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Entomology, Insects

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147722/-dengue-fever-symptoms-epidemiology-entomology-pathogen-diagnosis-and-prevention
#1
D Wiemer, H Frickmann, A Krüger
Dengue infections are among the most frequent causes of febrile disease in tropical climates. Infections are caused by a flavivirus transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. Aedes aegypti mosquitos are the main transmitters of Dengue viruses. Since these insects are both diurnal and container breeders, particular prevention and control measures are required. Symptom severity varies and can range from a mild, flu-like clinical picture to severe hemorrhage and shock. The most common symptoms experienced by travelers include fever, muscular pain, headaches and skin rash...
November 16, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145003/the-importance-of-saprinus-semistriatus-coleoptera-histeridae-for-estimating-the-minimum-post-mortem-interval
#2
I Szelecz, N Feddern, C V W Seppey, J Amendt, E A D Mitchell
In forensic science, the use of entomological evidence to estimate the minimum post-mortem interval can be crucial. However, not all cadaver-visiting insects are equally useful. Our focus is on the histerid beetle Saprinus semistriatus (Scriba 1790) (Histeridae; Coleoptera). Histeridae are common predators that feed mainly on dipteran larvae on carrion and dung. We review 23 publications mentioning this species and provide new experimental data on its temporal pattern beneath and on hanging pig cadavers. In a field experiment near Neuchâtel, Switzerland, we recorded the abundance of S...
November 10, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104577/interactions-of-root-feeding-insects-with-fungal-and-oomycete-plant-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Telsa Willsey, Syama Chatterton, Héctor Cárcamo
Soilborne fungal and oomycete pathogens are the causal agents of several important plant diseases. Infection frequently co-occurs with herbivory by root-feeding insects, facilitating tripartite interactions that modify plant performance and mortality. In an agricultural context, interactions between pathogens, herbivores, and plants can have important consequences for yield protection. However, belowground interactions are inherently difficult to observe and are often overlooked. Here, we review the impact of direct and indirect interactions between root-associated insects, fungi, and oomycetes on the development of plant disease...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092797/gold-nanoparticles-against-parasites-and-insect-vectors
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli
Nanomaterials are currently considered for many biological, biomedical and environmental purposes, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is of high interest for research in parasitology and entomology, since these nanomaterials showed promising applications, ranging from detection techniques to drug development, against a rather wide range of parasites of public health relevance, as well as on insect vectors. Here, I reviewed current knowledge about the bioactivity of Au NPs on selected insect species of public health relevance, including major mosquito vectors, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus...
October 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067493/sex-specific-developmental-models-for-creophilus-maxillosus-l-coleoptera-staphylinidae-searching-for-larger-accuracy-of-insect-age-estimates
#5
Katarzyna Frątczak-Łagiewska, Szymon Matuszewski
Differences in size between males and females, called the sexual size dimorphism, are common in insects. These differences may be followed by differences in the duration of development. Accordingly, it is believed that insect sex may be used to increase the accuracy of insect age estimates in forensic entomology. Here, the sex-specific differences in the development of Creophilus maxillosus were studied at seven constant temperatures. We have also created separate developmental models for males and females of C...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058981/entomological-collections-in-the-age-of-big-data
#6
Andrew Edward Z Short, Torsten Dikow, Corrie S Moreau
With a million described species and more than half a billion preserved specimens, the large scale of insect collections is unequaled by those of any other group. Advances in genomics, collection digitization, and imaging have begun to more fully harness the power that such large data stores can provide. These new approaches and technologies have transformed how entomological collections are managed and utilized. While genomic research has fundamentally changed how many specimens are collected and curated, advances in technology have shown promise for extracting sequence data from the vast holdings already in museums...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058980/regulatory-pathways-controlling-female-insect-reproduction
