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Hymenoptera, taxonomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876389/the-use-of-proteinase-k-to-access-genitalia-morphology-vouchering-and-dna-extraction-in-minute-wasps
#1
Arturo B Martinelli, Cecilia Waichert, Diego N Barbosa, Valéria Fagundes, Celso O Azevedo
Genitalia are rich source of characters in insect taxonomy. Usually, they are examined after dissection and cleaning with potassium hydroxide (KOH), procedure that may damage both genital morphological structures and intracellular molecular contents. Enzymatic procedure with Proteinase K has been used to clean muscle off the genitalia while extract DNA, but its damage to the genital structures has not been evaluated. Herein, we qualitatively compare the use of KOH and Proteinase K to prepare genital structures in minute insects (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769722/taxonomic-revision-of-imitating-carpenter-ants-camponotus-subgenus-myrmopytia-hymenoptera-formicidae-of-madagascar-using-morphometry-and-qualitative-traits
#2
Nicole Rasoamanana, Sándor Csősz, Brian L Fisher
The ant genus Camponotus (Mayr, 1861) is one of the most abundant and species rich ant genera in the Malagasy zoogeographical region. Although this group is commonly encountered, its taxonomy is far from complete. Here, we clarify the taxonomy of the Malagasy-endemic Camponotus subgenus Myrmopytia (Emery, 1920). Species delimitation was based on traditional morphological characters and multivariate morphometric analyses, including exploratory Nest Centroid clustering and confirmatory cross-validated Linear Discriminant Analysis...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769657/revision-of-the-fungus-farming-ant-genus-sericomyrmex-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae-myrmicinae
#3
Ana Ješovnik, Ted R Schultz
The genus Sericomyrmex Mayr (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini) is a Neotropical group of fungus-farming ants known for its problematic taxonomy, caused by low morphological variability across the species, vague and old species descriptions, and an outdated and incomplete key published in 1916. Recent molecular studies revealed that Sericomyrmex is the product of a rapid recent radiation, with a divergence date of 4.3 million years ago. Here we present a comprehensive taxonomic revision of the genus Sericomyrmex based on morphology and a recently published molecular phylogeny...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704529/correction-rediscovery-of-the-enigmatic-fungus-farming-ant-mycetosoritis-asper-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae-implications-for-taxonomy-phylogeny-and-the-evolution-of-agriculture-in-ants
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610124/southern-distributional-limits-of-meliponini-bees-hymenoptera-apidae-in-the-neotropics-taxonomic-notes-and-distribution-of-i-plebeia-i-i-droryana-i-and-i-p-emerinoides-i-in-argentina
#5
Arturo Roig-Alsina, Leopoldo J Alvarez
The southern distribution of stingless bees in the Neotropics reaches the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, up to 34°51' S in latitude, where two species of Plebeia are found on the west margin of the Río de La Plata: P. emerinoides (Silvestri), and P. droryana (Friese). In this area some relicts of gallery forest occur and the climate is moderated by the large water mass of the river. The taxonomy of both species is discussed. Diagnoses, updated distribution, and illustrations of some morphological features are given for both species...
March 19, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489860/rediscovery-of-the-enigmatic-fungus-farming-ant-mycetosoritis-asper-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae-implications-for-taxonomy-phylogeny-and-the-evolution-of-agriculture-in-ants
#6
Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Ana Ješovnik, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Mauricio Bacci, Ted R Schultz
We report the rediscovery of the exceedingly rarely collected and enigmatic fungus-farming ant species Mycetosoritis asper. Since the description of the type specimen in 1887, only four additional specimens are known to have been added to the world's insect collections. Its biology is entirely unknown and its phylogenetic position within the fungus-farming ants has remained puzzling due to its aberrant morphology. In 2014 we excavated and collected twenty-one colonies of M. asper in the Floresta Nacional de Chapecó in Santa Catarina, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331398/taxonomy-of-the-african-large-carpenter-bees-of-the-genus-xylocopa-latreille-1802-subgenus-xenoxylocopa-hurd-moure-1963-hymenoptera-apidae
#7
Jonathan R Mawdsley
The taxonomy of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963, is reviewed. There is a single valid species in this subgenus, Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans Smith, 1874, which is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to northern Republic of South Africa. Synonyms of Xylocopa inconstans include Xylocopa abyssinica Radoszkowski, 1899, proposed for a male specimen from Ethiopia, as well as three names proposed for females with yellow (rather than white) dorsal pubescence: Mesotrichia chiyakensis Cockerell, 1908 (new synonym), Xylocopa inconstans var...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331387/taxonomy-of-the-leptogenys-modiglianii-species-group-from-southeast-asia-hymenoptera-formicidae-ponerinae
#8
Kôichi Arimoto
Leptogenys brevilobasp. n., Leptogenys curvasp. n., Leptogenys itoisp. n., Leptogenys kanaoisp. n., Leptogenys malayanasp. n., and Leptogenys modiglianii Emery, 1900 are described from southeast Asia. The Leptogenys modiglianii species group is proposed on the basis of similarities among the six species. An identification key to species in this group from southeast Asia is provided.
