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Tiphaine Chouvelon, Pierre Cresson, Marc Bouchoucha, Christophe Brach-Papa, Paco Bustamante, Sylvette Crochet, Françoise Marco-Miralles, Bastien Thomas, Joël Knoery
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant of environmental concern. Numerous factors influencing its bioaccumulation in marine organisms have already been described at both individual and species levels (e.g., size or age, habitat, trophic level). However, few studies have compared the trophic characteristics of ecosystems to explain underlying mechanisms of differences in Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification among food webs and systems. The present study aimed at investigating the potential primary role of the trophic status of systems on Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification in temperate marine food webs, as shown by their medium-to high-trophic level consumers...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ze-Ming Zhang, Hong-Hai Zhang, Jing Zhang, Qian-Wen Wang, Gui-Peng Yang
A total of 133 seawater samples and 17 sediment samples were collected from 81 sampling sites in the Changjiang River Estuary and its adjacent area and were analyzed for 16 phthalate esters (PAEs). The Σ16 PAE concentrations in the seawater and sediment samples ranged from 180.3ng·L(-1) to 3421ng·L(-1) and from 0.48μg·g(-1) to 29.94μg·g(-1)dry weight (dw), respectively, with mean values of 943.6ng·L(-1) and 12.88μg·g(-1). The distribution of ∑16PAE concentrations in the water column showed that PAE concentrations in the bottom samples were higher than those in the surface samples (except the transect C located inside the Changjiang River Estuary), with the maxima appearing in the bottom layer at the offshore stations...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Takafumi Kataoka, Koji Suzuki, Tomohisa Irino, Masanobu Yamamoto, Seigo Higashi, Hongbin Liu
Microbial nitrification is a key process in the nitrogen cycle in the continental shelf ecosystems. The genotype compositions and abundance of the ammonia monooxygenase gene, amoA, derived from ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in two size fractions (2-10 and 0.2-2 µm), were investigated in the East China Sea (ECS) in May 2008 using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Four sites were selected across the continental shelf edge: continental shelf water (CSW), Kuroshio branch water (KBW), transition between CSW and KBW (TCSKB) and coastal KBW (CKBW)...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
R B Nair, H S Arora, Sundeep Mukherjee, S Singh, H Singh, H S Grewal
Cavitation erosion and corrosion of structural materials are serious concerns for marine and offshore industries. Durability and performance of marine components are severely impaired due to degradation from erosion and corrosion. Utilization of advanced structural materials can play a vital role in limiting such degradation. High entropy alloys (HEAs) are a relatively new class of advanced structural materials with exceptional properties. In the present work, we report on the cavitation erosion behavior of Al0...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Jennifer L David, Samantha L Thomas, Melanie Randle, Steven J Bowe, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Harmful gambling is a significant public health issue. There has been widespread discussion in the Australian media about the extent and impact of sports betting on the Australian community, particularly relating to young men and children. Given the role that the media plays in influencing policy change and political agendas, and the acknowledgement that media based advocacy is a fundamental component of successful advocacy campaigns, this research aimed to investigate how different stakeholder groups discuss sports betting within the Australian print media...
November 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
T F Parkerton, M Bok, A W Ireland, C M Prosser
Chemical analyses and toxicity testing using six marine species were used to characterize the hazard of produced waters (PW) to marine life from twelve Australian offshore platforms. Hazard data were used in conjunction with platform-specific plume discharge dilution and species sensitivity distribution modeling to estimate cumulative risks by calculating the multiple substance potentially affected fraction of species in the local marine environment. Results provided two independent lines of evidence demonstrating that cumulative risks to marine life from these discharges meet intended 95% species protection goals at the edge of the mixing zone...
