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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817731/wave-energy-resource-of-brazil-an-analysis-from-35-years-of-era-interim-reanalysis-data
#1
Rafael Luz Espindola, Alex Maurício Araújo
This paper presents a characterization of the wave power resource and an analysis of the wave power output for three (AquaBuoy, Pelamis and Wave Dragon) different wave energy converters (WEC) over the Brazilian offshore. To do so it used a 35 years reanalysis database from the ERA-Interim project. Annual and seasonal statistical analyzes of significant height and energy period were performed, and the directional variability of the incident waves were evaluated. The wave power resource was characterized in terms of the statistical parameters of mean, maximum, 95th percentile and standard deviation, and in terms of the temporal variability coefficients COV, SV e MV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813494/passive-and-semi-active-heave-compensator-project-design-methodology-and-control-strategies
#2
William Humberto Cuellar Sanchez, Tássio Melo Linhares, André Benine Neto, Eugênio Libório Feitosa Fortaleza
Heave compensator is a system that mitigates transmission of heave movement from vessels to the equipment in the vessel. In drilling industry, a heave compensator enables drilling in offshore environments. Heave compensator attenuates movement transmitted from the vessel to the drill string and drill bit ensuring security and efficiency of the offshore drilling process. Common types of heave compensators are passive, active and semi-active compensators. This article presents 4 main points. First, a bulk modulus analysis obtains a simple condition to determine if the bulk modulus can be neglected in the design of hydropneumatic passive heave compensator...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812568/gene-expression-plasticity-as-a-mechanism-of-coral-adaptation-to-a-variable-environment
#3
Carly D Kenkel, Mikhail V Matz
Local adaptation is ubiquitous, but the molecular mechanisms that give rise to this ecological phenomenon remain largely unknown. A year-long reciprocal transplant of mustard hill coral (Porites astreoides) between a highly environmentally variable inshore habitat and a more stable offshore habitat demonstrated that populations exhibit phenotypic signatures that are consistent with local adaptation. We characterized the genomic basis of this adaptation in both coral hosts and their intracellular symbionts (Symbiodinium sp...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808286/source-and-dynamics-of-a-volcanic-caldera-unrest-campi-flegrei-1983-84
#4
Luca De Siena, Giovanni Chiodini, Giuseppe Vilardo, Edoardo Del Pezzo, Mario Castellano, Simona Colombelli, Nicola Tisato, Guido Ventura
Despite their importance for eruption forecasting the causes of seismic rupture processes during caldera unrest are still poorly reconstructed from seismic images. Seismic source locations and waveform attenuation analyses of earthquakes in the Campi Flegrei area (Southern Italy) during the 1983-1984 unrest have revealed a 4-4.5 km deep NW-SE striking aseismic zone of high attenuation offshore Pozzuoli. The lateral features and the principal axis of the attenuation anomaly correspond to the main source of ground uplift during the unrest...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800045/textual-synthesis-of-policies-and-guidance-statements-for-remote-healthcare-practitioners-on-managing-medical-emergencies-in-the-oil-and-gas-industry-a-systematic-review-protocol
#5
Kennedy A Osakwe, Kay Cooper, Derek Stewart, Cherry L Wainwright, Susan Klein
The objective of this review is to collate, synthesize and present the available evidence on the policies and guidance statements for remote healthcare practitioners on managing medical emergencies in the offshore oil and gas industry.More specifically, the review seeks to answer the following questions.
August 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799658/dynamic-blowout-risk-analysis-using-loss-functions
#6
Majeed Abimbola, Faisal Khan
Most risk analysis approaches are static; failing to capture evolving conditions. Blowout, the most feared accident during a drilling operation, is a complex and dynamic event. The traditional risk analysis methods are useful in the early design stage of drilling operation while falling short during evolving operational decision making. A new dynamic risk analysis approach is presented to capture evolving situations through dynamic probability and consequence models. The dynamic consequence models, the focus of this study, are developed in terms of loss functions...
August 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796571/the-fate-and-impact-of-internal-waves-in-nearshore-ecosystems
#7
C B Woodson
Internal waves are widespread features of global oceans that play critical roles in mixing and thermohaline circulation. Similarly to surface waves, internal waves can travel long distances, ultimately breaking along continental margins. These breaking waves can transport deep ocean water and associated constituents (nutrients, larvae, and acidic low-oxygen waters) onto the shelf and locally enhance turbulence and mixing, with important effects on nearshore ecosystems. We are only beginning to understand the role internal waves play in shaping nearshore ecosystems...
