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Anthony T Zimmer, HakSoo Ha
Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several examples where building materials were broadly deployed into society only to find that health and environmental problems resulted in unintended sustainability consequences. In the following paper, we use lead and asbestos as legacy building materials to show their similar historical trends and sustainability consequences...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Roger J H Herbert, Ken Collins, Jenny Mallinson, Alice E Hall, Josephine Pegg, Kathryn Ross, Leo Clarke, Tom Clements
With increasing coastal infrastructure and use of novel materials there is a need to investigate the colonisation of assemblages associated with new structures, how these differ to natural and other artificial habitats and their potential impact on regional biodiversity. The colonisation of Europe's first artificial surf reef (ASR) was investigated at Boscombe on the south coast of England (2009-2014) and compared with assemblages on existing natural and artificial habitats. The ASR consists of geotextile bags filled with sand located 220m offshore on a sandy sea bed at a depth of 0-5m...
2017: PloS One
Rina Lourena da S Medeiros, Sidnei Oliveira Souza, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira Araújo, Djalma Ribeiro da Silva, Tatiane de A Maranhão
This paper describes a method development for chlorine determination through the formation of MgCl molecule, applied for the first time for Cl quantification, by high resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS) in environmental samples. Pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were optimized as well as the use of chemical modifier. Determinations were carried out at the wavelength of 377.010 and the compromise conditions of the graphite furnace temperature program were 500°C and 2500°C for pyrolysis and vaporization, respectively, using 10µg of chemical modifier Pd...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
Tomoya Kataoka, Cathryn Clarke Murray, Atsuhiko Isobe
The abundance of marine macro-debris was quantified with high spatial resolution by applying an image processing technique to archived shoreline aerial photographs taken over Vancouver Island, Canada. The photographs taken from an airplane at oblique angles were processed by projective transformation for georeferencing, where five reference points were defined by comparing aerial photographs with satellite images of Google Earth. Thereafter, pixels of marine debris were extracted based on their color differences from the background beaches...
September 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Kay Vopel, Chris Pook, Peter Wilson, John Robertson
Plans to exploit an offshore source of iron sand in South Taranaki Bight (STB), New Zealand, caused concerns that such exploitation may expose benthic and pelagic biota to elevated trace metal concentrations. We conducted dilute-acid extractions and standard elutriate tests to investigate the potential of this exploitation to (1) create a new seafloor with elevated trace metal content, (2) mobilise trace metals during iron sand extraction and, (3) enrich the returning process seawater, which feeds iron sand through mills, with trace metals...
September 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Loren McClenachan, Grace O'Connor, Benjamin P Neal, John M Pandolfi, Jeremy B C Jackson
Massive declines in population abundances of marine animals have been documented over century-long time scales. However, analogous loss of spatial extent of habitat-forming organisms is less well known because georeferenced data are rare over long time scales, particularly in subtidal, tropical marine regions. We use high-resolution historical nautical charts to quantify changes to benthic structure over 240 years in the Florida Keys, finding an overall loss of 52% (SE, 6.4%) of the area of the seafloor occupied by corals...
September 2017: Science Advances
Junhui Chen, Tongzhu Han, Xiaotong Li, Xiuping He, Yanlong Wang, Farong Chen, Xincheng Song, Deshan Zhou, Xiaoru Wang
For the first time, the composition, concentration and distribution characteristics of typical lipophilic marine algal toxins (LMATs) are investigated in surface seawater, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments from the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, China. Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and okadaic acid (OA) were detected in offshore surface seawater samples (n=67) of the Yellow and Bohai Seas, and PTX2 was found in higher concentrations than OA. The concentrations of PTX2 were between 0.49 and 14.14ng/L. OA, dinophysistoxin-1(DTX1), PTX2 and gymnodimine (GYM) were detected in the nearshore surface seawater samples (n=20) of the Haizhou Bay of the Yellow Sea...
