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Hongying Song, Jinqing Liu, Ping Yin, Yong Zhang
50 surface sediments were collected from Rizhao offshore area to determine heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, Hg) pollution. High heavy metal values were located near the two ports in the north and south study areas, which was consistent with the distribution of fine-grained sediments. According to threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL), Cu and As had occasionally adverse biological effects on the aquatic ecosystems. The enrichment factor (EF) values showed that most of the study area was moderate or moderately severe enrichment for As, and minor enrichment for Pb, but Hg was only moderately enriched in the river estuaries...
April 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Lygia Sega Nogueira, Adalto Bianchini, Scott Smith, Marianna Basso Jorge, Rachael L Diamond, Chris M Wood
Metals are present in aquatic environments as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs, and may induce toxicity to organisms. One of the main factors that influence this toxicity in fresh water is natural organic matter (NOM) but all NOMs are not the same in this regard. In sea water, possible protection by marine NOMs is not well understood. Thus, our study isolated marine NOMs by solid-phase extraction from five different sites and characterized them by excitation-emission fluorescence analysis-one inshore (terrigenous origin), two offshore (autochthonous origin), and two intermediate in composition (indicative of a mixed origin)...
2017: PeerJ
Charlotte R Dromard, Mathilde Guéné, Yolande Bouchon-Navaro, Soazig Lemoine, Sébastien Cordonnier, Claude Bouchon
Chlordecone is an organochlorine pesticide, used in the Lesser Antilles from 1972 to 1993 to fight against a banana weevil. That molecule is very persistent in the natural environment and ends up in the sea with runoff waters. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the level of contamination in several trophic groups of marine animals according to their distance from the source of pollution. Samples of suspended matter, macroalgae, herbivorous fishes, detrivorous crustaceans, zooplanktivorous fishes, first- and second-order of carnivorous fishes, and piscivorous fishes have been collected in two sites, located downstream the contaminated sites (Goyave and Petit-Bourg), in three marine habitats (coastal mangroves, seagrass beds located 1...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Krishna Das, Ophélie Holleville, Conor Ryan, Simon Berrow, Anita Gilles, Denis Ody, Loïc N Michel
The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) is the most abundant and widespread mysticete species in the Mediterranean Sea, found mostly in deep, offshore waters of the western and central portion of the region. In the Mediterranean, this species is known to feed mainly on krill, in contrast to its Atlantic counterpart, which displays a more diversified diet. The International Whaling Commission recognizes several managements units in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea and the connectivity between these populations is still being debated...
March 27, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Marta Solé, Peter Sigray, Marc Lenoir, Mike van der Schaar, Emilia Lalander, Michel André
Recent findings on cephalopods in laboratory conditions showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the statocyst, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The question remained about the contribution of the consequent near-field particle motion influence from the tank walls, to the triggering of the trauma. Offshore noise controlled exposure experiments (CEE) on common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), were conducted at three different depths and distances from the source and particle motion and sound pressure measurements were performed at each location...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
A Maksymowicz, C D Chadwell, J Ruiz, A M Tréhu, E Contreras-Reyes, W Weinrebe, J Díaz-Naveas, J C Gibson, P Lonsdale, M D Tryon
The Mw 8.8 megathrust earthquake that occurred on 27 February 2010 offshore the Maule region of central Chile triggered a destructive tsunami. Whether the earthquake rupture extended to the shallow part of the plate boundary near the trench remains controversial. The up-dip limit of rupture during large subduction zone earthquakes has important implications for tsunami generation and for the rheological behavior of the sedimentary prism in accretionary margins. However, in general, the slip models derived from tsunami wave modeling and seismological data are poorly constrained by direct seafloor geodetic observations...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Thomas K Doyle, Damien Haberlin, Jim Clohessy, Ashley Bennison, Mark Jessopp
For many marine migratory fish, comparatively little is known about the movement of individuals rather than the population. Yet, such individual-based movement data is vitally important to understand variability in migratory strategies and fidelity to foraging locations. A case in point is the economically important European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) that inhabits coastal waters during the summer months before migrating offshore to spawn and overwinter. Beyond this broad generalisation we have very limited information on the movements of individuals at coastal foraging grounds...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
J Chatterton, A Pas, S Alexander, M Leech, R Jakob-Hoff, B P Jensen, A Digby
AIMS: This initial study had the objectives of describing the concentrations of ionised calcium and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) in the blood of wild kākāpō (Strigops habroptilus) living on two islands in New Zealand, and to determine the effects of supplementary feeding on these blood parameters. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 33 kākāpō living on two offshore islands during routine health checks in 2015. Birds on Hauturu were sampled in May (n=5) and birds on Whenua Hou were sampled in July (n=15) and November (n=26)...
