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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779058/genetics-of-resistant-hypertension-the-missing-heritability-and-opportunities
#1
REVIEW
Samantha K Teixeira, Alexandre C Pereira, Jose E Krieger
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Blood pressure regulation in humans has long been known to be a genetically determined trait. The identification of causal genetic modulators for this trait has been unfulfilling at the least. Despite the recent advances of genome-wide genetic studies, loci associated with hypertension or blood pressure still explain a very low percentage of the overall variation of blood pressure in the general population. This has precluded the translation of discoveries in the genetics of human hypertension to clinical use...
May 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777687/physiological-stress-responses-in-wild-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-a-human-dominated-landscape-in-the-western-ghats-southern-india
#2
Sreedhar Vijayakrishnan, Mavatur Ananda Kumar, G Umapathy, Vinod Kumar, Anindya Sinha
Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776072/revised-model-for-the-radiation-force-exerted-by-standing-surface-acoustic-waves-on-a-rigid-cylinder
#3
Shen Liang, Wang Chaohui
In this paper, a model for the radiation force exerted by standing surface acoustic waves (SSAWs) on a rigid cylinder in inviscid fluids is extended to account for the dependence on the Rayleigh angle. The conventional model for the radiation force used in the SSAW-based applications is developed in plane standing waves, which fails to predict the movement of the cylinder in the SSAW. Our revised model reveals that, in the direction normal to the piezoelectric substrate on which the SSAW is generated, acoustic radiation force can be large enough to drive the cylinder even in the long-wavelength limit...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773979/efficient-coding-and-energy-efficiency-are-promoted-by-balanced-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-currents-in-neuronal-network
#4
Lianchun Yu, Zhou Shen, Chen Wang, Yuguo Yu
Selective pressure may drive neural systems to process as much information as possible with the lowest energy cost. Recent experiment evidence revealed that the ratio between synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local cortex is generally maintained at a certain value which may influence the efficiency of energy consumption and information transmission of neural networks. To understand this issue deeply, we constructed a typical recurrent Hodgkin-Huxley network model and studied the general principles that governs the relationship among the E/I synaptic current ratio, the energy cost and total amount of information transmission...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771111/the-chemical-history-of-a-bubble
#5
Kenneth S Suslick, Nathan C Eddingsaas, David J Flannigan, Stephen D Hopkins, Hangxun Xu
Acoustic cavitation (the growth, oscillation, and rapid collapse of bubbles in a liquid) occurs in all liquids irradiated with sufficient intensity of sound or ultrasound. The collapse of such bubbles creates local heating and provides a unique source of energy for driving chemical reactions. In addition to sonochemical bond scission and formation, cavitation also induces light emission in many liquids. This phenomenon of sonoluminescence (SL) has captured the imagination of many researchers since it was first observed 85 years ago...
May 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769361/convergence-of-biannual-moulting-strategies-across-birds-and-mammals
#6
REVIEW
Roxanne S Beltran, Jennifer M Burns, Greg A Breed
Birds and mammals have developed numerous strategies for replacing worn feathers and hair. Moulting usually occurs on an annual basis; however, moults that take place twice per year (biannual moults) also occur. Here, we review the forces driving the evolution of various moult strategies, focusing on the special case of the complete biannual moult as a convergence of selection pressures across birds and mammals. Current evidence suggests that harsh environmental conditions or seasonality (e.g. larger variation in temperatures) drive evolution of a biannual moult...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763713/practice-of-mechanical-ventilation-in-cardiac-arrest-patients-and-effects-of-targeted-temperature-management-a-substudy-of-the-targeted-temperature-management-trial
#7
Matthew B A Harmon, David M P van Meenen, Annelou L I P van der Veen, Jan M Binnenkade, Josef Dankiewicz, Florian Ebner, Niklas Nielsen, Paolo Pelosi, Marcus J Schultz, Janneke Horn, Hans Friberg, Nicole P Juffermans
AIMS: Mechanical ventilation practices in patients with cardiac arrest are not well described. Also, the effect of temperature on mechanical ventilation settings is not known. The aims of this study were 1) to describe practice of mechanical ventilation and its relation with outcome 2) to determine effects of different target temperatures strategies (33 °C versus 36 °C) on mechanical ventilation settings. METHODS: This is a substudy of the TTM-trial in which unconscious survivors of a cardiac arrest due to a cardiac cause were randomized to two TTM strategies, 33 °C (TTM33) and 36 °C (TTM36)...
