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Hymenoptera, taxonomy

Rocío Ana González-Vaquero, Carlo Polidori, José Luis Nieves-Aldrey
We describe a new species of Corynura Spinola, a socially polymorphic genus within the bee tribe Augochlorini (Halictidae). We present a detailed description of both sexes of Corynura (Corynura) moscosensis n. sp. González-Vaquero, images of diagnostic morphological structures and antennal sensilla, floral associations, distributional data and notes on its nesting biology. Corynura moscosensis n. sp. is similar in appearance to C. (C.) chloromelas (Alfken), but it can be distinguished by the sculpturing of the mesoscutum and the hair types on the propodeum in the female, and by the genitalia and extent of the area exclusively covered by sensilla placoidea on the antennal flagellum of the male...
January 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Laurence Packer, Luisa Ruz
We compare the diversity of Chilean bees as understood from traditional taxonomy-based catalogues with that currently known from DNA barcodes using the BIN system informed by ongoing morphology-based taxonomy. While DNA barcode surveys of the Chilean bee fauna remain incomplete; it is clear that new species can readily be distinguished using this method and that morphological differentiation of distinct barcode clusters is sometimes very easy. We assess the situation in two genera in detail. In <i>Lonchopria </i>Vachal one "species" is readily separable into two BINs that are easily differentiated based upon male mandibular and genitalic morphology (characters generally used in this group) as well female hair patterns...
November 21, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Fernando H A Farache, Astrid Cruaud, Gwenaëlle Genson, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Rodrigo A S Pereira
Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae) in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses...
2017: PeerJ
Zinan Wang, Lori Moshman, Emily C Kraus, Blake E Wilson, Namoona Acharya, Rodrigo Diaz
The tawny crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), has invaded states of the U.S. including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Native to South America, N. fulva is considered a pest in the U.S. capable of annoying homeowners and farmers, as well as displacing native ant species. As it continues to expand its range, there is a growing need to develop novel management techniques to control the pest and prevent further spread. Current management efforts rely heavily on chemical control, but these methods have not been successful...
December 15, 2016: Insects
Steve Shattuck, Stefan Cover
The North American ant fauna has a long and detailed taxonomic history, and the fauna is relatively well characterized compared with those of many other regions. The vast majority of taxon names are clearly defined, being treated as either valid or invalid (primarily junior synonyms). Because of this, though considerable revisionary work will be necessary in the future, specimens collected from this region may often be placed with reasonable confidence either to species, or in some cases, to species complexes even if the status of the specific taxa involved are uncertain...
October 12, 2016: Zootaxa
Stefan Schmidt, Andreas Taeger, Jérôme Morinière, Andrew Liston, Stephan M Blank, Katja Kramp, Manfred Kraus, Olga Schmidt, Erik Heibo, Marko Prous, Tommi Nyman, Tobias Malm, Julie Stahlhut
The 'Symphyta' is a paraphyletic assemblage at the base of the order Hymenoptera, comprising 14 families and about 8,750 species. All have phytophagous larvae, except for the Orussidae, which are parasitoids. This study presents and evaluates the results of DNA barcoding of approximately 5,360 specimens of 'Symphyta', mainly adults, and 4,362 sequences covering 1,037 species were deemed of suitable quality for inclusion in the analysis. All extant families are represented, except for the Anaxyelidae. The majority of species and specimens are from Europe, but approximately 38% of the species and 13% of the specimens are of non-European origin...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Ying Wang, Qing-Song Zhou, Hui-Jie Qiao, Ai-Bing Zhang, Fang Yu, Xu-Bo Wang, Chao-Dong Zhu, Yan-Zhou Zhang
With the recent development of molecular approaches to species delimitation, a growing number of cryptic species have been discovered in what had previously been thought to be single morpho-species. Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have greatly enhanced our knowledge of taxonomy, but taxonomy remains incomplete and needs a formal species nomenclature and description to facilitate its use in other scientific fields. A previous study using DNA barcoding, geometric morphometrics and mating tests revealed at least two cryptic species in the Encyrtus sasakii complex...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rocío Ana González-Vaquero, Arturo Roig-Alsina, Laurence Packer
Special care is needed in the delimitation and identification of halictid bee species, which are renowned for being morphologically monotonous. Corynura Spinola and Halictillus Moure (Halictidae: Augochlorini) contain species that are key elements in southern South American ecosystems. These bees are very difficult to identify due to close morphological similarity among species and high sexual dimorphism. We analyzed 170 barcode-compliant COI sequences from 19 species. DNA barcodes were useful to confirm gender associations and to detect two new cryptic species...
October 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Taiping Gao, Chungkun Shih, Michael S Engel, Dong Ren
BACKGROUND: Pterygota insects typically have symmetric veins in left and right wings. For studying taxonomy and phylogeny of fossil insects, venational patterns are commonly used as diagnostic characters, in conjunction with preserved body characters. Some examples of asymmetrical venation are known among extant insects, but only a few fossil insects with asymmetric wings have been reported, among which a previously described xyelotomid of Hymenoptera, Xyelocerus diaphanous, displays an unusual, small cell of vein Rs in the left forewing, but not in the right...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Spencer K Monckton
The bee subgenus Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) Toro & Moldenke, 1979 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Xeromelissinae) is revised. The subgenus is considered endemic to Chile and occurs across a broad range of habitats. Eight new species are described: Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) charizard Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) curvapeligrosa Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) guanicoe Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) katherinae Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) lickana Monckton, sp...
