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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782576/self-represented-witnessing-the-use-of-social-media-by-asylum-seekers-in-australia-s-offshore-immigration-detention-centres
#1
Maria Rae, Rosa Holman, Amy Nethery
The act of witnessing connects audiences with distant suffering. But what happens when bearing witness becomes severely restricted? External parties, including the mainstream news media, are constrained from accessing Australia's offshore immigration detention centres. The effect is that people seeking asylum are hidden from the public and excluded from national debates. Some detainees have adopted social media as a platform to communicate their stories of flight, and their experiences of immigration detention, to a wider audience...
May 2018: Media, culture, and society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780176/sex-size-and-isotopes-cryptic-trophic-ecology-of-an-apex-predator-the-white-shark-carcharodon-carcharias
#2
G C A French, S Rizzuto, M Stürup, R Inger, S Barker, J H van Wyk, A V Towner, W O H Hughes
Demographic differences in resource use are key components of population and species ecology across the animal kingdom. White sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ) are migratory, apex predators, which have undergone significant population declines across their range. Understanding their ecology is key to ensuring that management strategies are effective. Here, we carry out the first stable isotope analyses of free-swimming white sharks in South Africa. Biopsies were collected in Gansbaai (34.5805°S, 19.3518°E) between February and July 2015...
2018: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778407/the-current-status-of-coral-reefs-and-their-vulnerability-to-climate-change-and-multiple-human-stresses-in-the-comoros-archipelago-western-indian-ocean
#3
B Cowburn, M A Samoilys, D Obura
Coral bleaching and various human stressors have degraded the coral reefs of the Comoros Archipelago in the past 40 years and rising atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to further impact marine habitats. The condition of reefs in the Comoros is poorly known; using SCUBA based methods we surveyed reef condition and resilience to bleaching at sites in Grande Comore and Mohéli in 2010 and 2016. The condition of reefs was highly variable, with a range in live coral cover between 6% and 60% and target fishery species biomass between 20 and 500 kg per ha...
May 16, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778221/morphology-and-toxicity-of-pseudo-nitzschia-species-in-the-northern-benguela-upwelling-system
#4
Deon C Louw, Gregory J Doucette, Nina Lundholm
The Benguela upwelling system, considered the world's most productive marine ecosystem, has a long record of potentially toxic diatoms belonging to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Species of Pseudo-nitzschia were reported as early as 1936 from the northern Benguela upwelling system (nBUS). For the current study, long-term phytoplankton monitoring data (2004-2011) for the Namibian coast were analysed to examine inshore and offshore temporal distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia species, their diversity and ultrastructure...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775939/biodegradation-in-seawater-of-pah-and-alkylphenols-from-produced-water-of-a-north-sea-platform
#5
Synnøve Lofthus, Inger K Almås, Peter Evans, Oliver Pelz, Odd Gunnar Brakstad
Operational planned discharges of produced water (PW) to the marine environment from offshore oil production installations, contain low concentrations of dispersed oil compounds, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated phenols (APs). Biotransformation in natural seawater (SW) of naphthalenes/PAHs and phenol/APs in field-collected PW from a North Sea platform was investigated in this biodegradation study. The PW was diluted in SW from a Norwegian fjord, and the biodegradation study was performed in slowly rotating carousels at 13 °C over a period of 62 days...
May 4, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773897/fine-scale-temperature-associated-genetic-structure-between-inshore-and-offshore-populations-of-sea-scallop-placopecten-magellanicus
#6
Sarah J Lehnert, Claudio DiBacco, Mallory Van Wyngaarden, Nicholas W Jeffery, J Ben Lowen, Emma V A Sylvester, Brendan F Wringe, Ryan R E Stanley, Lorraine C Hamilton, Ian R Bradbury
In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) has been characterized by a latitudinal genetic cline with a breakpoint between northern and southern genetic clusters occurring at ~45°N along eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. Using 96 diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) capable of discriminating between northern and southern clusters, we examined fine-scale genetic structure of scallops among 27 sample locations, spanning the largest geographic range evaluated in this species to date (~37-51°N)...