May 12, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763452/factors-affecting-forest-area-change-in-southeast-asia-during-1980-2010
#8
Nobuo Imai, Takuya Furukawa, Riyou Tsujino, Shumpei Kitamura, Takakazu Yumoto
While many tropical countries are experiencing rapid deforestation, some have experienced forest transition (FT) from net deforestation to net reforestation. Numerous studies have identified causative factors of FT, among which forest scarcity has been considered as a prerequisite for FT. In fact, in SE Asia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam, which experienced FT since 1990, exhibited a lower remaining forest area (30±8%) than the other five countries (68±6%, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, and Myanmar) where forest loss continues...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762274/decomposing-medicaid-spending-during-health-system-reform-and-aca-expansion-evidence-from-oregon
#9
Stephanie Renfro, Stephan Lindner, K John McConnell
BACKGROUND: Expansion of the Medicaid program is likely to create new budgetary pressures at the state and federal levels, creating a need for greater understanding of how program dollars are allocated and what drives spending growth. OBJECTIVE: To characterize Oregon Medicaid expenditures across diseases and medical conditions, during periods of payment reform and coverage expansion. RESEARCH DESIGN: Decomposition of changes in Medicaid expenditures using a person-based allocation of spending across 50 diseases/medical conditions...
May 12, 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758970/effects-of-an-intra-ventricular-assist-device-on-the-stroke-volume-of-failing-ventricle-analysis-of-a-mock-circulatory-system
#10
Shidong Zhu, Lin Luo, Bibo Yang, Kai Ni, Qian Zhou, Xinghui Li, Xiaohao Wang
BACKGROUND: A novel intra-ventricular assist device (iVAD) was established as a new pulsatile assist device to address various disadvantages, such as bulky configuration and reduced arterial pulsatility, observed in conventional ventricular assist devices. OBJECTIVE: Analyzed the native left ventricular stroke volume (SV) after iVAD support in vitro. METHODS: The SV of iVAD was examined in a home-designed mock circulatory system (MCS) at different heart rates and drive pressures and the SV of a failure ventricle was examined with iVAD at 75, 90, 120 bpm and 120-180 mmHg drive pressure after iVAD support...
May 4, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758063/the-impact-of-antibiotic-use-on-transmission-of-resistant-bacteria-in-hospitals-insights-from-an-agent-based-model
#11
Jonatan Almagor, Elizabeth Temkin, Itzhak Benenson, Noga Fallach, Yehuda Carmeli
Extensive antibiotic use over the years has led to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). Antibiotic resistance poses a major threat to public health since for many infections antibiotic treatment is no longer effective. Hospitals are focal points for ARB spread. Antibiotic use in hospitals exerts selective pressure, accelerating the spread of ARB. We used an agent-based model to explore the impact of antibiotics on the transmission dynamics and to examine the potential of stewardship interventions in limiting ARB spread in a hospital...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754942/dead-space-analysis-at-different-levels-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-patients
#12
Emiliano Gogniat, Marcela Ducrey, José Dianti, Matías Madorno, Nicolás Roux, Alejandro Midley, Julio Raffo, Sergio Giannasi, Eduardo San Roman, Fernando Suarez-Sipmann, Gerardo Tusman
PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on Bohr's dead space (VDBohr /VT) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen ARDS patients under lung protective ventilation settings were submitted to 4 different levels of PEEP (0, 6, 10, 16 cmH2 O). Respiratory mechanics, hemodynamics and volumetric capnography were recorded at each protocol step. RESULTS: Two groups of patients responded differently to PEEP when comparing baseline with 16-PEEP: those in which driving pressure increased > 15% (∆P˃15% , n = 7, p = ...