August 10, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794497/the-trophic-role-of-a-large-marine-predator-the-tiger-shark-galeocerdo-cuvier
#8
Luciana C Ferreira, Michele Thums, Michael R Heithaus, Adam Barnett, Kátya G Abrantes, Bonnie J Holmes, Lara M Zamora, Ashley J Frisch, Julian G Pepperell, Derek Burkholder, Jeremy Vaudo, Robert Nowicki, Jessica Meeuwig, Mark G Meekan
Tiger sharks were sampled off the western (Ningaloo Reef, Shark Bay) and eastern (the Great Barrier Reef; GBR, Queensland and New South Wales; NSW) coastlines of Australia. Multiple tissues were collected from each shark to investigate the effects of location, size and sex of sharks on δ(13)C and δ(15)N stable isotopes among these locations. Isotopic composition of sharks sampled in reef and seagrass habitats (Shark Bay, GBR) reflected seagrass-based food-webs, whereas at Ningaloo Reef analysis revealed a dietary transition between pelagic and seagrass food-webs...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791155/simulated-seal-scarer-sounds-scare-porpoises-but-not-seals-species-specific-responses-to-12%C3%A2-khz-deterrence-sounds
#9
Lonnie Mikkelsen, Line Hermannsen, Kristian Beedholm, Peter Teglberg Madsen, Jakob Tougaard
Acoustic harassment devices (AHD) or 'seal scarers' are used extensively, not only to deter seals from fisheries, but also as mitigation tools to deter marine mammals from potentially harmful sound sources, such as offshore pile driving. To test the effectiveness of AHDs, we conducted two studies with similar experimental set-ups on two key species: harbour porpoises and harbour seals. We exposed animals to 500 ms tone bursts at 12 kHz simulating that of an AHD (Lofitech), but with reduced output levels (source peak-to-peak level of 165 dB re 1 µPa)...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781184/contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-the-open-sea-waters-of-the-western-mediterranean
#10
Miroslav Brumovský, Jitka Bečanová, Jiří Kohoutek, Mireno Borghini, Luca Nizzetto
Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781067/spatial-and-temporal-variation-of-intertidal-nematodes-in-the-northern-gulf-of-mexico-after-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill
#11
Pamela M Brannock, Jyotsna Sharma, Holly M Bik, W Kelley Thomas, Kenneth M Halanych
Nematodes are an abundant and diverse interstitial component of sedimentary habitats that have been reported to serve as important bioindicators. Though the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster occurred 60 km offshore in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) at a depth of 1525 m, oil rose to the surface and washed ashore, subjecting large segments of coastline in the northern GOM to contamination. Previous metabarcoding work shows intertidal nematode communities were negatively affected by the oil spill. Here we examine the subsequent recovery of nematode community structure at five sites along the Alabama coast over a two-year period...
July 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776682/vertical-zonation-and-functional-diversity-of-fish-assemblages-revealed-by-rov-videos-at-oil-platforms-in-the-gulf
#12
F Torquato, H M Jensen, P Range, S S Bach, R Ben-Hamadou, E E Sigsgaard, P F Thomsen, P R Møller, R Riera
An assessment of vertical distribution, diel migration, taxonomic and functional diversity of fishes was carried out at offshore platforms in The (Arabian-Iranian-Persian) Gulf. Video footage was recorded at the Al Shaheen oil field between 2007 and 2014 using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). A total of 12 822 individual fishes, from 83 taxonomic groups were recorded around the platforms. All the species identified are considered native to The Gulf, although Cyclichthys orbicularis and Lutjanus indicus were recorded for the first time in Qatari waters...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771590/exploring-the-larval-fish-community-of-the-central-red-sea-with-an-integrated-morphological-and-molecular-approach
#13
Stamatina Isari, John K Pearman, Laura Casas, Craig T Michell, Joao Curdia, Michael L Berumen, Xabier Irigoien
An important aspect of population dynamics for coral reef fishes is the input of new individuals from the pelagic larval pool. However, the high biodiversity and the difficulty of identifying larvae of closely related species represent obstacles to more fully understanding these populations. In this study, we combined morphology and genetic barcoding (Cytochrome Oxidase I gene) to characterize the seasonal patterns of the larval fish community at two sites in close proximity to coral reefs in the central-north Red Sea: one shallower inshore location (50 m depth) and a nearby site located in deeper and more offshore waters (~ 500 m depth)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768216/a-multi-omics-based-ecological-analysis-of-coastal-marine-sediments-from-gladstone-in-australia-s-central-queensland-and-heron-island-a-nearby-fringing-platform-reef
#14
D J Beale, J Crosswell, A V Karpe, W Ahmed, M Williams, P D Morrison, S Metcalfe, C Staley, M J Sadowsky, E A Palombo, A D L Steven
The impact of anthropogenic factors arising from point and non-point pollution sources at a multi commodity marine port and its surrounding ecosystems were studied using sediment samples collected from a number of onshore (Gladstone Harbour and Facing Island) and offshore (Heron Island and Fitzroy Reefs) sites in Australia's Central Queensland. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals, organic carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), emerging chemicals of concern (ECC) and sterols. Similarly, the biological and biochemical interaction between the reef and its environment was analyzed by the multi-omic tools of next-generation sequencing characterization of the bacterial community and microbial community metabolic profiling...
