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Hymenoptera, taxonomy

Bo-Ying Zheng, Li-Jun Cao, Pu Tang, Kees van Achterberg, Ary A Hoffmann, Hua-Yan Chen, Xue-Xin Chen, Shu-Jun Wei
The Apoidea represent a large and common superfamily of the Hymenoptera including the bees and sphecid wasps. A robust phylogenetic tree is essential to understanding the diversity, taxonomy and evolution of the Apoidea. In this study, features of apoid mitochondrial genomes were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. Twelve apoid mitochondrial genomes were newly sequenced, representing six families and nine subfamilies. Gene rearrangement events have occurred in all apoid mitochondrial genomes sequenced to date...
March 3, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Mostafa Sharaf, Hathal M Al Dhafer, Abdulrahman S Aldawood, Francisco Hita Garcia
We revise the taxonomy of the myrmicine ants of the Monomorium monomorium species-group for the Arabian Peninsula. Six species are recognized: Monomorium aeyade Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, M. clavicorne André, 1881, M. exiguum Forel, 1894, M. holothir Bolton, 1987, M. mohammedi sp. n., and M. sarawatense Sharaf & Aldawood, 2013. On the basis of the worker caste, we describe Monomorium mohammedi sp. n. from the southwestern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We designate a neotype for Monomorium aeyade Collingwood & Agosti and redescribe and illustrate the worker caste...
2018: PeerJ
Jason Gibbs, John S Ascher, Molly G Rightmyer, Rufus Isaacs
The state of Michigan occupies an area between the Great Plains and the northeastern United States, bordering four Great Lakes, with diverse biogeographical regions. Michigan also has the second most diverse agriculture in the country, with many crops that depend on bees for pollination. This unique combination provides a wide range of opportunities for bees to persist, yet there is no current published checklist of these important insects. This study was conducted to provide the first annotated checklist of the bee (Apoidea: Anthophila) fauna of Michigan, summarizing aspects of their taxonomy and behavior and to provide provisional conservation assessment...
November 21, 2017: Zootaxa
Rafael R Ferrari
A taxonomic revision of Colletes Latreille species with known geographic distribution in Chile is presented. In addition to the traditional morphological approach to taxonomy, DNA barcoding was employed to facilitate sexual association and cryptic species recognition. I provide diagnoses, synonymies, geographic and floral records, and a fully-illustrated key for 31 recognized species, 23 of them previously described: C. alocochila Moure, C. atacamensis Janvier, C. atripes Smith, C. bicolor Smith, C. chusmiza Rojas & Toro, C...
December 13, 2017: Zootaxa
Juanita Rodriguez, Cecilia Waichert, Carol D von Dohlen, James P Pitts
Accurate fossil identification has become increasingly relevant with the widespread use of phylogenetic divergence time estimation methods, which rely on fossil data to determine clade hard-minimum ages. Here we revise, diagnose and illustrate known spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) fossil species and place them within the latest Pompilidae phylogenetic hypothesis. Ceropalites infelix Cockerell, from the Florissant Fossil Beds (Priabonian), is no longer recognized as Pompilidae, but as Aulacidae. Agenioideus saxigenus (Cockerell) comb...
2017: PloS One
Jason Gibbs
There is an ongoing campaign to DNA barcode the world's >20 000 bee species. Recent revisions of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) for Canada and the eastern United States were completed using integrative taxonomy. DNA barcode data from 110 species of L. (Dialictus) are examined for their value in identification and discovering additional taxonomic diversity. Specimen identification success was estimated using the best close match method. Error rates were 20% relative to current taxonomic understanding...
January 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Arturo B Martinelli, Cecilia Waichert, Diego N Barbosa, Valéria Fagundes, Celso O Azevedo
Genitalia are rich source of characters in insect taxonomy. Usually, they are examined after dissection and cleaning with potassium hydroxide (KOH), procedure that may damage both genital morphological structures and intracellular molecular contents. Enzymatic procedure with Proteinase K has been used to clean muscle off the genitalia while extract DNA, but its damage to the genital structures has not been evaluated. Herein, we qualitatively compare the use of KOH and Proteinase K to prepare genital structures in minute insects (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)...
July 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Nicole Rasoamanana, Sándor Csősz, Brian L Fisher
The ant genus Camponotus (Mayr, 1861) is one of the most abundant and species rich ant genera in the Malagasy zoogeographical region. Although this group is commonly encountered, its taxonomy is far from complete. Here, we clarify the taxonomy of the Malagasy-endemic Camponotus subgenus Myrmopytia (Emery, 1920). Species delimitation was based on traditional morphological characters and multivariate morphometric analyses, including exploratory Nest Centroid clustering and confirmatory cross-validated Linear Discriminant Analysis...
2017: ZooKeys
Ana Ješovnik, Ted R Schultz
The genus Sericomyrmex Mayr (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini) is a Neotropical group of fungus-farming ants known for its problematic taxonomy, caused by low morphological variability across the species, vague and old species descriptions, and an outdated and incomplete key published in 1916. Recent molecular studies revealed that Sericomyrmex is the product of a rapid recent radiation, with a divergence date of 4.3 million years ago. Here we present a comprehensive taxonomic revision of the genus Sericomyrmex based on morphology and a recently published molecular phylogeny...
