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R van Hal, A B Griffioen, O A van Keeken
The number of offshore wind farms (OWF) is increasing to meet the demands for renewable energy. The piles and hard substrate surrounding these piles creates new habitat for species with preference to hard substrates. We studied the impact of this hard substrate on the fish community in a Dutch OWF in the sandy southern North Sea, which had been in operation for five years. Multi-mesh gillnets were placed near the OWF structures on the hard substrate protection revetments and on the sandy bottom in the middle of the farm...
January 31, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
S Mau, M Römer, M E Torres, I Bussmann, T Pape, E Damm, P Geprägs, P Wintersteller, C-W Hsu, M Loher, G Bohrmann
Numerous articles have recently reported on gas seepage offshore Svalbard, because the gas emission from these Arctic sediments was thought to result from gas hydrate dissociation, possibly triggered by anthropogenic ocean warming. We report on findings of a much broader seepage area, extending from 74° to 79°, where more than a thousand gas discharge sites were imaged as acoustic flares. The gas discharge occurs in water depths at and shallower than the upper edge of the gas hydrate stability zone and generates a dissolved methane plume that is hundreds of kilometer in length...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ranjbar Jafarabadi Ali, Riyahi Bakhtiari Alireza, Aliabadian Mansour, Shadmehri Toosi Amirhossein
This study is the first quantitative report on petroleum biomarkers from the coral reefs systems of the Persian Gulf. 120 reef surface sediment samples from ten fragile coral reef ecosystems were collected and analyzed for grain size, biogenic elements, elemental ratios, and petroleum biomarkers (n-alkanes, PAHs(1) and Hopanes) to assess the sources and early diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter. The mean grain size of the reef sediments ranged from 13.56 to 37.11% (Clay), 26.92 to 51.73% (Sand) and 35...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Jennifer E Granneman, David L Jones, Ernst B Peebles
The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine patterns of short- and long-term metal exposure within the otoliths of six offshore fish species in varying states of health, as indicated by the presence of external skin lesions, and (2) determine if there was a change in otolith metal concentrations concurrent with the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Otoliths collected from 2011 to 2013 in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) were analyzed for a suite of trace metals known to be associated with DWH oil. We found that lesioned fish often had elevated levels of otolith (60)Ni and (64)Zn before, during, and after the DWH oil spill...
February 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Carolina Vargas-Caro, Carlos Bustamante, Michael B Bennett, Jennifer R Ovenden
The longnose skates (Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma) are the main component of the elasmobranch fisheries in the south-east Pacific Ocean. Both species are considered to be a single stock by the fishery management in Chile however, little is known about the level of demographic connectivity within the fishery. In this study, we used a genetic variation (560 bp of the control region of the mitochondrial genome and ten microsatellite loci) to explore population connectivity at five locations along the Chilean coast...
2017: PloS One
Gayashan M Arachchige, Sevvandi Jayakody, Rich Mooi, Andreas Kroh
A comprehensive review and analysis of the literature on echinoids from Sri Lankan waters were conducted to compile an annotated list that integrates the existing published data with original data from recent research. According to the published literature, 115 echinoid species and one subspecies have been reported from Sri Lanka to date. However, the current study revealed that only 66 echinoid species and one subspecies belonging to 20 families can be verified to occur in Sri Lankan waters. According to the present analysis, 49 species were excluded from the list due to uncertain records (16) or synonymy (33) with other taxa known from the region...
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
L Bray, D Kassis, J M Hall-Spencer
There are plans to start building offshore marine renewable energy devices throughout the Mediterranean and the Adriatic has been identified as a key location for wind farm developments. The development of offshore wind farms in the area would provide hard substrata for the settlement of sessile benthos. Since the seafloor of the Adriatic is predominantly sedimentary this may alter the larval connectivity of benthic populations in the region. Here, we simulated the release of larvae from benthic populations along the coasts of the Adriatic Sea using coupled bio-physical models and investigated the effect of pelagic larval duration on dispersal...