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328931/x-ray-microtomography-for-ant-taxonomy-an-exploration-and-case-study-with-two-new-terataner-hymenoptera-formicidae-myrmicinae-species-from-madagascar
#9
Francisco Hita Garcia, Georg Fischer, Cong Liu, Tracy L Audisio, Gary D Alpert, Brian L Fisher, Evan P Economo
We explore the potential of x-ray micro computed tomography (μCT) for the field of ant taxonomy by using it to enhance the descriptions of two remarkable new species of the ant genus Terataner: T. balrog sp. n. and T. nymeria sp. n.. We provide an illustrated worker-based species identification key for all species found on Madagascar, as well as detailed taxonomic descriptions, which include diagnoses, discussions, measurements, natural history data, high-quality montage images and distribution maps for both new species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298348/a-phylogenetic-perspective-on-the-association-between-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-and-black-yeasts-ascomycota-chaetothyriales
#10
Marie Vasse, Hermann Voglmayr, Veronika Mayer, Cécile Gueidan, Maximilian Nepel, Leandro Moreno, Sybren de Hoog, Marc-André Selosse, Doyle McKey, Rumsaïs Blatrix
The frequency and the geographical extent of symbiotic associations between ants and fungi of the order Chaetothyriales have been highlighted only recently. Using a phylogenetic approach based on seven molecular markers, we showed that ant-associated Chaetothyriales are scattered through the phylogeny of this order. There was no clustering according to geographical origin or to the taxonomy of the ant host. However, strains tended to be clustered according to the type of association with ants: strains from ant-made carton and strains from plant cavities occupied by ants ('domatia') rarely clustered together...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187675/taxonomy-and-ecology-of-a-new-species-of-i-corynura-i-hymenoptera-%C3%A2-halictidae-augochlorini-from-chile-and-argentina
#11
Rocío Ana González-Vaquero, Carlo Polidori, José Luis Nieves-Aldrey
We describe a new species of Corynura Spinola, a socially polymorphic genus within the bee tribe Augochlorini (Halictidae). We present a detailed description of both sexes of Corynura (Corynura) moscosensis n. sp. González-Vaquero, images of diagnostic morphological structures and antennal sensilla, floral associations, distributional data and notes on its nesting biology. Corynura moscosensis n. sp. is similar in appearance to C. (C.) chloromelas (Alfken), but it can be distinguished by the sculpturing of the mesoscutum and the hair types on the propodeum in the female, and by the genitalia and extent of the area exclusively covered by sensilla placoidea on the antennal flagellum of the male...
January 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177842/dna-barcoding-the-bees-hymenoptera-apoidea-of-chile-species-discovery-in-a-reasonably-well-known-bee-fauna-with-the-description-of-a-new-species-of-lonchopria-colletidae
#12
Laurence Packer, Luisa Ruz
We compare the diversity of bees in the Chilean fauna as understood from traditional taxonomy-based catalogues with that currently known from DNA barcodes using the BIN system informed by ongoing morphology-based taxonomic research. While DNA barcode surveys of the Chilean bee fauna remain incomplete, it is clear that new species can readily be distinguished using this method and that morphological differentiation of distinct barcode clusters is sometimes very easy. We assess the situation in two genera in some detail...
November 21, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168097/taxonomic-revision-and-molecular-phylogenetics-of-the-idarnes-incertus-species-group-hymenoptera-agaonidae-sycophaginae
#13
Fernando H A Farache, Astrid Cruaud, Gwenaëlle Genson, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Rodrigo A S Pereira
Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae) in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983690/a-review-of-the-tawny-crazy-ant-nylanderia-fulva-an-emergent-ant-invader-in-the-southern-united-states-is-biological-control-a-feasible-management-option
#14
REVIEW
Zinan Wang, Lori Moshman, Emily C Kraus, Blake E Wilson, Namoona Acharya, Rodrigo Diaz
The tawny crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), has invaded states of the U.S. including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Native to South America, N. fulva is considered a pest in the U.S. capable of annoying homeowners and farmers, as well as displacing native ant species. As it continues to expand its range, there is a growing need to develop novel management techniques to control the pest and prevent further spread. Current management efforts rely heavily on chemical control, but these methods have not been successful...