November 9, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Chloé Martias, Marc Tedetti, François Lantoine, Léocadie Jamet, Cécile Dupouy
The eastern lagoon of New Caledonia (NC, Southwest Pacific), listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, hosts the world's second longest double-barrier coral reef. This lagoon receives river inputs, oceanic water arrivals, and erosion pressure from ultramafic rocks, enriched in nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co). The aim of this study was to characterize colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), as well as to determine its main sources and its possible relationships (through the use of Pearson correlation coefficients, r) with biogeochemical parameters, plankton communities and trace metals in the NC eastern lagoon...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Huda Mahmoud, Liny Jose
Corals that naturally thrive under extreme conditions are gaining increasing attention due to their importance as living models to understand the impact of global warming on world corals. Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities in corals thriving in a thermally variable water body in which the temperature fluctuates between 11 and 39°C in different seasons. The viral assemblages of two of the most abundant massive (Porites harrisoni) and branching (Acropora downingi) corals in offshore and inshore reef systems in the northern Arabian Gulf were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kazuki Kurita, Yukiko Nakamura, Taku Okamoto, Si-Min Lin, Tsutomu Hikida
The Chinese skink, Plestiodon chinensis (Gray, 1838), is widely distributed across continental China, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula, and offshore islets, and consists of several subspecies. Here morphological and molecular methods have been used to reassess the taxonomic status and distributions of P. c. formosensis (Van Denburgh, 1912) and P. c. leucostictus (Hikida, 1988), which are endemic to Taiwan and Green Island (an islet off the east coast of Taiwan), respectively. It can be confirmed that the eastern Taiwanese populations of P...
2017: ZooKeys
Michał Czub, Lech Kotwicki, Thomas Lang, Hans Sanderson, Zygmunt Klusek, Miłosz Grabowski, Marta Szubska, Jaromir Jakacki, Jan Andrzejewski, Daniel Rak, Jacek Bełdowski
The Baltic Sea is a severely disturbed marine ecosystem that has previously been used as a dumping ground for Chemical Warfare Agents (CW). The presence of unexploded underwater ordnance is an additional risk factor for offshore activities and an environmental risk for the natural resources of the sea. In this paper, the focus is on descriptions of the marine habitat based on the observations arising from studies linked to the CHEMSEA, MODUM and DAIMON projects. Investigated areas of Bornholm, Gotland and Gdańsk Deeps are similarly affected by the Baltic Sea eutrophication, however, at depths greater than 70m several differences in local hydrological regimes and pore-water heavy metal concentrations between those basins were observed...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yunhai Li, Yunpeng Lin, Liang Wang
Based on concentrations and distributions of heavy metals, grain size and loss on ignition (LOI) in the seafloor sediments acquired during three surveys in winter and in summer (before and after typhoon Morakot) in the mud deposition center off the Fujian-Zhejiang coast, East China Sea, the seasonal and typhoon-induced variations of heavy metals in seafloor sediments are discussed. It is found that different concentrations of heavy metals occurred in seafloor sediments, but their distribution patterns were similar, gradually decreasing from near-shore to offshore...
November 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
N N Tereshchenko, S B Gulin, V Yu Proskurnin
Distribution of (239,240)Pu in abiotic components (water and bottom sediment) of the Black Sea ecosystems was studied during the post-Chernobyl period at different offshore and near-shore locations. The trends of these radionuclides accumulation by sediments were analyzed. The spatial-temporal changes in the (239,240)Pu distribution as well as effective half-life for these radionuclides in the Black Sea surface water in deep-sea area are presented. The estimations of the average annual removal fluxes of the (239,240)Pu into the bottom sediments were obtained...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
John C Wingfield, Michaela Hau, P Dee Boersma, L Michael Romero, Nigella Hillgarth, Marilyn Ramenofsky, Peter Wrege, Robert Scheibling, J Patrick Kelley, Brian Walker, Martin Wikelski
El Niño Southern Oscillation events (ENSO) and the subsequent opposite weather patterns in the following months and years (La Niña) have major climatic impacts, especially on oceanic habitats, affecting breeding success of both land and sea birds. We assessed corticosterone concentrations from blood samples during standardized protocols of capture, handling and restraint to simulate acute stress from 12 species of Galapagos Island birds during the ENSO year of 1998 and a La Niña year of 1999. Plasma levels of corticosterone were measured in samples collected at capture (to represent non-stressed baseline) and subsequently up to one hour post-capture to give maximum corticosterone following acute stress, and total amount of corticosterone that the individual was exposed to during the test period (integrated corticosterone)...