2017: ZooKeys
Arturo Roig-Alsina, Leopoldo J Alvarez
The southern distribution of stingless bees in the Neotropics reaches the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, up to 34°51' S in latitude, where two species of Plebeia are found on the west margin of the Río de La Plata: P. emerinoides (Silvestri), and P. droryana (Friese). In this area some relicts of gallery forest occur and the climate is moderated by the large water mass of the river. The taxonomy of both species is discussed. Diagnoses, updated distribution, and illustrations of some morphological features are given for both species...
March 19, 2017: Zootaxa
Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Ana Ješovnik, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Mauricio Bacci, Ted R Schultz
We report the rediscovery of the exceedingly rarely collected and enigmatic fungus-farming ant species Mycetosoritis asper. Since the description of the type specimen in 1887, only four additional specimens are known to have been added to the world's insect collections. Its biology is entirely unknown and its phylogenetic position within the fungus-farming ants has remained puzzling due to its aberrant morphology. In 2014 we excavated and collected twenty-one colonies of M. asper in the Floresta Nacional de Chapecó in Santa Catarina, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
Jonathan R Mawdsley
The taxonomy of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963, is reviewed. There is a single valid species in this subgenus, Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans Smith, 1874, which is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to northern Republic of South Africa. Synonyms of Xylocopa inconstans include Xylocopa abyssinica Radoszkowski, 1899, proposed for a male specimen from Ethiopia, as well as three names proposed for females with yellow (rather than white) dorsal pubescence: Mesotrichia chiyakensis Cockerell, 1908 (new synonym), Xylocopa inconstans var...
2017: ZooKeys
Kôichi Arimoto
Leptogenys brevilobasp. n., Leptogenys curvasp. n., Leptogenys itoisp. n., Leptogenys kanaoisp. n., Leptogenys malayanasp. n., and Leptogenys modiglianii Emery, 1900 are described from southeast Asia. The Leptogenys modiglianii species group is proposed on the basis of similarities among the six species. An identification key to species in this group from southeast Asia is provided.
2017: ZooKeys
Francisco Hita Garcia, Georg Fischer, Cong Liu, Tracy L Audisio, Gary D Alpert, Brian L Fisher, Evan P Economo
We explore the potential of x-ray micro computed tomography (μCT) for the field of ant taxonomy by using it to enhance the descriptions of two remarkable new species of the ant genus Terataner: T. balrog sp. n. and T. nymeria sp. n.. We provide an illustrated worker-based species identification key for all species found on Madagascar, as well as detailed taxonomic descriptions, which include diagnoses, discussions, measurements, natural history data, high-quality montage images and distribution maps for both new species...
2017: PloS One
Marie Vasse, Hermann Voglmayr, Veronika Mayer, Cécile Gueidan, Maximilian Nepel, Leandro Moreno, Sybren de Hoog, Marc-André Selosse, Doyle McKey, Rumsaïs Blatrix
The frequency and the geographical extent of symbiotic associations between ants and fungi of the order Chaetothyriales have been highlighted only recently. Using a phylogenetic approach based on seven molecular markers, we showed that ant-associated Chaetothyriales are scattered through the phylogeny of this order. There was no clustering according to geographical origin or to the taxonomy of the ant host. However, strains tended to be clustered according to the type of association with ants: strains from ant-made carton and strains from plant cavities occupied by ants ('domatia') rarely clustered together...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Rocío Ana González-Vaquero, Carlo Polidori, José Luis Nieves-Aldrey
We describe a new species of Corynura Spinola, a socially polymorphic genus within the bee tribe Augochlorini (Halictidae). We present a detailed description of both sexes of Corynura (Corynura) moscosensis n. sp. González-Vaquero, images of diagnostic morphological structures and antennal sensilla, floral associations, distributional data and notes on its nesting biology. Corynura moscosensis n. sp. is similar in appearance to C. (C.) chloromelas (Alfken), but it can be distinguished by the sculpturing of the mesoscutum and the hair types on the propodeum in the female, and by the genitalia and extent of the area exclusively covered by sensilla placoidea on the antennal flagellum of the male...
January 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Laurence Packer, Luisa Ruz
We compare the diversity of bees in the Chilean fauna as understood from traditional taxonomy-based catalogues with that currently known from DNA barcodes using the BIN system informed by ongoing morphology-based taxonomic research. While DNA barcode surveys of the Chilean bee fauna remain incomplete, it is clear that new species can readily be distinguished using this method and that morphological differentiation of distinct barcode clusters is sometimes very easy. We assess the situation in two genera in some detail...
November 21, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Fernando H A Farache, Astrid Cruaud, Gwenaëlle Genson, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Rodrigo A S Pereira
Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae) in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses...
2017: PeerJ
Zinan Wang, Lori Moshman, Emily C Kraus, Blake E Wilson, Namoona Acharya, Rodrigo Diaz
The tawny crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), has invaded states of the U.S. including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Native to South America, N. fulva is considered a pest in the U.S. capable of annoying homeowners and farmers, as well as displacing native ant species. As it continues to expand its range, there is a growing need to develop novel management techniques to control the pest and prevent further spread. Current management efforts rely heavily on chemical control, but these methods have not been successful...
December 15, 2016: Insects
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