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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335016/trna-derived-small-rnas-target-transposable-element-transcripts
#1
German Martinez, Sarah G Choudury, R Keith Slotkin
tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are 18-26 nucleotide small RNAs that are not random degradation products, but are rather specifically cleaved from mature tRNA transcripts. Abundant in stressed or viral-infected cells, the function and potential targets of tRFs are not known. We identified that in the unstressed wild-type male gamete containing pollen of flowering plants, and analogous reproductive structure in non-flowering plant species, tRFs accumulate to high levels. In the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana, tRFs are processed by Dicer-like 1 and incorporated into Argonaute1 (AGO1), akin to a microRNA...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273484/transposon-mediated-epigenetic-regulation-contributes-to-phenotypic-diversity-and-environmental-adaptation-in-rice
#2
REVIEW
Xianwei Song, Xiaofeng Cao
Transposable elements (TEs) have long been regarded as 'selfish DNA', and are generally silenced by epigenetic mechanisms. However, work in the past decade has identified positive roles for TEs in generating genomic novelty and diversity in plants. In particular, recent studies suggested that TE-induced epigenetic alterations and modification of gene expression contribute to phenotypic variation and adaptation to geography or stress. These findings have led many to regard TEs, not as junk DNA, but as sources of control elements and genomic diversity...
March 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254549/assessing-the-factorial-structure-and-measurement-invariance-of-ptsd-by-gender-and-ethnic-groups-in-sri-lanka-an-analysis-of-the-modified-harvard-trauma-questionnaire-htq
#3
Alvin Kuowei Tay, Rohan Jayasuriya, Dinuk Jayasuriya, Derrick Silove
The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) remains the most widely used screening measure for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the refugee and post-conflict field. The present study is the first to test the factorial structure and measurement invariance of the HTQ according to DSM-5 criteria across gender and ethnic groups in the ethnically diverse society of post-conflict Sri Lanka. The survey sample included 5136 participants (86% response rate) followed up 12 months after a baseline nationally representative survey undertaken in Sri Lanka in 2014...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228418/folic-acid-supplementation-increases-cutaneous-vasodilator-sensitivity-to-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-older-adults
#4
Anna E Stanhewicz, Jody L Greaney, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney
During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66±1yrs, 8M/6F) ingested folic acid (5mg·day(-1)) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207775/the-contribution-of-gender-based-violence-and-network-trauma-to-gender-differences-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#5
Derrick Silove, Jess R Baker, Mohammed Mohsin, Maree Teesson, Mark Creamer, Meaghan O'Donnell, David Forbes, Natacha Carragher, Tim Slade, Katherine Mills, Richard Bryant, Alexander McFarlane, Zachary Steel, Kim Felmingham, Susan Rees
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs twice as commonly amongst women as men. Two common domains of trauma, network trauma and gender based violence (GBV), may contribute to this gender difference in PTSD rates. We examined data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population to clarify the characteristics of these two trauma domains in their contributions to PTSD rates in men and women. METHODS: We drew on data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being to assess gender differences across a comprehensive range of trauma domains, including (1) prevalence of lifetime exposure; (2) identification of an index trauma or DSM-IV Criterion A event; and (3) the likelihood of developing full DSM-IV PTSD symptoms once an index trauma was identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106309/transposable-elements-tes-contribute-to-stress-related-long-intergenic-noncoding-rnas-in-plants
#6
Dong Wang, Zhipeng Qu, Lan Yang, Qingzhu Zhang, Zhi-Hong Liu, Trung Do, David L Adelson, Zhen-Yu Wang, Iain Searle, Jian-Kang Zhu
Noncoding RNAs have been extensively described in plant and animal transcriptomes by using high-throughput sequencing technology. Of these non-coding RNAs, a growing number of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been described in multicellular organisms, however the origins and functions of many lincRNAs remain to be explored. In many eukaryotic genomes, transposable elements (TEs) are widely distributed and often account for large fractions of plant and animal genomes yet the contribution of TEs to lincRNAs is largely unknown...