October 26, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Tan T Nguyen, Sabine K J Cochrane, Bjarne Landfald
Offshore drilling operations result in the generation of drill cuttings and localized smothering of the benthic habitats. This study explores bacterial community changes in the in the upper layers of the seafloor resulting from an exploratory drilling operation at 1400m water depth on the Barents Sea continental slope. Significant restructurings of the sediment microbiota were restricted to the sampling sites notably affected by the drilling waste discharge, i.e. at 30m and 50m distances from the drilling location, and to the upper 2cm of the seafloor...
October 31, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
J H Baumann, S W Davies, H E Aichelman, K D Castillo
Reef-building corals maintain a symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium, and this symbiosis is vital for the survival of the coral holobiont. Symbiodinium community composition within the coral host has been shown to influence a coral's ability to resist and recover from stress. A multitude of stressors including ocean warming, ocean acidification, and eutrophication have been linked to global scale decline in coral health and cover in recent decades. Three distinct thermal regimes (highTP, modTP, and lowTP) following an inshore-offshore gradient of declining average temperatures and thermal variation were identified on the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS)...
November 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Regina A Guazzo, Tyler A Helble, Gerald L D'Spain, David W Weller, Sean M Wiggins, John A Hildebrand
Eastern North Pacific gray whales make one of the longest annual migrations of any mammal, traveling from their summer feeding areas in the Bering and Chukchi Seas to their wintering areas in the lagoons of Baja California, Mexico. Although a significant body of knowledge on gray whale biology and behavior exists, little is known about their vocal behavior while migrating. In this study, we used a sparse hydrophone array deployed offshore of central California to investigate how gray whales behave and use sound while migrating...
2017: PloS One
Florian Berg, Aril Slotte, Arne Johannessen, Cecilie Kvamme, Lotte Worsøe Clausen, Richard D M Nash
The population structure of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) from 13 local, coastal and offshore areas of the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and western Baltic (northeast Atlantic) was studied using biological and environmental data from 1970-2015. The objective was to identify distinct populations by comparing variability in the temporal and spatial phenotypic characteristics and evaluate the potential for mixing of populations in time and space. The populations varied in biological characteristics such as mean vertebral counts (VS), growth and maturity ogives...
2017: PloS One
Timothy J Sullivan, Joseph E Neigel
Infectious diseases threaten marine populations, and the extent of their impacts is often assessed by prevalence of infection (the proportion of infected individuals). Changes in prevalence are often attributed to altered rates of transmission, although the rates of birth, recovery, and mortality also determine prevalence. The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi causes a severe, often fatal disease in blue crabs. It has been speculated that decreases in prevalence associated with high temperatures result from lower rates of infection...
2017: PloS One
Jennifer Brandstätter, Walter Kurz, Anna Rogowitz
In this study we present microstructural data from hydrothermal veins in the sedimentary cover and the igneous basement recovered from Hole U1414A, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 344 (Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project), to constrain deformation mechanism operating in the subducting Cocos Plate. Cathodoluminescence studies, mechanical e-twin piezometry and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses of carbonate veins were used to give insights into the deformation conditions and to help to understand the tectonic deformation history of the Cocos Plate offshore Costa Rica...
August 2017: Tectonics
Corey D Russo, David W Weller, Karen E Nelson, Susan J Chivers, Manolito Torralba, D Jay Grimes
The dermis of cetaceans is in constant contact with microbial species. Although the skin of the bottlenose dolphin provides adequate defense against most disease-causing microbes, it also provides an environment for microbial community development. Microbial community uniqueness and richness associated with bottlenose dolphin skin is a function of varying habitats and changing environmental conditions. The current study uses ribosomal DNA as a marker to identify bacteria found on the skin of coastal and offshore bottlenose dolphins off of Southern California...
October 28, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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