April 3, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Sarah M Buckley, Ruth H Thurstan, Andrew Tobin, John M Pandolfi
Aggregations forming for breeding are a critical ecological process for many species, yet these aggregations are also inherently vulnerable to exploitation. Documenting the decline of exploited populations that form breeding aggregations is becoming increasingly common, but studies tend to focus upon catch rate, often overlooking reductions in geographic range. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that catch rate and occupancy of exploited fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) decline in synchrony over time...
March 29, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Paolo Cocci, Martina Capriotti, Gilberto Mosconi, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
OBJECTIVE: this work evaluates the expression of several biomarker genes (i.e. CAT, HSPs, MT10, p53, GSTpi, ER1/2) in Mytilus galloprovincialis native specimens to identify pollution related transcriptional changes. METHODS: gene expression levels were analyzed in the gills of mussels from 5 sites along a coastal area of the central Adriatic sea, using qPCR. RESULTS: we observed higher expression levels of biomarker genes in mussels from the local harbour or river mouths than in mussels from the reference site and offshore platform...
April 3, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Sherry Krayesky-Self, William E Schmidt, Delena Phung, Caroline Henry, Thomas Sauvage, Olga Camacho, Bruce E Felgenhauer, Suzanne Fredericq
Rhodoliths are benthic calcium carbonate nodules accreted by crustose coralline red algae which recently have been identified as useful indicators of biomineral changes resulting from global climate change and ocean acidification. This study highlights the discovery that the interior of rhodoliths are marine biodiversity hotspots that function as seedbanks and temporary reservoirs of previously unknown stages in the life history of ecologically important dinoflagellate and haptophyte microalgae. Whereas the studied rhodoliths originated from offshore deep bank pinnacles in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the present study opens the door to assess the universality of endolithic stages among bloom-forming microalgae spanning different phyla, some of public health concerns (Prorocentrum) in marine ecosystems worldwide...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
A Sierra, D Jiménez-López, T Ortega, R Ponce, M J Bellanco, R Sánchez-Leal, A Gómez-Parra, J Forja
Distribution of N2O has been determined in eight cruises along three transects (Guadalquivir, Sancti Petri and Trafalgar) in the Gulf of Cadiz, during 2014 and 2015. The mean N2O value for this area was 10.0±0.9nM, with large spatial and temporal variations. Stratification in the water column has been observed; the concentration of this gas increases with the depth, because of the presence of the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) and the Mediterranean Outflow Waters (MOW). The N2O production measured in this study is mainly due to nitrification...
March 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Sang-Han Lee, Pavel P Povinec, John R M Chisholm, Isabelle Levy, Juan-Carlos Miquel, Jung-Suk Oh
The distribution of radionuclides in NW Mediterranean coastal sediments, and the processes controlling their abundance were investigated in three cores taken near the island of Porquerolles and one offshore Monaco. The sediments collected near Porquerolles were strongly anoxic due to diagenetic processes involved in the decomposition of organic matter, whereas they transitioned from oxic to anoxic at a depth of 4 cm beneath the seawater interface at Monaco. Organic carbon (OC) was more abundant in sediments at Porquerolles (by about a factor of 3-5) than at Monaco and elsewhere in the coastal NW Mediterranean...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
José C Xavier, Philip N Trathan, Filipe R Ceia, Geraint A Tarling, Stacey Adlard, Derren Fox, Ewan W J Edwards, Rui P Vieira, Renata Medeiros, Claude De Broyer, Yves Cherel
Knowledge about sexual segregation and gender-specific, or indeed individual specialization, in marine organisms has improved considerably in the past decade. In this context, we tested the "Intersexual Competition Hypothesis" for penguins by investigating the feeding ecology of Gentoo penguins during their austral winter non-breeding season. We considered this during unusual environmental conditions (i.e. the year 2009 had observations of high sea surface and air temperatures) in comparison with the long term average at Bird Island, South Georgia...