2016: ZooKeys
Bernhard Seifert, Christophe Galkowski
Application of Numeric Morphology-Based Alpha-Taxonomy (NUMOBAT) demonstrated the existence of three cryptic species within the Westpalaearctic Lasius paralienus species complex: L. paralienus Seifert, 1992, having a wider European distribution north to Sweden, L. casevitzi sp. nov., an endemic of Corsica, and Lasius bombycina sp. nov. from southeast Central Europe, the Balkans and Asia Minor. Hierarchical NC-Ward clustering and non-hierarchical NC-k-means clustering of 16 morphological characters resulted in 98...
June 28, 2016: Zootaxa
Jian-Yue Qiu, Hao Xu
The Asian genus Clinterocera Motschulsky, 1858 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Cremastocheilini) is redescribed and divided into four species groups based on adult external characters. The definition of species groups and an identification key to these species groups are provided. The C. discipennis species group is revised, and two species are recognized: C. discipennis Fairmaire, 1889 and C. trimaculata Ma, 1993. Callynomes rufiventris Fairmaire, 1904, Callynomes rufithorax Moser, 1901, Callynomes cruciatus Moser, 1901, Callynomes vitalisi (Bourgoin, 1924), and Clinterocera rubra Ma, 1992 are placed as junior synonyms of Clinterocera discipennis...
June 22, 2016: Zootaxa
Franco Strumia, Majid Fallahzadeh, Elaheh Izadi
Chrysura Dahlbom, 1845 is the second largest genus in the Chrysidini tribe. It is essentially a Holarctic genus composed of over 100 species. The largest diversity is observed in the western Palaearctic Region. Important diagnostic features are the relatively flat and finely punctured face, absence of transverse frontal carina, the edentate metasomal tergum 3, and male flagellomeres 2-5 (especially 2-4) bulging ventrally (Kimsey & Bohart 1991). Kimsey & Bohart (1991) divided Chrysura into five species-groups: candens, cuprea, dichroa, austriaca and radians...
January 7, 2016: Zootaxa
Lien Thi Phuong Nguyen
Coeleumenes flavus sp. nov is described and illustrated from Vietnam (Son La), C. burmanicus van der Vecht, 1963 is redescribed. A key to both species from Vietnam is given.
June 8, 2016: Zootaxa
Rebecca N Kittel, Andrew D Austin, Seraina Klopfstein
Parasitoid wasps of the subfamily Cheloninae are both species rich and poorly known. Although the taxonomy of Cheloninae appears to be relatively stable, there is no clear understanding of relationships among higher-level taxa. We here applied molecular phylogenetic analyses using three markers (COI, EF1α, 28S) and 37 morphological characters to elucidate the evolution and systematics of these wasps. Analyses were based on 83 specimens representing 13 genera. All genera except Ascogaster, Phanerotoma, and Pseudophanerotoma formed monophyletic groups; Furcidentia (stat...
August 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sándor Csősz, Brian L Fisher
Madagascar is one of the world's greatest biodiversity hotspots, meriting special attention from biodiversity scientists. It is an excellent testing ground for novel techniques in taxonomy that aim to increase classification objectivity and yield greater taxonomic resolving power. Here we reveal the diversity of a unique and largely unexplored fragment of the Malagasy ant fauna using an advanced combination of exploratory analyses on quantitative morphological data allowing for increased objectivity in taxonomic workflow...
2016: PloS One
Andrei E Humala, Jin-Kyung Choi, Jong-Wook Lee
Two genera of Korean Orthocentrinae, Gnathochorisis and Symplecis, are reviewed, and keys to species of these genera are provided here. Two new species, Gnathochorisis fuscipes Humala & Lee, sp. n. and Gnathochorisis koreensis Humala & Lee, sp. n. are described from South Korea. The current state of the taxonomy of Eastern Palaearctic orthocentrines is briefly discussed.
2016: ZooKeys
Daniel P Cariveau, Geetha K Nayak, Ignasi Bartomeus, Joseph Zientek, John S Ascher, Jason Gibbs, Rachael Winfree
Allometric relationships among morphological traits underlie important patterns in ecology. These relationships are often phylogenetically shared; thus quantifying allometric relationships may allow for estimating difficult-to-measure traits across species. One such trait, proboscis length in bees, is assumed to be important in structuring bee communities and plant-pollinator networks. However, it is difficult to measure and thus rarely included in ecological analyses. We measured intertegular distance (as a measure of body size) and proboscis length (glossa and prementum, both individually and combined) of 786 individual bees of 100 species across 5 of the 7 extant bee families (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila)...
2016: PloS One
Jie Liu, Laura J May-Collado, Stano Pekár, Ingi Agnarsson
Cobweb spiders (Theridiidae) are highly diverse from the perspective of species richness, morphological diversity, variety of web architecture, and behavioral repertoires. The family includes over 50% of social spiders, a behavioral rarity among the order, and members of the family are furthermore the subject of research on venom, silk biomechanics, kleptoparasitism and web building, among other traits. Theridiidae is one of the most abundant groups of spiders, and thus key insect predators in many different ecosystems and is among relatively few spider families that show high degree of myrmecophagy...
January 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Katja Hogendoorn, Mark Stevens, Remko Leijs
This paper launches an open access DNA barcoding project "AUSBS" under the Barcoding of Life Datasystems (BOLD). The aims of the project are to help scientists who lack the necessary morphological knowledge to identify known species using molecular markers, to aid native bee specialists with the recognition of species groups that morphologically are difficult to define, and, eventually, to assist with the recognition of new species among known species. Using integrative taxonomy, i.e. morphological comparison to type specimens in Australian museum collections combined with phylogenetic analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene sequences led to the recognition of four new species of Euhesma Michener (Hymenoptera: Colletidae: Euryglossini) collected during intensive surveys in remote Australian conservation areas, which are described...
2015: ZooKeys
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