June 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752265/an-iterative-synthetic-approach-to-engineer-a-high-performing-phob-specific-reporter
#13
Julie L Stoudenmire, Tara Essock-Burns, Erena N Weathers, Sina Solaimanpour, Jan Mrázek, Eric V Stabb
Transcriptional reporters are common tools for analyzing either the transcription of a gene of interest or the activity of a specific transcriptional regulator. Unfortunately, the latter application has the shortcoming that native promoters did not evolve as optimal readouts for the activity of a particular regulator. We sought to synthesize an optimized transcriptional reporter for assessing PhoB activity, aiming for maximal "on" expression when PhoB is active, minimal background in the "off" state, and no control elements for other regulators...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749961/superconductivity-in-solid-benzene-molecular-crystal
#14
Guo-Hua Zhong, Chun-Lei Yang, Xiaojia Chen, Haiqing Lin
Light-element compounds hold great promise of high critical temperature superconductivity judging from the theoretical perspective. Hydrogen-rich material, benzene, is such a kind of candidate but also an organic compound. A series of first-principles calculations are performed on the electronic structures, dynamics properties, and electron-phonon interactions of solid benzene at high pressures. Benzene is found to be dynamically stable in the pressure range of 180-200 GPa and to exhibit superconductivity with a maximum transition temperature of 20 K at 195 GPa...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747039/carbon-dioxide-in-oil-emulsions-stabilized-with-silicone-alkyl-surfactants-for-waterless-hydraulic-fracturing
#15
Shehab Alzobaidi, Jason Lee, Summer Jiries, Chang Da, Justin Harris, Kaitlin Keene, Gianfranco Rodriguez, Eric Beckman, Robert Perry, Keith P Johnston, Robert Enick
The design of surfactants for CO2 /oil emulsions has been elusive given the low CO2 -oil interfacial tension, and consequently, low driving force for surfactant adsorption. Our hypothesis is that waterless, high pressure CO2 /oil emulsions can be stabilized by hydrophobic comb polymer surfactants that adsorb at the interface and sterically stabilize the CO2 droplets. The emulsions were formed by mixing with an impeller or by co-injecting CO2 and oil through a beadpack (CO2 volume fractions (ϕ) of 0.50-0.90)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746892/taste-phenotype-associates-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-via-diet-quality-in-multivariate-modeling
#16
Mastaneh Sharafi, Shristi Rawal, Maria Luz Fernandez, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Valerie B Duffy
Sensations from foods and beverages drive dietary choices, which in turn, affect risk of diet-related diseases. Perception of these sensation varies with environmental and genetic influences. This observational study aimed to examine associations between chemosensory phenotype, diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reportedly healthy women (n = 110, average age 45 ± 9 years) participated in laboratory-based measures of chemosensory phenotype (taste and smell function, propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) and CVD risk factors (waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipids)...
May 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745654/evidence-of-a-nonphotochemical-mechanism-for-the-solid-state-formation-of-uranyl-peroxide
#17
Marie C Kirkegaard, Andrew Miskowiec, Michael W Ambrogio, Brian B Anderson
We have demonstrated the solid-state formation of a uranyl peroxide (UP) species from hydrated uranyl fluoride via a uranyl hydroxide intermediate, the first observation of a UP species formed in a solid-state reaction. Water vapor pressure is shown to be a driving factor of both the loss of fluorine and the subsequent formation of peroxo units. We have ruled out a photochemical mechanism for formation of the UP species by demonstrating that the same reaction occurs in the dark. A radiolytic mechanism is unlikely because of the low radioactivity of the sample material, suggesting the existence of a novel UP formation mechanism...
May 10, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744635/shell-colour-temperature-micro-habitat-structure-and-predator-pressure-affect-the-behaviour-of-cepaea-nemoralis
#18
Zuzanna M Rosin, Zbigniew Kwieciński, Andrzej Lesicki, Piotr Skórka, Jarosław Kobak, Anna Szymańska, Tomasz S Osiejuk, Tomasz Kałuski, Monika Jaskulska, Piotr Tryjanowski
Although shell colour polymorphism of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis is a well-known phenomenon, proximate and ultimate factors driving its evolution remain uncertain. Polymorphic species show variation in behavioural responses to selective forces. Therefore, we estimated effects of various environmental factors (temperature, humidity, food availability, (micro)habitat structure and predatory pressure) on behavioural response (frequency of locomotion, climbing and hiding) of C. nemoralis morphs, in experimental and natural conditions...
May 9, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743094/feasibility-and-safety-of-low-flow-extracorporeal-co-2-removal-managed-with-a-renal-replacement-platform-to-enhance-lung-protective-ventilation-of-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-ards
#19
Matthieu Schmidt, Samir Jaber, Elie Zogheib, Thomas Godet, Gilles Capellier, Alain Combes
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal carbon-dioxide removal (ECCO2 R) might allow ultraprotective mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volume (VT) (< 6 ml/kg predicted body weight), plateau pressure (Pplat ) (< 30 cmH2 O), and driving pressure to limit ventilator-induced lung injury. This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility and safety of ECCO2 R managed with a renal replacement therapy (RRT) platform to enable very low tidal volume ventilation of patients with mild-to-moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
May 10, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740598/a-single-atom-3d-sub-attonewton-force-sensor
#20
Valdis Blūms, Marcin Piotrowski, Mahmood I Hussain, Benjamin G Norton, Steven C Connell, Stephen Gensemer, Mirko Lobino, Erik W Streed
Forces drive all physical interactions. High-sensitivity measurement of the effect of forces enables the quantitative investigation of physical phenomena. Laser-cooled trapped atomic ions are a well-controlled quantum system whose low mass, strong Coulomb interaction, and readily detectable fluorescence signal make them a favorable platform for precision metrology. We demonstrate a three-dimensional sub-attonewton sensitivity force sensor based on a super-resolution imaging of a single trapped ion. The force is detected by measuring the ion's displacement in three dimensions with nanometer precision...
March 2018: Science Advances
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