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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924241/sleep-and-fatigue-among-seafarers-the-role-of-environmental-stressors-duration-at-sea-and-psychological-capital
#1
Sigurd W Hystad, Jarle Eid
BACKGROUND: Seafaring is an inherently stressful environment. Because working time and leisure time is spent in the same confined environment for a prolonged period of time, many stressors present in seafaring can also be conceived of as chronic. We explored the effects of duration at sea, seafaring experience, environmental stressors, and psychological capital (PsyCap) on the sleep quality and fatigue of seafarers. PsyCap is a construct that draws upon ideas from positive psychology and positive organizational behavior, and is intended to capture an individual's psychological capacities that can be developed and utilized for performance improvements...
December 2016: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908079/using-line-acceleration-to-measure-false-killer-whale-pseudorca-crassidens-click-and-whistle-source-levels-during-pelagic-longline-depredation
#2
Aaron Thode, Lauren Wild, Janice Straley, Dustin Barnes, Ali Bayless, Victoria O'Connell, Erin Oleson, Jit Sarkar, Dan Falvey, Linda Behnken, Sean Martin
False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) depredate pelagic longlines in offshore Hawaiian waters. On January 28, 2015 a depredation event was recorded 14 m from an integrated GoPro camera, hydrophone, and accelerometer, revealing that false killer whales depredate bait and generate clicks and whistles under good visibility conditions. The act of plucking bait off a hook generated a distinctive 15 Hz line vibration. Two similar line vibrations detected at earlier times permitted the animal's range and thus signal source levels to be estimated over a 25-min window...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905393/nitrous-oxide-as-a-function-of-oxygen-and-archaeal-gene-abundance-in-the-north-pacific
#3
Mark Trimmer, Panagiota-Myrsini Chronopoulou, Susanna T Maanoja, Robert C Upstill-Goddard, Vassilis Kitidis, Kevin J Purdy
Oceanic oxygen minimum zones are strong sources of the potent greenhouse gas N2O but its microbial source is unclear. We characterized an exponential response in N2O production to decreasing oxygen between 1 and 30 μmol O2 l(-1) within and below the oxycline using (15)NO2(-), a relationship that held along a 550 km offshore transect in the North Pacific. Differences in the overall magnitude of N2O production were accounted for by archaeal functional gene abundance. A one-dimensional (1D) model, parameterized with our experimentally derived exponential terms, accurately reproduces N2O profiles in the top 350 m of water column and, together with a strong (45)N2O signature indicated neither canonical nor nitrifier-denitrification production while statistical modelling supported production by archaea, possibly via hybrid N2O formation...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902274/pleomorphochaeta-caudata-gen-nov-sp-nov-an-anaerobic-bacterium-isolated-from-an-offshore-oil-well-reclassification-of-sphaerochaeta-multiformis-mo-spc2t-as-pleomorphochaeta-multiformis-mo-spc2t-comb-nov-as-the-type-strain-of-this-new-genus-and-emended-description
#4
Boussad Arroua, Anthony Ranchou-Peyruse, Magali Ranchou-Peyruse, Michel Magot, Laurent Urios, Regis Grimaud
A strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain SEBR 4223T, was isolated from the production water of an offshore Congolese oil field. Cells were non-motile, pleomorphic and having spherical, annular or budding shapes and often exhibiting long stalks. Strain SEBR 4223T grew on a range of carbohydrates, optimally at 37°C and pH 7, in a medium containing 40 g.l-1 NaCl. Predominant fatty acids were C14:0, C14:0 DMA, C16:0 and C16:1ω7c and the major polar lipids were phosphoglycolipids (PGL), phospholipids (PL), glycolipids (GL) and diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG)...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896068/metagenomic-investigation-of-the-microbial-diversity-in-a-chrysotile-asbestos-mine-pit-pond-lowell-vermont-usa
#5
Heather E Driscoll, James J Vincent, Erika L English, Elizabeth D Dolci
Here we report on a metagenomics investigation of the microbial diversity in a serpentine-hosted aquatic habitat created by chrysotile asbestos mining activity at the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG) Mine in northern Vermont, USA. The now-abandoned VAG Mine on Belvidere Mountain in the towns of Eden and Lowell includes three open-pit quarries, a flooded pit, mill buildings, roads, and > 26 million metric tons of eroding mine waste that contribute alkaline mine drainage to the surrounding watershed. Metagenomes and water chemistry originated from aquatic samples taken at three depths (0...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895628/nearshore-pelagic-microbial-community-abundance-affects-recruitment-success-of-giant-kelp-macrocystis-pyrifera
#6
Megan M Morris, John M Haggerty, Bhavya N Papudeshi, Alejandro A Vega, Matthew S Edwards, Elizabeth A Dinsdale
Marine microbes mediate key ecological processes in kelp forest ecosystems and interact with macroalgae. Pelagic and biofilm-associated microbes interact with macroalgal propagules at multiple stages of recruitment, yet these interactions have not been described for Macrocystis pyrifera. Here we investigate the influence of microbes from coastal environments on recruitment of giant kelp, M. pyrifera. Through repeated laboratory experiments, we tested the effects of altered pelagic microbial abundance on the settlement and development of the microscopic propagules of M...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892250/offshore-nurse
#7
(no author information available yet)
A former deep sea fisherman is setting sail for a new nursing role ensuring offshore oil and gas workers stay safe.
