the present study goals are: i) prove the reliability of a hydraulic circuit used as patient simulator to replicate a quasi-physiological scenario for various hydrodynamic conditions, ii) investigate the hydrodynamic performance of the CW FD, iii) help clinicians in possible interpretation of clinical cases outcomes...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Guilielmus H J M Ellenbroek, Gerardus P J van Hout, Leo Timmers, Pieter A Doevendans, Gerard Pasterkamp, Imo E Hoefer
Mortality after acute myocardial infarction remains substantial and is associated with significant morbidity, like heart failure. Novel therapeutics are therefore required to confine cardiac damage, promote survival and reduce the disease burden of heart failure. Large animal experiments are an essential part in the translational process from experimental to clinical therapies. To optimize clinical translation, robust and representative outcome measures are mandatory. The present manuscript aims to address this need by describing the assessment of three clinically relevant outcome modalities in a pig acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model: infarct size in relation to area at risk (IS/AAR) staining, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and admittance-based pressure-volume (PV) loops...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Laura E K Ratcliffe, Emma C Hart, Linford J B Briant, Marzena Chrostowska, Jacek Wolf, Anna Szyndler, Dagmara Hering, Ana P Abdala, Nathan Manghat, Amy E Burchell, Claire Durant, Melvin D Lobo, Paul A Sobotka, Nikunj K Patel, James C Leiter, Zoar J Engelman, Angus K Nightingale, Julian F R Paton
Animal and human data indicate pathological afferent signaling emanating from the carotid body that drives sympathetically mediated elevations in blood pressure in conditions of hypertension. This first-in-man, proof-of-principle study tested the safety and feasibility of unilateral carotid body resection in 15 patients with drug-resistant hypertension. The procedure proved to be safe and feasible. Overall, no change in blood pressure was found. However, 8 patients showed significant reductions in ambulatory blood pressure coinciding with decreases in sympathetic activity...
August 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
Benjamin Roche, Virginie Rougeron, Lluis Quintana-Murci, François Renaud, Jessica Lee Abbate, Franck Prugnolle
Malarial infections have long been recognized as a driver of human evolution, as demonstrated by the influence of Plasmodium falciparum on sickle-cell anemia persistence. Duffy-negativity is another blood disorder thought to have been selected because it confers nearly complete resistance against Plasmodium vivax infection. Recent evidence suggests that the benefits of being Duffy-negative cannot be expected to play a strong selective pressure on humans, whereas its costs cannot be considered as negligible...
October 17, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Ruijie Liu, Hadi Khalil, Suh-Chin J Lin, Michelle A Sargent, Allen J York, Jeffery D Molkentin
Nemo-like kinase (NLK) is an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in development, proliferation and apoptosis regulation. Here we identified NLK as a gene product induced in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure overload or myocardial infarction injury, suggesting a potential regulatory role with pathological stimulation to this organ. To examine the potential functional consequences of increased NLK levels, cardiac-specific transgenic mice with inducible expression of this gene product were generated, as well as cardiac-specific Nlk gene-deleted mice...
2016: PloS One
David Samuel Johnson, R Scott Warren, Linda A Deegan, Thomas J Mozdzer
In saltmarsh plant communities, bottom-up pressure from nutrient enrichment is predicted to increase productivity, alter community structure, decrease biodiversity, and alter ecosystem functioning. Previous work supporting these predictions has been based largely on short-term, plot-level (e.g., 1-300 m(2) ) studies, which may miss landscape-level phenomena that drive ecosystem-level responses. We implemented an ecosystem-scale, nine-year nutrient experiment to examine how saltmarsh plants respond to simulated conditions of coastal eutrophication...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Marco Ruella, Marcela V Maus
Immunotherapy is the revolution in cancer treatment of this last decade. Among multiple approaches able to harness the power of the immune system against cancer, T cell based immunotherapies represent one of the most successful examples. In particular, biotechnological engineering of protein structures, like the T cell receptor or the immunoglobulins, allowed the generation of synthetic peptides like chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies that are able to redirect non-tumor specific T cells to recognize and kill leukemic cells...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
John G Laffey, Giacomo Bellani, Tài Pham, Eddy Fan, Fabiana Madotto, Ednan K Bajwa, Laurent Brochard, Kevin Clarkson, Andres Esteban, Luciano Gattinoni, Frank van Haren, Leo M Heunks, Kiyoyasu Kurahashi, Jon Henrik Laake, Anders Larsson, Daniel F McAuley, Lia McNamee, Nicolas Nin, Haibo Qiu, Marco Ranieri, Gordon D Rubenfeld, B Taylor Thompson, Hermann Wrigge, Arthur S Slutsky, Antonio Pesenti
PURPOSE: To improve the outcome of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), one needs to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with mortality. METHODS: The large observational study to understand the global impact of severe acute respiratory failure (LUNG SAFE) was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study of patients with severe respiratory failure, conducted in the winter of 2014 in a convenience sample of 459 ICUs from 50 countries across five continents...
October 18, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Tongmin Cui, Jianliang Xu, Wenke Fan, Qinghua Chang, Guangsuo Yu, Fuchen Wang
In order to study the primary fragmentation behavior of coals and biomasses, experiments of rapid pyrolysis were carried out. This work focused on the devolatilization and fragmentation characteristics including the solid/gas yield, particle density/morphology, particle size and fragmental probability (Sf). The effects of temperature, time and solid property were investigated. The viscous flow model was employed to characterize the pressure difference (ΔP), which was considered as the driving force of diffusion and fragmentation...