January 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055082/association-of-dsm-iv-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-with-traumatic-experience-type-and-history-in-the-world-health-organization-world-mental-health-surveys
#7
Howard Liu, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Laura Helena Andrade, Evelyn J Bromet, Giovanni de Girolamo, Josep Maria Haro, Hristo Hinkov, Norito Kawakami, Karestan C Koenen, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Sing Lee, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Kate M Scott, Victoria Shahly, Dan J Stein, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Oye Gureje, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
Importance: Previous research has documented significant variation in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) depending on the type of traumatic experience (TE) and history of TE exposure, but the relatively small sample sizes in these studies resulted in a number of unresolved basic questions. Objective: To examine disaggregated associations of type of TE history with PTSD in a large cross-national community epidemiologic data set. Design, Setting, and Participants: The World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys assessed 29 TE types (lifetime exposure, age at first exposure) with DSM-IV PTSD that was associated with 1 randomly selected TE exposure (the random TE) for each respondent...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043366/semen-cryopreservation-and-radical-reduction-capacity-of-seminal-fluid-in-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo
#8
I Luther, U Jakop, I Lueders, A Tordiffe, C Franz, J Schiller, A Kotze, K Müller
Optimizing cryopreservation protocols for nondomestic felids contributes to the successful development of assisted reproduction techniques and genetic resource banking. In this study, we describe a simple cryopreservation procedure for African lion (Panthera leo) ejaculates, which was tested with different packaging options and different sperm numbers per dose. By applying urethral catheterization and electroejaculation, 17 ejaculates with greater than 20% motile and greater than 5% progressively motile sperm were collected...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004824/high-performing-solution-coated-electrolyte-gated-organic-field-effect-transistors-for-aqueous-media-operation
#9
Qiaoming Zhang, Francesca Leonardi, Stefano Casalini, Inés Temiño, Marta Mas-Torrent
Since the first demonstration, the electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (EGOFETs) have immediately gained much attention for the development of cutting-edge technology and they are expected to have a strong impact in the field of (bio-)sensors. However EGOFETs directly expose their active material towards the aqueous media, hence a limited library of organic semiconductors is actually suitable. By using two mostly unexplored strategies in EGOFETs such as blended materials together with a printing technique, we have successfully widened this library...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956586/dna-methylation-influences-the-expression-of-dicer-like4-isoforms-which-encode-proteins-of-alternative-localization-and-function
#10
Nathan Pumplin, Alexis Sarazin, Pauline E Jullien, Nicolas G Bologna, Stefan Oberlin, Olivier Voinnet
Plant RNA silencing operates via RNA-directed DNA-methylation (RdDM) to repress transcription or by targeting mRNAs via posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). These pathways rely on distinct Dicer-like (DCL) proteins that process double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here, we explored the expression and subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana DCL4. DCL4 expression predominates as a transcription start site isoform encoding a cytoplasmic protein, which also represents the ancestral form in plants...
November 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929309/is-posttraumatic-growth-trauma-specific-invariance-across-trauma-and-stressor-exposed-groups
#11
Madison W Silverstein, Daniel J Lee, Tracy K Witte, Frank W Weathers
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic growth (PTG), or multidimensional positive change following a traumatic event (TE), is conceptualized as qualitatively distinct from growth following a nontraumatic stressful event (NTSE; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004; Zoellner & Maercker, 2006). However, the degree to which PTG is a trauma-specific phenomenon has yet to be established. Although research indicates that individuals who experience TEs endorse greater PTG than those who experience NTSEs (Kastenmüller et al...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917903/global-dna-methylation-variations-after-short-term-heat-shock-treatment-in-cultured-microspores-of-brassica-napus-cv-topas
#12
Jun Li, Qian Huang, Mengxiang Sun, Tianyao Zhang, Hao Li, Biyun Chen, Kun Xu, Guizhen Gao, Feng Li, Guixin Yan, Jiangwei Qiao, Yongping Cai, Xiaoming Wu
Heat stress can induce the cultured microspores into embryogenesis. In this study, whole genome bisulphite sequencing was employed to study global DNA methylation variations after short-term heat shock (STHS) treatments in cultured microspores of Brassica napus cv. Topas. Our results indicated that treatment on cultured Topas microspores at 32 °C for 6 h triggered DNA hypomethylation, particularly in the CG and CHG contexts. And the total number of T32 (Topas 32 °C for 6 h) vs. T0 (Topas 0 h) differentially methylated region-related genes (DRGs) was approximately two-fold higher than that of T18 (Topas 18 °C for 6 h) vs...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777577/moving-through-the-stressed-genome-emerging-regulatory-roles-for-transposons-in-plant-stress-response
#13
Pooja Negi, Archana N Rai, Penna Suprasanna
The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original 'Controlling Element' hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729060/recurrent-evolution-of-heat-responsiveness-in-brassicaceae-copia-elements
#14
Björn Pietzenuk, Catarine Markus, Hervé Gaubert, Navratan Bagwan, Aldo Merotto, Etienne Bucher, Ales Pecinka
BACKGROUND: The mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) is suppressed by host genome defense mechanisms. Recent studies showed that the cis-regulatory region of Arabidopsis thaliana COPIA78/ONSEN retrotransposons contains heat-responsive elements (HREs), which cause their activation during heat stress. However, it remains unknown whether this is a common and potentially conserved trait and how it has evolved. RESULTS: We show that ONSEN, COPIA37, TERESTRA, and ROMANIAT5 are the major families of heat-responsive TEs in A...
