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Stress tes

Athena E Theyers, Benjamin I Goldstein, Arron Ws Metcalfe, Andrew D Robertson, Bradley J MacIntosh
Arterial stiffness is linked to cerebral small vessel damage and neurodegeneration, but barriers to accessing deep cerebrovascular anatomy limit our ability to assess the brain. This study describes an adaptation of a cardiac-related scrubbing method as a means of generating blood oxygenation level-dependent pulsatility maps based on the cardiac cycle. We examine BOLD pulsatility at rest, based on the non-parametric deviation from null metric, as well as changes following acute physiological stress from 20 min of moderate-intensity cycling in 45 healthy adolescents...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Priyanka Mondal, Rosivaldo de Alcântara Mendes, M P Jonathan, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Kadarkarai Murugan, Santosh Kumar Sarkar
The spatial and seasonal distribution of trace elements (TEs) (n=16) in surficial sediment were examined along the Hooghly River Estuary (~175km), India. A synchronous elevation of majority of TEs concentration (mgkg-1 ) was encountered during monsoon with the following descending order: Al (67070); Fe (31300); Cd (5.73); Cr (71.17); Cu (29.09); Mn (658.74); Ni (35.89). An overall low and homogeneous concentration of total Hg (THg =17.85±4.98ngg-1 ) was recorded in which methyl mercury (MeHg) shared minor fraction (8-31%) of the THg ...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Manu J Dubin, Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid, Claude Becker
The genomes of most plant species are dominated by transposable elements (TEs). Once considered as 'junk DNA', TEs are now known to have a major role in driving genome evolution. Over the last decade, it has become apparent that some stress conditions and other environmental stimuli can drive bursts of activity of certain TE families and consequently new TE insertions. These can give rise to altered gene expression patterns and phenotypes, with new TE insertions sometimes causing flanking genes to become transcriptionally responsive to the same stress conditions that activated the TE in the first place...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Zoé Joly-Lopez, Ewa Forczek, Emilio Vello, Douglas R Hoen, Akiko Tomita, Thomas E Bureau
Plant phenomics offers unique opportunities to accelerate our understanding of gene function and plant response to different environments, and may be particularly useful for studying previously uncharacterized genes. One important type of poorly characterized genes is those derived from transposable elements (TEs), which have departed from a mobility-driven lifestyle to attain new adaptive roles for the host (exapted TEs). We used phenomics approaches, coupled with reverse genetics, to analyze T-DNA insertion mutants of both previously reported and novel protein-coding exapted TEs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Clive Shiff
Schistosomiasis has been of concern to local health authorities for most of the last century, and in spite of a lack of effective chemotherapy, the disease was dealt with quite effectively in many endemic countries by snail control and environmental management [1]. Much of this work was reported in journals prior to the electronic era but, sadly, seems to have been subsequently ignored. For many years, there followed a global hiatus on schistosomiasis control, and much of the local expertise was lost, but many things have changed more recently, mainly with the advent of generic and affordable praziquantel...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nicholas Ravanelli, Geoff Coombs, Pascal Imbeault, Ollie Jay
PURPOSE: To quantify how maximum skin wettedness (ωmax), i.e. the determinant of the boundary between compensable and uncompensable heat stress, is i) altered by aerobic training in previously unfit individuals, and ii) further augmented by heat acclimation. METHODS: Eight untrained individuals completed an 8-week aerobic training program immediately followed by 8 days of hot/humid (38°C, 65%RH) heat acclimation. Participants completed a humidity ramp protocol pre-training (PRE-TRN), post-training (POST-TRN), and post-heat acclimation (POST-HA), involving treadmill marching at a heat production of 450 W for 105 mins in 37...
October 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Vivien Horváth, Miriam Merenciano, Josefa González
A relationship between transposable elements (TEs) and the eukaryotic stress response was suggested in the first publications describing TEs. Since then, it has often been assumed that TEs are activated by stress, and that this activation is often beneficial for the organism. In recent years, the availability of new high-throughput experimental techniques has allowed further interrogation of the relationship between TEs and stress. By reviewing the recent literature, we conclude that although there is evidence for a beneficial effect of TE activation under stress conditions, the relationship between TEs and the eukaryotic stress response is quite complex...
