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Stress tes

Pooja Negi, Archana N Rai, Penna Suprasanna
The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original 'Controlling Element' hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Björn Pietzenuk, Catarine Markus, Hervé Gaubert, Navratan Bagwan, Aldo Merotto, Etienne Bucher, Ales Pecinka
BACKGROUND: The mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) is suppressed by host genome defense mechanisms. Recent studies showed that the cis-regulatory region of Arabidopsis thaliana COPIA78/ONSEN retrotransposons contains heat-responsive elements (HREs), which cause their activation during heat stress. However, it remains unknown whether this is a common and potentially conserved trait and how it has evolved. RESULTS: We show that ONSEN, COPIA37, TERESTRA, and ROMANIAT5 are the major families of heat-responsive TEs in A...
October 11, 2016: Genome Biology
Mayte Castellano, German Martinez, Maria Carmen Marques, Jordi Moreno-Romero, Claudia Köhler, Vicente Pallas, Gustavo Gomez
Eukaryotic organisms exposed to adverse conditions are required to show a certain degree of transcriptional plasticity in order to cope successfully with stress. Epigenetic regulation of the genome is a key regulatory mechanism allowing dynamic changes of the transcriptional status of the plant in response to stress. The Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) induces the demethylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves, leading to increasing transcription rates of rRNA. In addition to the clear alterations observed in vegetative tissues, HSVd infection is also associated with drastic changes in gametophyte development...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
D M Silove, A K Tay, Z Steel, N Tam, Z Soares, C Soares, N Dos Reis, A Alves, S Rees
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the mental health of partners of survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict countries. METHOD: We studied 677 spouse dyads (n = 1354) drawn from a community survey (response 82.4%) in post-conflict Timor-Leste. We used culturally adapted measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, explosive anger and grief. RESULTS: Latent class analysis identified three classes of couples: class 1, comprising women with higher trauma events (TEs), men with intermediate TEs (19%); class 2, including men with higher TEs, women with lower TEs (23%); and class 3, comprising couples in which men and women had lower TE exposure (58%) (the reference group)...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Ky V Nguyen, Marcia M Payne, John E Anthony, Jung Hun Lee, Eunjoo Song, Boseok Kang, Kilwon Cho, Wi Hyoung Lee
Since the grain boundaries (GBs) within the semiconductor layer of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have a strong influence on device performance, a substantial number of studies have been devoted to controlling the crystallization characteristics of organic semiconductors. We studied the intrinsic effects of GBs within 5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene (TES-ADT) thin films on the electrical properties of OFETs. The GB density was easily changed by controlling nulceation event in TES-ADT thin films...
2016: Scientific Reports
Elysse M Craddock
BACKGROUND: Species-rich adaptive radiations arising from rare plant and animal colonizers are common on remote volcanic archipelagoes. However, they present a paradox. The severe genetic bottleneck of founder events and effects of inbreeding depression, coupled with the inherently stressful volcanic environment, would seem to predict reduced evolutionary potential and increased risk of extinction, rather than rapid adaptive divergence and speciation. Significantly, eukaryotic genomes harbor many families of transposable elements (TEs) that are mobilized by genome shock; these elements may be the primary drivers of genetic reorganization and speciation on volcanic islands...
2016: Biology Direct
A K Tay, S Rees, Z Steel, B Liddell, A Nickerson, N Tam, D Silove
AIMS: Grief symptoms and a sense of injustice may be interrelated responses amongst persons exposed to mass conflict and both reactions may contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. As yet, however, there is a dearth of data examining these relationships. Our study examined the contributions of grief and a sense of injustice to a model of PTSD symptoms that included the established determinants of trauma events, ongoing adversity and severe psychological distress. The study involved a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Renata Orłowska, Joanna Machczyńska, Sylwia Oleszczuk, Janusz Zimny, Piotr Tomasz Bednarek
BACKGROUND: In vitro plant regeneration via androgenesis or somatic embryogenesis is capable of inducing (epi)mutations that may affect sexual progenies. While epimutations are associated with DNA methylation, mutations could be due to the movement of transposons. The common notion is that both processes are linked. It is being assumed that demethylation activates transposable elements (TEs). Analysis of methylation changes and their relation with TEs activation in tissue cultures requires uniquely derived donor plants (Ds), their regenerants (Rs) and respective progeny (Ps) that would allow discrimination of processes not related to changes introduced via in vitro cultures...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Bin Wei, Hanmei Liu, Xin Liu, Qianlin Xiao, Yongbin Wang, Junjie Zhang, Yufeng Hu, Yinghong Liu, Guowu Yu, Yubi Huang
BACKGROUND: Transposons (transposable elements or TEs) are DNA sequences that can change their position within the genome. A large number of TEs have been identified in reference genome of each crop(named accumulated TEs), which are the important part of genome. However, whether there existed TEs with different insert positions in resequenced crop accession genomes from those of reference genome (named non-reference transposable elements, non-ref TEs), and what the characteristics (such as the number, type and distribution) are...