December 15, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811769/taxonomy-of-some-little-understood-north-american-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae
#15
Steve Shattuck, Stefan Cover
The North American ant fauna has a long and detailed taxonomic history, and the fauna is relatively well characterized compared with those of many other regions. The vast majority of taxon names are clearly defined, being treated as either valid or invalid (primarily junior synonyms). Because of this, though considerable revisionary work will be necessary in the future, specimens collected from this region may often be placed with reasonable confidence either to species, or in some cases, to species complexes even if the status of the specific taxa involved are uncertain...
October 12, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768250/identification-of-sawflies-and-horntails-hymenoptera-symphyta-through-dna-barcodes-successes-and-caveats
#16
Stefan Schmidt, Andreas Taeger, Jérôme Morinière, Andrew Liston, Stephan M Blank, Katja Kramp, Manfred Kraus, Olga Schmidt, Erik Heibo, Marko Prous, Tommi Nyman, Tobias Malm, Julie Stahlhut
The 'Symphyta' is a paraphyletic assemblage at the base of the order Hymenoptera, comprising 14 families and about 8750 species. All have phytophagous larvae, except for the Orussidae, which are parasitoids. This study presents and evaluates the results of DNA barcoding of approximately 5360 specimens of 'Symphyta', mainly adults, and 4362 sequences covering 1037 species were deemed of suitable quality for inclusion in the analysis. All extant families are represented, except for the Anaxyelidae. The majority of species and specimens are from Europe, but approximately 38% of the species and 13% of the specimens are of non-European origin...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698441/formal-nomenclature-and-description-of-cryptic-species-of-the-encyrtus-sasakii-complex-hymenoptera-encyrtidae
#17
Ying Wang, Qing-Song Zhou, Hui-Jie Qiao, Ai-Bing Zhang, Fang Yu, Xu-Bo Wang, Chao-Dong Zhu, Yan-Zhou Zhang
With the recent development of molecular approaches to species delimitation, a growing number of cryptic species have been discovered in what had previously been thought to be single morpho-species. Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have greatly enhanced our knowledge of taxonomy, but taxonomy remains incomplete and needs a formal species nomenclature and description to facilitate its use in other scientific fields. A previous study using DNA barcoding, geometric morphometrics and mating tests revealed at least two cryptic species in the Encyrtus sasakii complex...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673501/dna-barcoding-as-a-useful-tool-in-the-systematic-study-of-wild-bees-of-the-tribe-augochlorini-hymenoptera-halictidae
#18
Rocío Ana González-Vaquero, Arturo Roig-Alsina, Laurence Packer
Special care is needed in the delimitation and identification of halictid bee species, which are renowned for being morphologically monotonous. Corynura Spinola and Halictillus Moure (Halictidae: Augochlorini) contain species that are key elements in southern South American ecosystems. These bees are very difficult to identify due to close morphological similarity among species and high sexual dimorphism. We analyzed 170 barcode-compliant COI sequences from 19 species. DNA barcodes were useful to confirm gender associations and to detect two new cryptic species...
October 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485108/a-new-xyelotomid-hymenoptera-from-the-middle-jurassic-of-china-displaying-enigmatic-venational-asymmetry
#19
Taiping Gao, Chungkun Shih, Michael S Engel, Dong Ren
BACKGROUND: Pterygota insects typically have symmetric veins in left and right wings. For studying taxonomy and phylogeny of fossil insects, venational patterns are commonly used as diagnostic characters, in conjunction with preserved body characters. Some examples of asymmetrical venation are known among extant insects, but only a few fossil insects with asymmetric wings have been reported, among which a previously described xyelotomid of Hymenoptera, Xyelocerus diaphanous, displays an unusual, small cell of vein Rs in the left forewing, but not in the right...
August 2, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408541/a-revision-of-chilicola-heteroediscelis-a-subgenus-of-xeromelissine-bees-hymenoptera-colletidae-endemic-to-chile-taxonomy-phylogeny-and-biogeography-with-descriptions-of-eight-new-species
#20
Spencer K Monckton
The bee subgenus Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) Toro & Moldenke, 1979 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Xeromelissinae) is revised. The subgenus is considered endemic to Chile and occurs across a broad range of habitats. Eight new species are described: Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) charizard Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) curvapeligrosa Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) guanicoe Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) katherinae Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) lickana Monckton, sp...
2016: ZooKeys
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