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Hossein Sojoudi, Hadi Arabnejad, Asif Raiyan, Siamack A Shirazi, Gareth H McKinley, Karen K Gleason
Ice formation and accumulation on surfaces can result in severe problems for solar photovoltaic installations, offshore oil platforms, wind turbines and aircrafts. In addition, blockage of pipelines by formation and accumulation of clathrate hydrates of natural gases has safety and economical concerns in oil and gas operations, particularly at high pressures and low temperatures such as those found in subsea or arctic environments. Practical adoption of icephobic/hydrate-phobic surfaces requires mechanical robustness and stability under harsh environments...
March 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Sigrid Neumann-Leitão, Pedro A M C Melo, Ralf Schwamborn, Xiomara F G Diaz, Lucas G P Figueiredo, Andrea P Silva, Renata P S Campelo, Mauro de Melo Júnior, Nuno F A C Melo, Alejandro E S F Costa, Moacyr Araújo, Dóris R A Veleda, Rodrigo L Moura, Fabiano Thompson
At the mouth of the Amazon River, a widespread carbonate ecosystem exists below the river plume, generating a hard-bottom reef (∼9500 km2 ) that includes mainly large sponges but also rhodolith beds. The mesozooplankton associated with the pelagic realm over the reef formation was characterized, considering the estuarine plume and oceanic influence. Vertical hauls were carried out using a standard plankton net with 200 μm mesh size during September 2014. An indicator index was applied to express species importance as ecological indicators in community...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cordula Göke, Karsten Dahl, Christian Mohn
The development of offshore wind energy and other competing interests in sea space are a major incentive for designating marine and coastal areas for specific human activities. Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) considers human activities at sea in a more integrated way by analysing and designating spatial and temporal distributions of human activities based on ecological, economic and social targets. However, specific tools supporting spatial decisions at sea incorporating all relevant sectors are rarely adopted...
2018: PloS One
Alexander Golberg, Alexander Liberzon, Edward Vitkin, Zohar Yakhini
Displacing fossil fuels and their derivatives with renewables, and increasing sustainable food production are among the major challenges facing the world in the coming decades. A possible, sustainable direction for addressing this challenge is the production of biomass and the conversion of this biomass to the required products through a complex system coined biorefinery. Terrestrial biomass and microalgae are possible sources; however, concerns over net energy balance, potable water use, environmental hazards, and uncertainty in the processing technologies raise questions regarding their actual potential to meet the anticipated food, feed, and energy challenges in a sustainable way...
March 15, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masaru Nakano, Takane Hori, Eiichiro Araki, Shuichi Kodaira, Satoshi Ide
Recent studies of slow earthquakes along plate boundaries have shown that tectonic tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, very-low-frequency events (VLFEs), and slow-slip events (SSEs) often accompany each other and appear to share common source faults. However, the source processes of slow events occurring in the shallow part of plate boundaries are not well known because seismic observations have been limited to land-based stations, which offer poor resolution beneath offshore plate boundaries. Here we use data obtained from seafloor observation networks in the Nankai trough, southwest of Japan, to investigate shallow VLFEs in detail...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
William B Driskell, James R Payne
During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, unprecedented volumes of dispersant were applied both on the surface and at depth. Application at depth was intended to disperse the oil into smaller microdroplets that would increase biodegradation and also reduce the volumes buoyantly rising to the surface, thereby reducing surface exposures, recovery efforts, and potential stranding. In forensically examining 5300 offshore water samples for the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) effort, profiles of deep-plume oil droplets (from filtered water samples) were compared with those also containing dispersant indicators to reveal a previously hypothesized but undocumented, accelerated dissolution of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the plume samples...
March 11, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Thierry Baussant, Marianne Nilsen, Elisa Ravagnan, Stig Westerlund, Sreerekha Ramanand
This study aimed at providing confidence in the predictability of the impacts of drill cuttings (DC) discharge on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. L. pertusa was exposed to DC from offshore exploration in the lab with the goal to assess precautionary thresholds of effects. Two exposure scenarios with DC were tested: a long-term (LT) pulsed exposure (12 weeks, peak concentrations: 2-50 mg/L, mean concentrations: 1-25 mg/L) and a short-term (ST) continuous exposure (2.5 weeks, mean concentrations: 4-42 mg/L)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
L M Oliver, W S Fisher, L Fore, A Smith, P Bradley
Coral reef condition on the south shore of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was assessed at various distances from Charlotte Amalie, the most densely populated city on the island. Human influence in the area includes industrial activity, wastewater discharge, cruise ship docks, and impervious surfaces throughout the watershed. Anthropogenic activity was characterized using a landscape development intensity (LDI) index, sedimentation threat (ST) estimates, and water quality (WQ) impairments in the near-coastal zone...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Pascal Audet, Andrew J Schaeffer
At subduction zones, the deep seismogenic transition from a frictionally locked to steady sliding interface is thought to primarily reflect changes in rheology and fluid pressure and is generally located offshore. The development of fluid pressures within a seismic low-velocity layer (LVL) remains poorly constrained due to the scarcity of dense, continuous onshore-offshore broadband seismic arrays. We image the subducting Juan de Fuca oceanic plate in northern Cascadia using onshore-offshore teleseismic data and find that the signature of the LVL does not extend into the locked zone...