2016: BMC Genomics
Asif Khan, Narendra Singh Yadav, Yaakov Morgenstern, Assaf Zemach, Gideon Grafi
Dedifferentiation, that is, the acquisition of stem cell-like state, commonly induced by stress (e.g., protoplasting), is characterized by open chromatin conformation, a chromatin state that could lead to activation of transposable elements (TEs). Here, we studied the activation of the Arabidopsis class II TE Tag1, in which two copies, situated close to each other (near genes) on chromosome 1 are found in Landsberg erecta (Ler) but not in Columbia (Col). We first transformed protoplasts with a construct in which a truncated Tag1 (ΔTag1 non-autonomous) blocks the expression of a reporter gene AtMBD5-GFP and found a relatively high ectopic excision of ΔTag1 accompanied by expression of AtMBD5-GFP in protoplasts derived from Ler compared to Col; further increase was observed in ddm1 (decrease in DNA methylation1) protoplasts (Ler background)...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Neil H Kim, Gloria Lee, Nicholas A Sherer, K Michael Martini, Nigel Goldenfeld, Thomas E Kuhlman
The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Katri Nieminen, Ida Berg, Katri Frankenstein, Lina Viita, Kamilla Larsson, Ulrika Persson, Loviisa Spånberger, Anna Wretman, Kristin Silfvernagel, Gerhard Andersson, Klaas Wijma
The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of trauma-focused guided Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for relieving posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following childbirth, a problem that about 3% women encounter postpartum. Following inclusion, 56 traumatized women were randomized to either treatment or to a waiting list control group. Primary outcome measures were the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) and Impact of Event Scale-Reversed (IES-R). Secondary measures were Beck depression inventory II, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Quality Of Life Inventory and the EuroQol 5 Dimensions...
June 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Victor K Lai, David S Nedrelow, Spencer P Lake, Bumjun Kim, Emily M Weiss, Robert T Tranquillo, Victor H Barocas
Tissue-equivalents (TEs), simple model tissues with tunable properties, have been used to explore many features of biological soft tissues. Absent in most formulations however, is the residual stress that arises due to interactions among components with different unloaded levels of stress, which has an important functional role in many biological tissues. To create a pre-stressed model system, co-gels were fabricated from a combination of hyaluronic acid (HA) and reconstituted Type-I collagen (Col). When placed in solutions of varying osmolarity, HA-Col co-gels swell as the HA imbibes water, which in turn stretches (and stresses) the collagen network...
October 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Zhenxing Wang, Rainer Schwacke, Reinhard Kunze
Induction and mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) following DNA damage or other stresses has been reported in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recently it was discovered that eukaryotic TEs are frequently associated with long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), many of which are also upregulated by stress. Yet, it is unknown whether DNA damage-induced transcriptional activation of TEs and lncRNAs occurs sporadically or is a synchronized, genome-wide response. Here we investigated the transcriptome of Arabidopsis wild-type (WT) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (atm) mutant plants 3 h after induction of DNA damage...
August 1, 2016: Molecular Plant
Manabu Shibasaki, Mari Namba, Misaki Oshiro, Craig G Crandall, Hiroki Nakata
The effect of hyperthermia on cognitive function remains equivocal, perhaps because of methodological discrepancy. Using electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs), we tested the hypothesis that a passive heat stress impairs cognitive processing. Thirteen volunteers performed repeated auditory oddball paradigms under two thermal conditions, normothermic time control and heat stress, on different days. For the heat stress trial, these paradigms were performed at preheat stress (i.e., normothermic) baseline, when esophageal temperature had increased by ∼0...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Hidetaka Ito, Jong-Myong Kim, Wataru Matsunaga, Hidetoshi Saze, Akihiro Matsui, Takaho A Endo, Yoshiko Harukawa, Hiroki Takagi, Hiroki Yaegashi, Yukari Masuta, Seiji Masuda, Junko Ishida, Maho Tanaka, Satoshi Takahashi, Taeko Morosawa, Tetsuro Toyoda, Tetsuji Kakutani, Atsushi Kato, Motoaki Seki
Transposable elements (TEs), or transposons, play an important role in adaptation. TE insertion can affect host gene function and provides a mechanism for rapid increases in genetic diversity, particularly because many TEs respond to environmental stress. In the current study, we show that the transposition of a heat-activated retrotransposon, ONSEN, generated a mutation in an abscisic acid (ABA) responsive gene, resulting in an ABA-insensitive phenotype in Arabidopsis, suggesting stress tolerance. Our results provide direct evidence that a transposon activated by environmental stress could alter the genome in a potentially positive manner...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jennifer Leigh Wills, David Schuldberg
The impact of cumulative occupational exposure to traumatic events (TEs), posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and work environment stress on personality traits over time was examined in 38 police officers from an urban agency. California Psychological Inventory (CPI) personality trait scores from prehire evaluations were compared with follow-up CPI scores to test whether exposure to traumatic events was correlated with changes in traits from baseline to 5-10 years later. Measures of occupational TEs, PTS symptoms, and police work environment stress were administered...
April 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Siyou Wang, Jianwei Lv, Xiaoming Feng, Ge Wang, Tingting Lv
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacies of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation (EPNS) vs electromyogram biofeedback (BF)-assisted pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) plus transvaginal electrical stimulation (TES) in treating female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to evaluate the posttreatment and long-term efficacies of EPNS for female SUI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two female SUI patients were randomized into groups I and II, 21 in each group. The two groups were treated by EPNS and BF-assisted PFMT plus TES, respectively, for comparison of their effects...
May 2016: Urology
A K Tay, S Rees, Z Steel, N Tam, Z Soares, C Soares, D M Silove
OBJECTIVES: To identify the 6-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and psychological distress symptoms, and examine for associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and with the sense of injustice in conflict-affected Timor-Leste. SETTING: A whole-of-household survey was conducted in 2004 and 2010 in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. PARTICIPANTS: 1022 adults were followed up over 6 years (retention rate 84...
2016: BMJ Open
Valèria Romero-Soriano, Nelly Burlet, Doris Vela, Antonio Fontdevila, Cristina Vieira, María Pilar García Guerreiro
Genome size (or C-value) can present a wide range of values among eukaryotes. This variation has been attributed to differences in the amplification and deletion of different noncoding repetitive sequences, particularly transposable elements (TEs). TEs can be activated under different stress conditions such as interspecific hybridization events, as described for several species of animals and plants. These massive transposition episodes can lead to considerable genome expansions that could ultimately be involved in hybrid speciation processes...
March 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
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