January 25, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Muthukumar Krishnan, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Palanichamy Seeni, Subramanian Gopalan, Vignesh Sivanandham, Kim Jin-Hyoung, Rathinam Arthur James
Eight metal and non-metal coupons were exposed to seawater in offshore platform laboratory on biofilm formation in seven days of every month interval time for one year period. Among metal coupons, the highest mean heterotrophic biofilm bacteria population (HBBP) ranges were observed in mild steel (MS) coupon (33.03 to 40.00 [×10(4)] CFUscm(-2)) and lowest in copper (Cu) coupon (3.0 to 5.1 [×10(4)] CFUscm(-2)). Non-metal coupons show, highest mean HBBP ranges in glass (GL) coupon (29.6 to 66.0 [×10(4)] CFUscm(-2)) and lowest in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coupon (34...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Rob W M VAN Soest
Sponges collected on the Guyana Shelf, predominantly in Suriname offshore waters, by Dutch HMS 'Snellius' O.C.P.S. 1966, HMS 'Luymes' O.C.P.S. II 1969, and HMS 'Luymes' Guyana Shelf 1970 expeditions are described in this study. Sponges were obtained by trawling, dredging or grabbing on sandy, muddy, shelly, and fossil reef bottoms at 88 stations between 19 and 681 m depth. A total of 351 samples were identified to species level, each consisting of one or more specimens of a given species from each individual station (together comprising 547 individuals and fragments)...
January 12, 2017: Zootaxa
Wen Chen, Brian J Hall, Li Ling, Andre Mn Renzaho
BACKGROUND: The process of becoming a humanitarian migrant is potentially damaging to mental health. We examined the association between pre-migration and post-migration potentially traumatic events and stressors and mental health, and assessed the moderating effect of post-migration stressors in humanitarian migrants in Australia. METHODS: In this study, we used the first wave of data between 2013 and 2014 from the Building a New Life in Australia survey. The survey included 2399 migrants who had arrived in Australia holding a permanent humanitarian visa 3-6 months preceding the survey, with 77% and 23% of participants being granted visas through offshore and onshore humanitarian programmes, respectively...
February 1, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
Marianna Musco, Angela Cuttitta, Erica Bicchi, Enza Maria Quinci, Mario Sprovieri, Giorgio Tranchida, Luigi Giaramita, Anna Traina, Daniela Salvagio Manta, Serena Gherardi, Pietro Mercurio, Angelo Siragusa, Salvatore Mazzola
This study investigates living benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of anthropogenic activities in a coastal area within the Gulf of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), affected by industrial and urban activities, and evaluates the environmental quality through the calibration of a Tolerant Species index (%TSstd). Sediments from 6 stations were sampled along a bathymetric transect from the coast to offshore. Sediment grain size, TOC, major, minor and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were compared to benthic foraminiferal assemblages and species at each station...
January 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Joshua Thoresen, David Towns, Sebastian Leuzinger, Mel Durrett, Christa P H Mulder, David A Wardle
Burrowing seabirds that nest on islands transfer nutrients from the sea, disturb the soil through burrowing, damage tree foliage when landing, and thereby modify the surface litter. However, seabirds are in decline worldwide, as are their community- and ecosystem-level impacts, primarily due to invasive predatory mammals. The direct and indirect effects of seabird decline on communities and ecosystems are inherently complex. Here we employed network analysis, as a means of simplifying ecological complexity, to better understand the effects seabird loss may have on island invertebrate communities...
January 31, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Paula Karina S Uchoa, Antonia T A Pimenta, Raimundo Braz-Filho, Maria da Conceição F de Oliveira, Natália N Saraiva, Barbara S F Rodrigues, Ludwig H Pfenning, Lucas M Abreu, Diego V Wilke, Katharine G D Florêncio, Mary Anne S Lima
A fungal strain of Aspergillus niger was recovered from sediments collected in the Northeast coast of Brazil (Pecém's offshore port terminal). Cultivation in different growth media yielded a new ester furan derivative, 1, along with malformin A1, malformin C, cyclo (trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo (trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Phe), cyclo (L-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo (L-Pro-L-Phe), pseurotin D, pseurotin A, chlovalicin, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val). Compound 1 was cytotoxic against HCT-116 cell line, showing IC50 = 2...