October 11, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697787/changes-in-the-dna-methylation-pattern-of-the-host-male-gametophyte-of-viroid-infected-cucumber-plants
#15
Mayte Castellano, German Martinez, Maria Carmen Marques, Jordi Moreno-Romero, Claudia Köhler, Vicente Pallas, Gustavo Gomez
Eukaryotic organisms exposed to adverse conditions are required to show a certain degree of transcriptional plasticity in order to cope successfully with stress. Epigenetic regulation of the genome is a key regulatory mechanism allowing dynamic changes of the transcriptional status of the plant in response to stress. The Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) induces the demethylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves, leading to increasing transcription rates of rRNA. In addition to the clear alterations observed in vegetative tissues, HSVd infection is also associated with drastic changes in gametophyte development...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682000/symptoms-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-severe-psychological-distress-explosive-anger-and-grief-amongst-partners-of-survivors-of-high-levels-of-trauma-in-post-conflict-timor-leste
#16
D M Silove, A K Tay, Z Steel, N Tam, Z Soares, C Soares, N Dos Reis, A Alves, S Rees
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the mental health of partners of survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict countries. METHOD: We studied 677 spouse dyads (n = 1354) drawn from a community survey (response 82.4%) in post-conflict Timor-Leste. We used culturally adapted measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, explosive anger and grief. RESULTS: Latent class analysis identified three classes of couples: class 1, comprising women with higher trauma events (TEs), men with intermediate TEs (19%); class 2, including men with higher TEs, women with lower TEs (23%); and class 3, comprising couples in which men and women had lower TE exposure (58%) (the reference group)...
January 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615358/grain-boundary-induced-bias-instability-in-soluble-acene-based-thin-film-transistors
#17
Ky V Nguyen, Marcia M Payne, John E Anthony, Jung Hun Lee, Eunjoo Song, Boseok Kang, Kilwon Cho, Wi Hyoung Lee
Since the grain boundaries (GBs) within the semiconductor layer of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have a strong influence on device performance, a substantial number of studies have been devoted to controlling the crystallization characteristics of organic semiconductors. We studied the intrinsic effects of GBs within 5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene (TES-ADT) thin films on the electrical properties of OFETs. The GB density was easily changed by controlling nulceation event in TES-ADT thin films...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600528/profuse-evolutionary-diversification-and-speciation-on-volcanic-islands-transposon-instability-and-amplification-bursts-explain-the-genetic-paradox
#18
Elysse M Craddock
BACKGROUND: Species-rich adaptive radiations arising from rare plant and animal colonizers are common on remote volcanic archipelagoes. However, they present a paradox. The severe genetic bottleneck of founder events and effects of inbreeding depression, coupled with the inherently stressful volcanic environment, would seem to predict reduced evolutionary potential and increased risk of extinction, rather than rapid adaptive divergence and speciation. Significantly, eukaryotic genomes harbor many families of transposable elements (TEs) that are mobilized by genome shock; these elements may be the primary drivers of genetic reorganization and speciation on volcanic islands...
2016: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573421/the-role-of-grief-symptoms-and-a-sense-of-injustice-in-the-pathways-to-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-post-conflict-timor-leste
#19
A K Tay, S Rees, Z Steel, B Liddell, A Nickerson, N Tam, D Silove
AIMS: Grief symptoms and a sense of injustice may be interrelated responses amongst persons exposed to mass conflict and both reactions may contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. As yet, however, there is a dearth of data examining these relationships. Our study examined the contributions of grief and a sense of injustice to a model of PTSD symptoms that included the established determinants of trauma events, ongoing adversity and severe psychological distress. The study involved a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508170/dna-methylation-changes-and-te-activity-induced-in-tissue-cultures-of-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#20
Renata Orłowska, Joanna Machczyńska, Sylwia Oleszczuk, Janusz Zimny, Piotr Tomasz Bednarek
BACKGROUND: In vitro plant regeneration via androgenesis or somatic embryogenesis is capable of inducing (epi)mutations that may affect sexual progenies. While epimutations are associated with DNA methylation, mutations could be due to the movement of transposons. The common notion is that both processes are linked. It is being assumed that demethylation activates transposable elements (TEs). Analysis of methylation changes and their relation with TEs activation in tissue cultures requires uniquely derived donor plants (Ds), their regenerants (Rs) and respective progeny (Ps) that would allow discrimination of processes not related to changes introduced via in vitro cultures...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
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