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884521/the-consequences-of-landscape-change-on-fishing-strategies
#8
Tracy Van Holt, Beatrice Crona, Jeffrey C Johnson, Stefan Gelcich
We show how land-use change can affect fisher-harvesting behavior. We test whether fisher harvesting behavior can be predicted by landscape change patterns at local (~200km) and regional (~1200km) levels. Our data suggest that fishers harvesting in areas near tree plantations reduced benthic-invertebrate harvests in favor of demersal and pelagic finfish that are usually located further offshore. Fishers' management areas, which were near tree plantations, had higher chlorophyll-a values, and contained shellfish with more endobionts...
November 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875932/hybrid-soliwave-technique-for-mitigating-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-in-controlling-biocorrosion-a-case-study-on-crude-oil-sample
#9
Muhammad Khairool Fahmy Bin Mohd Ali, Akrima Abu Bakar, Norhazilan Md Noor, Nordin Yahaya, Mardhiah Ismail, Ahmad Safuan Rashid
Corrosion is one of the leading causes of failure in onshore and offshore transmission pipelines, threatening pipeline integrity internally and externally. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is among the common corrosion types for buried and deep-water pipelines that result in costly repair and pipeline failure. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) are commonly known as the culprit of MIC. Many countries have very stringent regulations for the usage of chemical substances (biocides) to inhibit microorganism growth...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871126/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-unusually-high-incidence-of-proteorhodopsin-genes-in-the-ultraoligotrophic-eastern-mediterranean-sea
#10
Vadim Dubinsky, Markus Haber, Ilia Burgsdorf, Kumar Saurav, Yoav Lehahn, Assaf Malik, Daniel Sher, Dikla Aharonovich, Laura Steindler
Sunlight can be directly harvested by photoheterotrophic bacteria to create a pH gradient across the membrane, which can then be utilized to produce ATP. Despite the potential importance of this trophic strategy, when and where such organisms are found in the seas and oceans is poorly described. Here, we describe the abundance and taxonomy of bacteria with different trophic strategies (heterotrophs, phototrophs and photoheterotrophs) in contrasting water masses of the ultra-oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean Sea...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867760/pico-and-nanoplankton-abundance-and-carbon-stocks-along-the-brazilian-bight
#11
Catherine Gérikas Ribeiro, Adriana Lopes Dos Santos, Dominique Marie, Vivian Helena Pellizari, Frederico Pereira Brandini, Daniel Vaulot
Pico and nanoplankton communities from the Southwest Atlantic Ocean along the Brazilian Bight are poorly described. The hydrography in this region is dominated by a complex system of layered water masses, which includes the warm and oligotrophic Tropical Water (TW), the cold and nutrient rich South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and the Coastal Water (CW), which have highly variable properties. In order to assess how pico- and nanoplankton communities are distributed in these different water masses, we determined by flow cytometry the abundance of heterotrophic bacteria, Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and autotrophic pico and nanoeukaryotes along three transects, extending from 23°S to 31°S and 39°W to 49°W...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863004/local-versus-offshore-production-of-ready-to-use-therapeutic-foods-and-small-quantity-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements
#12
Joel Segrè, Grace Liu, Jan Komrska
Manufacturers on four continents currently produce ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF). Some produce locally, near their intended users, while others produce offshore and ship their product long distances. Small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) such as Nutriset's Enov'Nutributter are not yet in widespread production. There has been speculation whether RUTF and SQ-LNS should be produced primarily offshore, locally, or both. We analyzed The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Supply Division data, reviewed published literature, and interviewed local manufacturers to identify key benefits and challenges to local versus offshore manufacture of RUTF...