January 30, 2017: Natural Product Research
Han Su, Rujun Yang, Aibin Zhang, Yan Li, Shenglu Qu, Xuchen Wang
This study presents the spatial distribution of total dissolved Cu, Zn, Co, and V during an autumn survey in the East China Sea (ECS). Dissolved Fe and its organic complexation were also investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between Cu, Zn, Co, V, D-Fe and its organic ligands and total dissolved phosphate (TDP) in the coastal waters of the ECS. A correlation analysis shows that Cu, Zn and D-Fe were nutrient-like metals, whereas Co and V were non-nutrient-like metals. A multivariate statistical analysis showed that TDP was associated with D-Fe, Cu, Zn and Co, but was not associated with V...
January 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Cameron M Callbeck, Gaute Lavik, Lothar Stramma, Marcel M M Kuypers, Laura A Bristow
The eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) upwelling region is one of the ocean's largest sinks of fixed nitrogen, which is lost as N2 via the anaerobic processes of anammox and denitrification. One-third of nitrogen loss occurs in productive shelf waters stimulated by organic matter export as a result of eastern boundary upwelling. Offshore, nitrogen loss rates are lower, but due to its sheer size this area accounts for ~70% of ETSP nitrogen loss. How nitrogen loss and primary production are regulated in the offshore ETSP region where coastal upwelling is less influential remains unclear...
2017: PloS One
Byoung-Ju Choi, Jung A Lee, Jae-Sung Choi, Jong-Gyu Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Wonho Yih
Hydrographic observation and biological samplings were conducted to assess the distribution of phytoplankton community over the sloping shelf of the eastern Yellow Sea in May 2012. The concentration of chlorophyll a was determined and phytoplankton was microscopically examined to conduct quantitative and cluster analyses. A cluster analysis of the phytoplankton species and abundance along four observation lines revealed the three-dimensional structure of the phytoplankton community distribution: the coastal group in the mixed region, the offshore upper layer group preferring stable water column, and the offshore lower layer group...
January 10, 2017: Chemosphere
Rebecca R Gentry, Sarah E Lester, Carrie V Kappel, Crow White, Tom W Bell, Joel Stevens, Steven D Gaines
Marine aquaculture is expanding into deeper offshore environments in response to growing consumer demand for seafood, improved technology, and limited potential to increase wild fisheries catches. Sustainable development of aquaculture will require quantification and minimization of its impacts on other ocean-based activities and the environment through scientifically informed spatial planning. However, the scientific literature currently provides limited direct guidance for such planning. Here, we employ an ecological lens and synthesize a broad multidisciplinary literature to provide insight into the interactions between offshore aquaculture and the surrounding environment across a spectrum of spatial scales...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Gareth Bradbury, Mark Trinder, Bob Furness, Alex N Banks, Richard W G Caldow, Duncan Hume
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106366.].
2017: PloS One
Sander van der Kaars, Gifford H Miller, Chris S M Turney, Ellyn J Cook, Dirk Nürnberg, Joachim Schönfeld, A Peter Kershaw, Scott J Lehman
Environmental histories that span the last full glacial cycle and are representative of regional change in Australia are scarce, hampering assessment of environmental change preceding and concurrent with human dispersal on the continent ca. 47,000 years ago. Here we present a continuous 150,000-year record offshore south-western Australia and identify the timing of two critical late Pleistocene events: wide-scale ecosystem change and regional megafaunal population collapse. We establish that substantial changes in vegetation and fire regime occurred ∼70,000 years ago under a climate much drier than today...
January 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Michael A Kipp, Eva E Stüeken, Andrey Bekker, Roger Buick
It has been proposed that an "oxygen overshoot" occurred during the early Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE) in association with the extreme positive carbon isotopic excursion known as the Lomagundi Event. Moreover, it has also been suggested that environmental oxygen levels then crashed to very low levels during the subsequent extremely negative Shunga-Francevillian carbon isotopic anomaly. These redox fluctuations could have profoundly influenced the course of eukaryotic evolution, as eukaryotes have several metabolic processes that are obligately aerobic...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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