March 2018: Science Advances
Dana K Briscoe, Sabrina Fossette, Kylie L Scales, Elliott L Hazen, Steven J Bograd, Sara M Maxwell, Elizabeth A McHuron, Patrick W Robinson, Carey Kuhn, Daniel P Costa, Larry B Crowder, Rebecca L Lewison
Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) are central-place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their young. During this time, habitat selection is a function of prey availability and proximity to the rookery, which has important implications for reproductive and population success...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Gregory Poi, Esmaeil Shahsavari, Arturo Aburto-Medina, Puah Chum Mok, Andrew S Ball
Bioaugmentation or the addition of microbes to contaminated sites has been widely used to treat contaminated soil or water; however this approach is often limited to laboratory based studies. In the present study, large scale bioaugmentation has been applied to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum facility. Initial TPH concentrations of 1564 mg L-1 in the field were reduced to 89 mg L-1 over 32 days. This reduction was accompanied by improved ecotoxicity, as shown by Brassica rapa germination numbers that increased from 52 at day 0 to 82% by the end of the treatment...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Brian P DiMento, Robert P Mason
Many studies have recognized abiotic photochemical degradation as an important sink of methylmercury (CH3 Hg) in sunlit surface waters, but the rate-controlling factors remain poorly understood. The overall objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the relative importance of photochemical reactions in the degradation of CH3 Hg in surface waters across a variety of marine ecosystems by extending the range of water types studied. Experiments were conducted using surface water collected from coastal sites in Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine, as well as offshore sites on the New England continental shelf break, the equatorial Pacific, and the Arctic Ocean...
November 20, 2017: Marine Chemistry
S E Lester, J M Stevens, R R Gentry, C V Kappel, T W Bell, C J Costello, S D Gaines, D A Kiefer, C C Maue, J E Rensel, R D Simons, L Washburn, C White
Marine spatial planning (MSP) seeks to reduce conflicts and environmental impacts, and promote sustainable use of marine ecosystems. Existing MSP approaches have successfully determined how to achieve target levels of ocean area for particular uses while minimizing costs and impacts, but they do not provide a framework that derives analytical solutions in order to co-ordinate siting of multiple uses while balancing the effects of planning on each sector in the system. We develop such a framework for guiding offshore aquaculture (bivalve, finfish, and kelp farming) development in relation to existing sectors and environmental concerns (wild-capture fisheries, viewshed quality, benthic pollution, and disease spread) in California, USA...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
S Massey
Background: Studies on work-leave rotation pattern and work place injuries among offshore oil and gas workers have been few and limited to a 2- or 3-week rotation schedule. Aims: To examine incidence of workplace injury in relation to the duration of time into work rotation for extended work schedules up to 24 weeks. Methods: Six-year injury data on four offshore installations were extracted. Data were analysed for incidence of injury over time and relative risk using linear trend lines and regression...
February 28, 2018: Occupational Medicine
M Golam Yasin, Md Abdul Alim, Syed Ali Ahasan, Md Nuruzzaman Munsi, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury, Takeshi Hatta, Naotoshi Tsuji, Md Motahar Hussain Mondal
The prevalence of snail-borne trematode (SBT) infections in farm animals on the offshore Saint (St.) Martin's Island of Bangladesh were 68.9% for cattle, 76.7% for buffaloes, 56.3% for goats, respectively. Examination of fecal samples showed that paramphistomes infection was the most common at 50.5% followed by schistosomes at 23.7% and Fasciola at 2.3%. Fasciola infection was found in cattle (1.9%) and buffaloes (16.7%) but not in goats. Schistosome infection in cattle, buffaloes and goats were 31.1%, 6.7% and 17...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Anders Stigebrandt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2018: Ambio
Lorena C A Gobbi, Izabela L Nascimento, Eduardo P Muniz, Sandra M S Rocha, Paulo S S Porto
An electrocoagulation technique using a 3.5 L reactor, with aluminum electrodes in a monopolar arrangement with polarity switch at each 10 s was used to separate oil from synthetic oily water similar in oil concentration to produced water from offshore platforms. Up to 98% of oil removal was achieved after 20 min of processing. Processing time dependence of the oil removal and pH was measured and successfully adjusted to exponential models, indicating a pseudo first order behavior. Statistical analysis was used to prove that electrical conductivity and total solids depend significantly on the concentration of electrolyte (NaCl) in the medium...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Guido Noé Rimondino, Ana Julieta Pepino, Martín Diego Manetti, Luis Olcese, Gustavo Alejandro Argüello
Long-range atmospheric transport is one of the most important ways in which persistent organic pollutants can be transported from their source to remote and pristine regions. Here, we report the results of the first Argentinian measurements of organochlorine pesticides in the Antarctic region. During a 9665-km track onboard OV ARA Puerto Deseado, within the framework of Argentinian Antarctic Expeditions, air samples were taken using high-volume samplers and analyzed using GC-μECD. HCB, HCHs, and endosulfans were the major organic pollutants found, and a north-south gradient in their concentrations was evident by comparing data from the Argentinian offshore zone to the South Scotia Sea...
February 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
R Ohata, R Masuda, Y Yamashita
The ontogenetic change in turbiditaxis (i.e. attraction to turbid waters) was examined in the larvae and juveniles of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus by testing three levels of turbidity (0, 20 and 100 ppm of kaolin). Larvae of 12, 20 and 30 mm standard length (LS ) exhibited turbiditaxis to both 20 and 100 ppm of kaolin, whereas 6 mm LS larvae and 45 mm LS juveniles did not exhibit any turbiditaxis. Turbiditaxis might explain the ontogenetic habitat shift from coastal to offshore waters reported for this species...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Emilia Guisado-Pintado, Derek W T Jackson
Low frequency, high magnitude storm events can dramatically alter coastlines, helping to relocate large volumes of sediments and changing the configuration of landforms. Increases in the number of intense cyclones occurring in the Northern Hemisphere since the 1970s is evident with more northward tracking patterns developing. This brings added potential risk to coastal environments and infrastructure in northwest Europe and therefore understanding how these high-energy storms impact sandy coasts in particular is important for future management...
February 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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