November 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Xianjun Lai, James C Schnable, Zhengqiao Liao, Jie Xu, Gengyun Zhang, Chuan Li, Erliang Hu, Tingzhao Rong, Yunbi Xu, Yanli Lu
BACKGROUND: Maize was originally domesticated in a tropical environment but is now widely cultivated at temperate latitudes. Temperate and tropical maize populations have diverged both genotypically and phenotypically. Tropical maize lines grown in temperate environments usually exhibit delayed flowering, pollination, and seed set, which reduces their grain yield relative to temperate adapted maize lines. One potential mechanism by which temperate maize may have adapted to a new environment is novel transposable element insertions, which can influence gene regulation...
September 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
Valèria Romero-Soriano, Laurent Modolo, Hélène Lopez-Maestre, Bruno Mugat, Eugénie Pessia, Séverine Chambeyron, Cristina Vieira, Maria Pilar Garcia Guerreiro
Interspecific hybridization is a genomic stress condition that leads to the activation of transposable elements (TEs) in both animals and plants. In hybrids between Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, mobilization of at least 28 TEs has been described. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this TE release remain poorly understood. To give insight on the causes of this TE activation, we performed a TE transcriptomic analysis in ovaries (notorious for playing a major role in TE silencing) of parental species and their F1 and backcrossed (BC) hybrids...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Sarbottam Piya, Morgan Bennett, Aditi Rambani, Tarek Hewezi
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic materials that constitute a large fraction of plant genomes. Recent experimental evidences indicate that TEs can play key regulatory roles in controlling the expression of adjacent genes during plant development and stress responses. Nevertheless, information about the transcriptional activity of TEs and their impact on proximal genes during plant-nematode interaction remains largely unknown. Here, we identify of differentially expressed TEs and report their possible influence on the expression of nearby genes during the susceptible interaction between the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and Arabidopsis thaliana...
September 2, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jidi Xu, Shasha Zhou, Xiaoqing Gong, Yi Song, Steve van Nocker, Fengwang Ma, Qingmei Guan
Cytosine methylation is an essential feature of epigenetic regulation and is involved in various biological processes. Although cytosine methylation has been analysed at the genomic scale for several plant species, there is a general lack of understanding of the dynamics of global and genic DNA methylation in plants growing in environments challenged with biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we mapped cytosine methylation at single-base resolution in the genome of commercial apple (Malus x domestica), and analysed changes in methylation patterns associated with water deficit in representative drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant cultivars...
August 10, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Yizhao Chen, Jianlong Li, Weimin Ju, Honghua Ruan, Zhihao Qin, Yiye Huang, Nasreen Jeelani, José Padarian, Pavel Propastin
Water-use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of net primary productivity (NPP) to evapotranspiration (ET), is an important indicator to represent the trade-off pattern between vegetation productivity and water consumption. Its dynamics under climate change are important to ecohydrology and ecosystem management, especially in the drylands. In this study, we modified and used a late version of Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), to quantify the WUE in the typical dryland ecosystems, Temperate Eurasian Steppe (TES)...
2017: PloS One
Amjad Ali, Di Guo, Amanullah Mahar, Zhen Wang, Dost Muhammad, Ronghua Li, Ping Wang, Feng Shen, Quanhong Xue, Zengqiang Zhang
The industrial expansion, smelting, mining and agricultural practices have increased the release of toxic trace elements (TEs) in the environment and threaten living organisms. The microbe-assisted phytoremediation is environmentally safe and provide an effective approach to remediate TEs contaminated soils. A pot experiment was conducted to test the potential of an Actinomycete, subspecies Streptomyces pactum (Act12) along with medical stone compost (MSC) by growing Brassica juncea in smelter and mines polluted soils of Feng County (FC) and Tongguan (TG, China), respectively...