November 8, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862532/spatio-temporal-genetic-structure-and-the-effects-of-long-term-fishing-in-two-partially-sympatric-offshore-demersal-fishes
#13
Romina Henriques, Sophie von der Heyden, Marek R Lipinski, Nina du Toit, Paulus Kainge, Paulette Bloomer, Conrad A Matthee
Environmental gradients have been shown to disrupt gene flow in marine species, yet their influence in structuring populations at depth remains poorly understood. The Cape hakes (Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis) are demersal species co-occurring in the Benguela Current system, where decades of intense fishing resulted in severely depleted stocks in the past. Previous studies identified conflicting mtDNA genetic substructuring patterns and thus contrasting evolutionary trajectories for both species. Using 10 microsatellite loci, the control region of mtDNA and employing a seascape genetics approach, we investigated genetic connectivity and the impact of prolonged exploitation in the two species, which are characterized by different patterns of fishing pressure...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851805/evidence-that-the-migration-of-the-northern-subpopulation-of-pacific-sardine-sardinops-sagax-off-the-west-coast-of-the-united-states-is-age-based
#14
Jenny McDaniel, Kevin Piner, Hui-Hua Lee, Kevin Hill
Analysis of fish movements has been an important area of study for fisheries ecology and population dynamics for decades. Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax, along the west coast of the United States exhibit a well-defined large-scale seasonal migration. Larger and older fish are found in the northern reaches of their range during summer and contract to southerly offshore areas for spawning during spring. Because of the close correlation between fish size and age it has not yet been determined if movements are size- or age-based...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848988/long-distance-transport-of-radioactive-plume-by-nocturnal-local-winds
#15
Takao Yoshikane, Kei Yoshimura, Eun-Chul Chang, Akane Saya, Taikan Oki
Radioactive plumes can spread far and wide depending on wind conditions. The plumes often frequently reached the Tokyo metropolitan area, which is approximately 200 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, under spatially heterogeneous wind fields in March 2011. To reduce exposure to radioactive plumes, the behaviour of the plumes must be known. However, the transport mechanism of radioactive plumes is not fully understood. Using a regional climate model, we show that multiple diurnal cycle processes play a key role in the frequent transport of radioactive plumes to the Tokyo metropolitan area...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848102/can-greening-of-aquaculture-sequester-blue-carbon
#16
Nesar Ahmed, Stuart W Bunting, Marion Glaser, Mark S Flaherty, James S Diana
Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon...
November 15, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842714/offshore-sediments-record-the-history-of-onshore-iron-ore-mining-in-goa-state-india
#17
Tyson Sebastian, B Nagender Nath, Sangeeta Naik, D V Borole, Salou Pierre, Armoury Kazip Yazing
Environmental magnetic and geochemical analyses combined with (210)Pb dating were carried out on a sediment core off Goa from Arabian Sea to reconstruct the sedimentation history of last three and a half centuries and to investigate the impact of onshore iron ore mining on the offshore sedimentation. A drastic increase in sedimentation rate and mineral magnetic concentration parameters divides the core into two units (1 & 2) at a depth of 41cm (1982CE). The high magnetic susceptibility values in Unit 1 sediments are coeval with increased iron ore production on land and illustrate the role of terrestrial mining on the increased offshore sedimentation...
November 11, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836050/biosecurity-and-the-management-of-emergency-animal-disease-among-commercial-beef-producers-in-new-south-wales-and-queensland-australia
#18
M Hernández-Jover, V Higgins, M Bryant, L Rast, C McShane
Australia places great importance on the prevention and management of emergency animal diseases (EAD), with strict quarantine measures offshore and at the border. Livestock producers are crucial for disease control onshore; however, limited information is available on commercial livestock producers' practices in relation to the management of disease risks. The aims of this paper are to investigate how commercial beef producers in Australia's Northern and Southern beef zones manage EADs and to identify drivers for effective biosecurity and EAD prevention...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830742/multidisciplinary-oil-spill-modeling-to-protect-coastal-communities-and-the-environment-of-the-eastern-mediterranean-sea
#19
Tiago M Alves, Eleni Kokinou, George Zodiatis, Hari Radhakrishnan, Costas Panagiotakis, Robin Lardner
We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825845/trace-element-reference-intervals-in-the-blood-of-healthy-green-sea-turtles-to-evaluate-exposure-of-coastal-populations
#20
C A Villa, M Flint, I Bell, C Hof, C J Limpus, C Gaus
Exposure to essential and non-essential elements may be elevated for green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) that forage close to shore. Biomonitoring of trace elements in turtle blood can identify temporal trends over repeated sampling events, but any interpretation of potential health risks due to an elevated exposure first requires a comparison against a baseline. This study aims to use clinical reference interval (RI) methods to produce exposure baseline limits for essential and non-essential elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) using blood from healthy subadult turtles foraging in a remote and offshore part of the Great Barrier Reef...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
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