May 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772008/transient-response-of-the-northwestern-iberian-upwelling-regime
#7
Nuno Gonçalo Ferreira Cordeiro, Jesus Dubert, Rita Nolasco, Eric Desmond Barton
The hydrography and dynamics of NW Iberian margin were explored for July 2009, based on a set of in situ and remote sensing observations. Zonal sections of standard CTD casts, towed CTD (SeaSoar), Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) and Lagrangian surveys were made to characterize cycles of upwelling and relaxation in this region. Two periods of northerly winds, bounded by relaxation periods, were responsible for the formation of an upwelling front extending to the shelf edge. An equatorward flow was quickly set up on the shelf responding to the northerly wind pulses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767546/examining-courses-of-sleep-quality-and-sleepiness-in-full-2-weeks-on-2-weeks-off-offshore-day-shift-rotations
#8
V Riethmeister, U Bültmann, M R De Boer, M Gordijn, S Brouwer
To better understand sleep quality and sleepiness problems offshore, we examined courses of sleep quality and sleepiness in full 2-weeks on/2-weeks off offshore day shift rotations by comparing pre-offshore (1 week), offshore (2 weeks) and post-offshore (1 week) work periods. A longitudinal observational study was conducted among N=42 offshore workers. Sleep quality was measured subjectively with two daily questions and objectively with actigraphy, measuring: time in bed (TIB), total sleep time (TST), sleep latency (SL) and sleep efficiency percentage (SE%)...
May 16, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765639/structure-and-phylogeography-of-two-tropical-predators-spinner-stenella-longirostris-and-pantropical-spotted-s-attenuata-dolphins-from-snp-data
#9
Matthew S Leslie, Phillip A Morin
Little is known about global patterns of genetic connectivity in pelagic dolphins, including how circumtropical pelagic dolphins spread globally following the rapid and recent radiation of the subfamily delphininae. In this study, we tested phylogeographic hypotheses for two circumtropical species, the spinner dolphin ( Stenella longirostris ) and the pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ), using more than 3000 nuclear DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each species. Analyses for population structure indicated significant genetic differentiation between almost all subspecies and populations in both species...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764809/temperature-induced-physiological-stress-and-reproductive-characteristics-of-the-migratory-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus-during-a-thermal-stress-simulation
#10
Geng Qin, Cara Johnson, Yuan Zhang, Huixian Zhang, Jianping Yin, Glen Miller, Ralph G Turingan, Eric Guisbert, Qiang Lin
Inshore-offshore migration occurs frequently in seahorse species either because of prey opportunities or because it is driven by reproduction, and variations in water temperature may dramatically change migratory seahorse behavior and physiology. The present study investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus under thermal stress and evaluated the potential effects of different temperatures on its reproduction. The results showed that the thermal tolerance of the seahorses was time dependent...
May 15, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764618/investigating-daily-fatigue-scores-during-two-week-offshore-day-shifts
#11
Vanessa Riethmeister, Ute Bültmann, Marijke Gordijn, Sandra Brouwer, Michiel de Boer
OBJECTIVES: This study examined daily scores of fatigue and circadian rhythm markers over two-week offshore day shift periods. METHODS: A prospective cohort study among N = 60 offshore day-shift workers working two-week offshore shifts was conducted. Offshore day shifts lasted from 07:00 - 19:00 h. Fatigue was measured objectively with pre- and post-shift scores of the 3-minute psychomotor vigilance tasks (PVT-B) parameters (reaction times, number of lapses, errors and false starts) and subjectively with pre- and post-shift Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) ratings...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761039/fine-grained-compositional-analysis-of-port-everglades-inlet-microbiome-using-high-throughput-dna-sequencing
#12
Lauren O'Connell, Song Gao, Donald McCorquodale, Jay Fleisher, Jose V Lopez
Background: Similar to natural rivers, manmade inlets connect inland runoff to the ocean. Port Everglades Inlet (PEI) is a busy cargo and cruise ship port in South Florida, which can act as a source of pollution to surrounding beaches and offshore coral reefs. Understanding the composition and fluctuations of bacterioplankton communities ("microbiomes") in major port inlets is important due to potential impacts on surrounding environments. We hypothesize seasonal microbial fluctuations, which were profiled by high throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and analysis...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760881/upwelling-and-eddies-affect-connectivity-among-local-populations-of-the-goldeye-rockfish-sebastes-thompsoni-pisces-scorpaenoidei
#13
Hyo Jae Yu, Jin-Koo Kim
The goldeye rockfish, Sebastes thompsoni , commercial rockfish catch in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, may influence its population structure. To clarify the population genetic structure of Korean S. thompsoni and its degree of hybridization with the most close species, Sebastes joyneri , we analyzed a mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region and eleven polymorphic microsatellite (ms) loci. S. joyneri individuals were clearly distinguished from S. thompsoni by the mtDNA control region and ms loci results, with single interspecific hybridization between two species suggesting no impact on genetic structure of S...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760118/icebergs-sea-ice-blue-carbon-and-antarctic-climate-feedbacks