October 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
K M Scott, K C Koenen, A King, M V Petukhova, J Alonso, E J Bromet, R Bruffaerts, B Bunting, P de Jonge, J M Haro, E G Karam, S Lee, M E Medina-Mora, F Navarro-Mateu, N A Sampson, V Shahly, D J Stein, Y Torres, A M Zaslavsky, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Sexual assault is a global concern with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the common sequelae. Early intervention can help prevent PTSD, making identification of those at high risk for the disorder a priority. Lack of representative sampling of both sexual assault survivors and sexual assaults in prior studies might have reduced the ability to develop accurate prediction models for early identification of high-risk sexual assault survivors. METHODS: Data come from 12 face-to-face, cross-sectional surveys of community-dwelling adults conducted in 11 countries...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Alvin Kuowei Tay, Mohammed Mohsin, Susan Rees, Zachary Steel, Natalino Tam, Zelia Soares, Jessica Baker, Derrick Silove
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most widely assessed form of mental distress in cross-cultural studies conducted amongst populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement. Nevertheless, there have been longstanding concerns about the universality of PTSD as a diagnostic category when applied across cultures. One approach to examining this question is to assess whether the same factor structure can be identified in culturally diverse populations as has been described in populations of western societies...
May 22, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Manabu Shibasaki, Mari Namba, Misaki Oshiro, Ryusuke Kakigi, Hiroki Nakata
Climate change has had a widespread impact on humans and natural systems. Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition in severe environments. The execution or inhibition of decision making is critical for survival in a hot environment. We hypothesized that, even with mild heat stress, not only executive processing, but also inhibitory processing may be impaired, and investigated the effectiveness of body cooling approaches on these processes using the Go/No-go task with electroencephalographic event-related potentials...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Leonardo Galindo-González, Corinne Mhiri, Michael K Deyholos, Marie-Angèle Grandbastien
LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant group of transposable elements (TEs) in plants. These elements can fall inside or close to genes, and therefore influence their expression and evolution. This review aims to examine how LTR retrotransposons, especially Ty1-copia elements, mediate gene regulation and evolution. Various stimuli, including polyploidization and biotic and abiotic elicitors, result in the transcription and movement of these retrotransposons, and can facilitate adaptation. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs in the LTRs are central to their stress-mediated responses and are shared with host stress-responsive genes, showing a complex evolutionary history in which TEs provide new regulatory units to genes...
August 30, 2017: Gene
German Martinez, Sarah G Choudury, R Keith Slotkin
tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are 18-26 nucleotide small RNAs that are not random degradation products, but are rather specifically cleaved from mature tRNA transcripts. Abundant in stressed or viral-infected cells, the function and potential targets of tRFs are not known. We identified that in the unstressed wild-type male gamete containing pollen of flowering plants, and analogous reproductive structure in non-flowering plant species, tRFs accumulate to high levels. In the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana, tRFs are processed by Dicer-like 1 and incorporated into Argonaute1 (AGO1), akin to a microRNA...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Xianwei Song, Xiaofeng Cao
Transposable elements (TEs) have long been regarded as 'selfish DNA', and are generally silenced by epigenetic mechanisms. However, work in the past decade has identified positive roles for TEs in generating genomic novelty and diversity in plants. In particular, recent studies suggested that TE-induced epigenetic alterations and modification of gene expression contribute to phenotypic variation and adaptation to geography or stress. These findings have led many to regard TEs, not as junk DNA, but as sources of control elements and genomic diversity...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Alvin Kuowei Tay, Rohan Jayasuriya, Dinuk Jayasuriya, Derrick Silove
The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) remains the most widely used screening measure for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the refugee and post-conflict field. The present study is the first to test the factorial structure and measurement invariance of the HTQ according to DSM-5 criteria across gender and ethnic groups in the ethnically diverse society of post-conflict Sri Lanka. The survey sample included 5136 participants (86% response rate) followed up 12 months after a baseline nationally representative survey undertaken in Sri Lanka in 2014...
April 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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