October 5, 2016: Bioresource Technology
John H Kim, Esteban G Jobbágy, Robert B Jackson
Increasing pressures for food, fiber, and fuel continue to drive global land-use changes. Efforts to optimize ecosystem services under alternative land uses are often hampered by the complex interactions and trade-offs among them. We examined the effects of land-use changes on ecosystem carbon storage and groundwater recharge in grasslands of Argentina and the United States to (1) understand the relationships between both services, (2) predict their responses to vegetation shifts across environmental gradients, and (3) explore how market or policy incentives for ecosystem services could affect land-use changes...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Markus Schlaich
Accumulating evidence from mainly uncontrolled and unblinded clinical studies with various types of ablation catheters have shown that renal denervation (RDN) can be applied safely and is effective in lowering blood pressure (BP) in most patients with treatment resistant hypertension. Sustained BP lowering has been documented up to 3 years at this stage. Furthermore, RDN has been associated with regression of target organ damage, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness and others. Several studies indicate potential benefit in other common clinical conditions associated with increased sympathetic tone including chronic kidney disease and heart failure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anna Dominiczak
Human primary or essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic trait with some 50% contribution from genes and environment. Richard Lifton and colleagues provided elegant dissection of several rare Mendelian forms of hypertension, exemplified by the glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism and Liddle's syndrome. These discoveries illustrate that a single gene mutation can explain the entire pathogenesis of severe, early onset hypertension as well as dictating the best treatment.The dissection of the much more common polygenic hypertension has proven much more difficult...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Frank W DiPaola, Kurt R Schumacher, Caren S Goldberg, Joshua Friedland-Little, Aishwarya Parameswaran, Jonathan R Dillman
OBJECTIVES: Assess liver stiffness using ultrasound point shear wave elastography (US P-SWE) in children before and after the Fontan operation. METHODS: Eighteen children undergoing the Fontan operation were prospectively enrolled. Eight US P-SWE measurements were obtained from the right hepatic lobe before surgery, and at multiple postoperative time points. Temporally related inferior vena cava pressure (IVC) data was collected from medical records, when available...
October 17, 2016: European Radiology
Kenion H Blakeman, Craig A Cavanaugh, William M Gilliland, J Michael Ramsey
RATIONALE: There are many chemical measurement scenarios that would benefit from hand portable mass spectrometry tools including forensics, environmental monitoring, and safety and security. High pressure mass spectrometry (HPMS) facilitates miniaturization by significantly reducing vacuum system requirements. Previous work demonstrated HPMS using helium buffer gas, but HPMS conducted using ambient air would further reduce the size and weight of a portable instrument while also reducing logistical demands by eliminating the need for a helium supply...
October 17, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Jordan M Casey, Andrew H Baird, Simon J Brandl, Mia O Hoogenboom, Justin R Rizzari, Ashley J Frisch, Christopher E Mirbach, Sean R Connolly
Removal of predators is often hypothesized to alter community structure through trophic cascades. However, despite recent advances in our understanding of trophic cascades, evidence is often circumstantial on coral reefs because fishing pressure frequently co-varies with other anthropogenic effects, such as fishing for herbivorous fishes and changes in water quality due to pollution. Australia's outer Great Barrier Reef (GBR) has experienced fishing-induced declines of apex predators and mesopredators, but pollution and targeting of herbivorous fishes are minimal...
October 15, 2016: Oecologia
Alexander A Doinikov, Thomas Combriat, Pierre Thibault, Philippe Marmottant
A theoretical model is developed for acoustic streaming generated by a cylindrical bubble confined in a fluid channel between two planar elastic walls. The bubble is assumed to undergo volume and translational oscillations. The volume oscillation is caused by an imposed acoustic pressure field and generates the bulk scattered wave in the fluid gap and Lamb-type surface waves propagating along the fluid-wall interfaces. The translational oscillation is induced by the velocity field of an external sound source such as another bubble or an oscillatory fluid flow...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Aimée C Smith, Jonathan R Roberts, Pui Wah Kong, Stephanie E Forrester
Analysing the centre of pressure (COP) and centre of gravity (COG) could reveal stabilising strategies used by golfers throughout the golf swing. This study identified and compared golfers' COP and COG patterns throughout the golf swing in medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions using principal component analysis (PCA) and examined their relationship to clubhead velocity. Three-dimensional marker trajectories were collected using Vicon motion analysis and force plate data from two Kistler force plates for 22 low-handicap golfers during drives...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
David Rizzo, Pierre-Julien Viailly, Sylvain Mareschal, Elodie Bohers, Jean-Michel Picquenot, Dominique Penther, Sydney Dubois, Vinciane Marchand, Philippe Bertrand, Catherine Maingonnat, Pascaline Etancelin, Jean Feuillard, Christian Bastard, Hervé Tilly, Fabrice Jardin, Philippe Ruminy
Little is known on the phylogenetic relationship between diagnostic and relapse clones of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). We applied High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of the VDJ locus of Immunoglobulin Heavy chain (IGHV) on fourteen DLBCL patients with serial samples, including tumor biopsies and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Phylogenetic data were consolidated with targeted sequencing and cytogenetics. Phylogeny clearly showed that DLBCL relapse could occur according either an early or a late divergent mode...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
David M Warsinger, Emily W Tow, Kishor G Nayar, Laith A Maswadeh, John H Lienhard V
As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed...
September 25, 2016: Water Research
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