#14
David K A Barnes, Andrew Fleming, Chester J Sands, Maria Liliana Quartino, Dolores Deregibus
Sea ice, including icebergs, has a complex relationship with the carbon held within animals (blue carbon) in the polar regions. Sea-ice losses around West Antarctica's continental shelf generate longer phytoplankton blooms but also make it a hotspot for coastal iceberg disturbance. This matters because in polar regions ice scour limits blue carbon storage ecosystem services, which work as a powerful negative feedback on climate change (less sea ice increases phytoplankton blooms, benthic growth, seabed carbon and sequestration)...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760108/anatomy-of-a-glacial-meltwater-discharge-event-in-an-antarctic-cove
#15
Michael P Meredith, Ulrike Falk, Anna Valeria Bers, Andreas Mackensen, Irene R Schloss, Eduardo Ruiz Barlett, Kerstin Jerosch, Adrián Silva Busso, Doris Abele
Glacial meltwater discharge from Antarctica is a key influence on the marine environment, impacting ocean circulation, sea level and productivity of the pelagic and benthic ecosystems. The responses elicited depend strongly on the characteristics of the meltwater releases, including timing, spatial structure and geochemical composition. Here we use isotopic tracers to reveal the time-varying pattern of meltwater during a discharge event from the Fourcade Glacier into Potter Cove, northern Antarctic Peninsula...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758901/pharmaceutical-residues-are-widespread-in-baltic-sea-coastal-and-offshore-waters-screening-for-pharmaceuticals-and-modelling-of-environmental-concentrations-of-carbamazepine
#16
Berndt Björlenius, Mátyás Ripszám, Peter Haglund, Richard H Lindberg, Mats Tysklind, Jerker Fick
The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755965/the-development-of-long-term-adverse-health-effects-in-oil-spill-cleanup-workers-of-the-deepwater-horizon-offshore-drilling-rig-disaster
#17
Mark A D'Andrea, G Kesava Reddy
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term adverse health effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Gulf oil spill exposure in workers who participated in its cleanup work. Methods: Medical charts of both the oil spill exposed and unexposed subjects were reviewed. The changes in the white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels, as well as their pulmonary and cardiac functions were evaluated...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755445/coral-bacterial-core-abundance-and-network-complexity-as-proxies-for-anthropogenic-pollution
#18
Deborah C A Leite, Joana F Salles, Emiliano N Calderon, Clovis B Castro, Adalto Bianchini, Joseane A Marques, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Raquel S Peixoto
Acclimatization via changes in the stable (core) or the variable microbial diversity and/or abundance is an important element in the adaptation of coral species to environmental changes. Here, we explored the spatial-temporal dynamics, diversity and interactions of variable and core bacterial populations associated with the coral Mussismilia hispida and the surrounding water. This survey was performed on five reefs along a transect from the coast (Reef 1) to offshore (Reef 5), representing a gradient of influence of the river mouth, for almost 12 months (4 sampling times), in the dry and rainy seasons...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755152/eco-evolutionary-processes-generating-diversity-among-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-populations-off-baja-california-mexico
#19
Iris Segura-García, Liliana Rojo-Arreola, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares, Gisela Heckel, Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso, Rus Hoelzel
For highly mobile species that nevertheless show fine-scale patterns of population genetic structure, the relevant evolutionary mechanisms determining structure remain poorly understood. The bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ) is one such species, exhibiting complex patterns of genetic structure associated with local habitat dependence in various geographic regions. Here we studied bottlenose dolphin populations in the Gulf of California and Pacific Ocean off Baja California where habitat is highly structured to test associations between ecology, habitat dependence and genetic differentiation...
2018: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754090/hazard-potential-of-widespread-but-hidden-historic-offshore-heavy-metal-pb-zn-contamination-gulf-of-cadiz-spain
#20
Till J J Hanebuth, Mary Lee King, Isabel Mendes, Susana Lebreiro, Francisco J Lobo, Ferdinand K Oberle, Laura Antón, Paulo Alves Ferreira, Maria Isabel Reguera
Natural and human-induced seabed sediment disturbances affect wide areas of the global coastal ocean. These recurrent to chronic disturbances mobilize significant amounts of material, including substances that have the potential to significantly harm the environment once re-released. This very challenging issue is difficult to deal with if sub-surface contaminant concentrations are unknown. Based on the analysis of 11 new, up to 5-m long sediment cores taken offshore in the Gulf of Cadiz, the contamination history (using the trace elements lead and zinc) is well documented over major parts of the gulf...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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