September 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
R Eugene Turner, Nancy N Rabalais, Dubravko Justić
We quantified trends in the 1985 to 2015 summer bottom-water temperature on the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) continental shelf for data collected at 88 stations with depths ranging from 3 to 63 m. The analysis was supplemented with monthly data collected from 1963 to 1965 in the same area. The seasonal summer peak in average bottom-water temperature varied concurrently with air temperature, but with a 2- to 5-month lag. The summer bottom-water temperature declined gradually with depth from 30 oC at stations closest to the shore, to 20 oC at the offshore edge of the study area, and increased an average 0...
2017: PloS One
Daniel M Coffey, Aaron B Carlisle, Elliott L Hazen, Barbara A Block
Salmon sharks Lamna ditropis are highly migratory, upper trophic level predators in North Pacific ecosystems. We analysed a multi-year satellite tag dataset to investigate the habitat use of female salmon sharks across their broad range in the eastern North Pacific (NEP) and identified key environmental factors that influence vertical distribution. Salmon sharks displayed remarkable plasticity in habitat use across disparate oceanographic regions in the NEP and increased utilization of deeper waters in offshore habitats...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ronald A Kastelein, Nancy Jennings, Aimée Kommeren, Lean Helder-Hoek, Jessica Schop
The foundations of offshore wind turbines are attached to the sea bed by percussion pile driving. Pile driving sounds may affect the behavior of fish. Acoustic dose-behavioral response relationships were determined for sea bass in a pool exposed for 20 min to pile driving sounds at seven mean received root-mean-square sound pressure levels [SPLrms; range: 130-166 dB re 1 μPa; single strike sound exposure level (SELss) range: 122-158; 6 dB steps]. Initial responses (sudden, short-lived changes in swimming speed and direction) and sustained responses (changes in school cohesion, swimming depth, and speed) were quantified...
August 31, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Fernando L Mantelatto, Mariana Terossi, Mariana Negri, Raquel C Buranelli, Rafael Robles, Tatiana Magalhães, Ana Francisca Tamburus, Natália Rossi, Mayara J Miyazaki
DNA barcoding has emerged as an efficient tool for taxonomy and other biodiversity fields. The vast and speciose group of decapod crustaceans is not an exception in the current scenario and comparing short DNA fragments has enabled researchers to overcome some taxonomic impediments to help broadening knowledge on the diversity of this group of crustaceans. Brazil is considered as an important area in terms of global marine biodiversity and some regions stand out in terms of decapod fauna, such as the São Paulo coastline...
September 5, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Alexander Koptev, Sierd Cloetingh, Evgueni Burov, Thomas François, Taras Gerya
Results of a 3D modeling study inspired by recent seismic tomography of the Northern Atlantic mantle suggest that a complex pattern of hot mantle distribution with long horizontal flows originating from the Iceland mantle plume has been the norm in the geological past. In the Northern Atlantic the Iceland plume has a strong long-distance impact on intraplate deformation affecting both onshore and offshore parts of Norway's rifted margin. As a result, this margin is characterized by large magnitude differential topography sustained over at least several tens of Myr...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chundan Zhang, Zhonghua Wang, Dijun Zhang, Jun Zhou, Chenyang Lu, Xiurong Su, Dewen Ding
Vibrio bacteria live in both marine and freshwater habitats and are associated with aquatic animals. Vibrio vulnificus is a pathogenic bacterium that infects people and livestock. It is usually found in offshore waters or within fish and shellfish. This study presents a comparative proteomic analysis of the outer membrane protein (OMP) changes in V. vulnificus proteins after stimulation with sewage from sewage drains. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS, 32 protein spots with significant differences in abundance were identified and characterized...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
E E Manuel Nicolaus, Jon Barry, Thi P C Bolam, Pascal Lorance, Florianne Marandel, Sophy R McCully Phillips, Suzanna Neville, Jim R Ellis
Trace metal concentrations in muscle and liver tissues from two offshore species of skate were examined. Concentrations of mercury in muscle of Leucoraja circularis (n=20; 23-110.5cm total length, 157-490m water depth) and L. fullonica (n=24; 28.5-100cm total length, 130-426m water depth) were 0.02-1.8 and 0.04-0.61mgkg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of both As and Hg increased with total length. Only the largest specimen had a concentration of Hg in muscle >1.0mgkg(-1). Data were limited for specimens>90cm long, and further studies on contaminants in larger-bodied skates could usefully be undertaken...