July 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765623/lagrangian-dynamical-geography-of-the-gulf-of-mexico
#15
P Miron, F J Beron-Vera, M J Olascoaga, J Sheinbaum, P Pérez-Brunius, G Froyland
We construct a Markov-chain representation of the surface-ocean Lagrangian dynamics in a region occupied by the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and adjacent portions of the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic using satellite-tracked drifter trajectory data, the largest collection so far considered. From the analysis of the eigenvectors of the transition matrix associated with the chain, we identify almost-invariant attracting sets and their basins of attraction. With this information we decompose the GoM's geography into weakly dynamically interacting provinces, which constrain the connectivity between distant locations within the GoM...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763655/improved-source-apportionment-of-pahs-and-pb-by-integrating-pb-stable-isotopes-and-positive-matrix-factorization-application-pahs-a-historical-record-case-study-from-the-northern-south-china-sea
#16
Minggang Cai, Yan Lin, Meng Chen, Weifeng Yang, Huihong Du, Ye Xu, Shayen Cheng, Fangjian Xu, Jiajun Hong, Mian Chen, Hongwei Ke
To obtain the historical changes of pyrogenic sources, integrated source apportionment methods, which include PAH compositions, diagnostic ratios (DRs), Pb isotopic ratios, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, were developed and applied in sediments of the northern South China Sea. These methods provided a gradually clear picture of energy structural change. Spatially, Σ15PAH (11.3 to 95.5ng/g) and Pb (10.2 to 74.6μg/g) generally exhibited decreasing concentration gradient offshore; while the highest levels of PAHs and Pb were observed near the southern Taiwan Strait, which may be induced by accumulation of different fluvial input...
July 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763203/shallow-gas-migration-along-hydrocarbon-wells-an-unconsidered-anthropogenic-source-of-biogenic-methane-in-the-north-sea
#17
Lisa Vielstädte, Matthias Haeckel, Jens Karstens, Peter Linke, Mark Schmidt, Lea Steinle, Klaus Wallmann
Shallow gas migration along hydrocarbon wells constitutes a potential methane emission pathway that currently is not recognized in any regulatory framework or greenhouse gas inventory. Recently, the first methane emission measurements at three abandoned offshore wells in the Central North Sea (CNS) were conducted showing that considerable amounts of biogenic methane originating from shallow gas accumulations in the overburden of deep reservoirs were released by the boreholes. Here, we identify numerous wells poking through shallow gas pockets in 3-D seismic data of the CNS indicating that about one-third of the wells may leak, potentially releasing a total of 3-17 kt of methane per year into the North Sea...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755812/increasing-contribution-of-coccolithophorids-to-the-phytoplankton-in-the-northeastern-black-sea
#18
Olga N Yasakova, Yuri B Okolodkov, Valeriy K Chasovnikov
During 2005-2011, 418 phytoplankton samples were collected in Novorossiysk and Tuapse ports and near the resort cities of Anapa and Gelendzhik in the northeastern Black Sea. The maximal values of both abundance and biomass of phytoplankton related to high nutrient concentration, probably due to anthropogenic load, were observed at Novorossiysk (5.82×10(5)cells/l, 1.492g/m(3)); in other bays values were about three times lower. The annual cycle included two to four phytoplankton abundance peaks. Emiliania huxleyi was the most abundant coccolithophorid (1...
July 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742073/biological-nitrogen-fixation-in-the-oxygen-minimum-region-of-the-eastern-tropical-north-pacific-ocean
#19
Amal Jayakumar, Bonnie X Chang, Brittany Widner, Peter Bernhardt, Margaret R Mulholland, Bess B Ward
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was investigated above and within the oxygen-depleted waters of the oxygen-minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean. BNF rates were estimated using an isotope tracer method that overcame the uncertainty of the conventional bubble method by directly measuring the tracer enrichment during the incubations. Highest rates of BNF (~4 nM day(-1)) occurred in coastal surface waters and lowest detectable rates (~0.2 nM day(-1)) were found in the anoxic region of offshore stations...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740120/uncovering-offshore-financial-centers-conduits-and-sinks-in-the-global-corporate-ownership-network
#20
Javier Garcia-Bernardo, Jan Fichtner, Frank W Takes, Eelke M Heemskerk
Multinational corporations use highly complex structures of parents and subsidiaries to organize their operations and ownership. Offshore Financial Centers (OFCs) facilitate these structures through low taxation and lenient regulation, but are increasingly under scrutiny, for instance for enabling tax avoidance. Therefore, the identification of OFC jurisdictions has become a politicized and contested issue. We introduce a novel data-driven approach for identifying OFCs based on the global corporate ownership network, in which over 98 million firms (nodes) are connected through 71 million ownership relations...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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