2017: PloS One
Christine Chauvin, Gilbert Le Bouar, Salim Lardjane
BACKGROUND: Sea fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations. Numerous studies have already sought to evaluate the risk level of this occupation through the analysis of the frequency and seriousness of occupational injuries. The purpose of the present study is to analyse these accidents in terms of two main characteristics of the vessels involved: the fishery type (high seas, offshore, coastal, or inshore fishery) and the fishing activity (use of passive or active gears). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Injury rates were calculated for the Brittany region and for the year 2012...
2017: International Maritime Health
Briana Hauff Salas, Joshua A Haslun, Kevin B Strychar, Peggy H Ostrom, James M Cervino
Scleractinian coral are experiencing unprecedented rates of mortality due to increases in sea surface temperatures in response to global climate change. Some coral species however, survive high temperature events due to a reduced susceptibility to bleaching. We investigated the relationship between bleaching susceptibility and expression of five metabolically related genes of Symbiodinium spp. from the coral Porites astreoides originating from an inshore and offshore reef in the Florida Keys. The acclimatization potential of Symbiodinium spp...
2017: PloS One
Lei Li, Jing-Ling Ren, Xiu-Hong Cao, Su-Mei Liu, Qiang Hao, Feng Zhou, Jing Zhang
Previous studies in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) suggest that large spring phytoplankton blooms (SPBs) have occurred in recent decades. Elevated primary production in the water column can lead to the accumulation and transformation of trace elements. Two field study cruises (including two drifting anchor surveys) were conducted on 12-19 February and from 24 March to 15 April 2009, to investigate the impact of different SPB development periods on the concentrations of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs: [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) and As(III) (arsenite) in the SYS...
March 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Joanne Ellis, Holger Anlauf, Saskia Kürten, Diego Lozano-Cortés, Zahra Alsaffar, Joao Cúrdia, Burton Jones, Susana Carvalho
The diversity of coral reef and soft sediment ecosystems in the Red Sea has to date received limited scientific attention. This study investigates changes in the community composition of both reef and macrobenthic communities along a cross shelf gradient. Coral reef assemblages differed significantly in species composition and structure with location and depth. Inner shelf reefs harbored less abundant and less diverse coral assemblages with higher percentage macroalgae cover. Nutrient availability and distance from the shoreline were significantly related to changes in coral composition and structure...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wai Kiat Tan, Su Yean Teh, Hock Lye Koh
Submarine landslides, also known as submarine mass failures (SMFs), are major natural marine disasters that could critically damage coastal facilities such as nuclear power plants and oil and gas platforms. It is therefore essential to investigate submarine landslides for potential tsunami hazard assessment. Three-dimensional seismic data from offshore Brunei have revealed a giant seabed mass deposited by a previous SMF. The submarine mass extends over 120 km from the continental slope of the Baram Canyon at 200 m water depth to the deep basin floor of the Northwest Borneo Trough...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
I Gestoso, P Ramalhosa, P Oliveira, J Canning-Clode
Biological invasions are a major threat to the world's biota and are considered a major cause of biodiversity loss. Therefore, world marine policy has recognized the need for more marine protected areas (MPAs) as a major tool for biodiversity conservation. The present work experimentally evaluated how protected communities from an offshore island can face the settlement and/or expansion of nonindigenous species (NIS). First, NIS colonization success in marine protected and marina communities was compared by deploying PVC settling plates at the Garajau MPA and Funchal marina (SW Madeira Island)...
March 21, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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