August 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Kevin M Purcell, J Kevin Craig, James M Nance, Martin D Smith, Lori S Bennear
The northwestern Gulf of Mexico shelf experiences one of the largest seasonal hypoxic zones in the western hemisphere. Hypoxia (dissolved oxygen, DO ≤ 2.0 mg·L-1) is most severe from May to August during the height of the Gulf shrimp fishery, but its effects on the fishery are not well known. Prior studies indicate that hypoxia alters the spatial dynamics of shrimp and other species through habitat loss and aggregation in nearby oxygenated refuge habitats. We hypothesized that hypoxia-induced changes in the distribution of shrimp also alter the spatial dynamics of the Gulf shrimp fleet...
2017: PloS One
Daniel R Richards, Daniel A Friess
With rapid urbanization in the coastal zone and increasing habitat losses, it is imperative to understand how urban development affects coastal biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Furthermore, it is important to understand how habitat fragments can best be incorporated into broader land use planning and coastal management, in order to maximize the environmental benefits they provide. In this study, we characterized the trade-offs between (a) urban development and individual mangrove environmental indicators (habitat quality and ecosystem services), and (b) between different environmental indicators in the tropical nation of Singapore...
August 23, 2017: Environmental Management
Orangel Aguilera, Zoneibe Luz, Jorge D Carrillo-Briceño, László Kocsis, Torsten W Vennemann, Peter Mann de Toledo, Afonso Nogueira, Kamilla Borges Amorim, Heloísa Moraes-Santos, Marcia Reis Polck, Maria de Lourdes Ruivo, Ana Paula Linhares, Cassiano Monteiro-Neto
The lower Miocene Pirabas Formation in the North of Brazil was deposited under influence of the proto-Amazon River and is characterized by large changes in the ecological niches from the early Miocene onwards. To evaluate these ecological changes, the elasmobranch fauna of the fully marine, carbonate-rich beds was investigated. A diverse fauna with 24 taxa of sharks and rays was identified with the dominant groups being carcharhiniforms and myliobatiforms. This faunal composition is similar to other early Miocene assemblages from the proto-Carribbean bioprovince...
2017: PloS One
R Cotton Rockwood, John Calambokidis, Jaime Jahncke
Mortality from collisions with vessels is one of the main human causes of death for large whales. Ship strikes are rarely witnessed and the distribution of strike risk and estimates of mortality remain uncertain at best. We estimated ship strike mortality for blue humpback and fin whales in U.S. West Coast waters using a novel application of a naval encounter model. Mortality estimates from the model were far higher than current minimum estimates derived from stranding records and are closer to extrapolations adjusted for detection probabilities of dead whales...
2017: PloS One
Henrik Kusche, Nicola Hillgruber, Yvonne Rößner, Ulfert Focken
Increasing demand for fish and seafood calls for an expansion of aquaculture production. At the same time, the status of the marine environment must not be jeopardised. Stable isotopes are potential markers for tracking feed-based nutrient flows from aquaculture into marine biota. Here, we demonstrate how four experimental diets (main protein components: fishmeal, soya protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and Jatropha kernel meal) and a commercial diet induce characteristic δ(13)C and δ(15)N signals in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during nine weeks of laboratory feeding under replicate conditions...
August 18, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Noori Choi, Jeong-Hoon Kim, Nobuo Kokubun, Seongseop Park, Hosung Chung, Won Young Lee
In contrast to their terrestrial call, the offshore call of penguins during their foraging trips has been poorly studied due to the inaccessibility of the foraging site-the open ocean-to researchers. Here, we present the first description of the vocal behaviour of penguins in the open ocean and discuss the function of their vocal communication. We deployed an animal-borne camera on gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) and recorded their foraging behaviour during chick guarding. From the video recordings, we collected 598 offshore calls from 10 individuals in two breeding seasons (2014-2015 and 2015-2016), and we analysed the acoustic characteristics and behavioural contexts of these calls, including diving patterns, group association events, and foraging behaviour...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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