#7
Sourav Roy, Tusar T Saha, Zhen Zou, Alexander S Raikhel
The synthesis of vitellogenin and its uptake by maturing oocytes during egg maturation are essential for successful female reproduction. These events are regulated by the juvenile hormones and ecdysteroids, and the nutritional signaling pathway regulated by neuropeptides. Juvenile hormones act as gonadotropins, regulating vitellogenesis in most insects, but ecdysteroids control this process in Diptera and some Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. The complex crosstalk between the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, and nutritional signaling pathways differs distinctly depending on the reproductive strategies adopted by various insects...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058979/systematics-biology-and-evolution-of-microgastrine-parasitoid-wasps
#8
James B Whitfield, Andrew D Austin, Jose L Fernandez-Triana
The braconid parasitoid wasp subfamily Microgastrinae is perhaps the most species-rich subfamily of animals on Earth. Despite their small size, they are familiar to agriculturalists and field ecologists alike as one of the principal groups of natural enemies of caterpillars feeding on plants. Their abundance and nearly ubiquitous terrestrial distribution, their intricate interactions with host insects, and their historical association with mutualistic polydnaviruses have all contributed to Microgastrinae becoming a key group of organisms for studying parasitism, parasitoid genomics, and mating biology...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058978/advances-in-attract-and-kill-for-agricultural-pests-beyond-pheromones
#9
Peter C Gregg, Alice P Del Socorro, Peter J Landolt
Attract-and-kill has considerable potential as a tactic in integrated management of pests of agricultural crops, but the use of sex pheromones as attractants is limited by male multiple mating and immigration of mated females into treated areas. Attractants for both sexes, and particularly females, would minimize these difficulties. Volatile compounds derived from plants or fermentation of plant products can attract females and have been used in traps for monitoring and control, and in sprayable attract-and-kill formulations or bait stations...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048274/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-new-iflavirus-from-armigeres-spp-mosquitoes-in-the-philippines
#10
Daisuke Kobayashi, Haruhiko Isawa, Ryosuke Fujita, Katsunori Murota, Kentaro Itokawa, Yukiko Higa, Yukie Katayama, Toshinori Sasaki, Tetsuya Mizutani, Shiroh Iwanaga, Nobuo Ohta, Arlene Garcia-Bertuso, Kyoko Sawabe
During an entomological surveillance for arthropod-borne viruses in the Philippines, we isolated a previously unrecognized virus from female Armigeres spp. mosquitoes. Whole-genome sequencing, genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated virus, designated Armigeres iflavirus (ArIFV), is a novel member of the iflaviruses (genus Iflavirus, family Iflaviridae) and phylogenetically related to Moku virus, Hubei odonate virus 4, slow bee paralysis virus and Graminella nigrifrons virus 1...
November 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029589/environmental-adaptations-ecological-filtering-and-dispersal-central-to-insect-invasions
#11
David Renault, Mathieu Laparie, Shannon J McCauley, Dries Bonte
Insect invasions, the establishment and spread of nonnative insects in new regions, can have extensive economic and environmental consequences. Increased global connectivity accelerates rates of introductions, while climate change may decrease the barriers to invader species' spread. We follow an individual-level insect- and arachnid-centered perspective to assess how the process of invasion is influenced by phenotypic heterogeneity associated with dispersal and stress resistance, and their coupling, across the multiple steps of the invasion process...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992421/functional-hypoxia-in-insects-definition-assessment-and-consequences-for-physiology-ecology-and-evolution
#12
Jon F Harrison, Kendra Greenlee, Wilco C E P Verberk
Insects can experience functional hypoxia, a situation in which O2 supply is inadequate to meet oxygen demand. Assessing when functional hypoxia occurs is complex, because responses are graded, age and tissue dependent, and compensatory. Here, we compare information gained from metabolomics and transcriptional approaches and by manipulation of the partial pressure of oxygen. Functional hypoxia produces graded damage, including damaged macromolecules and inflammation. Insects respond by compensatory physiological and morphological changes in the tracheal system, metabolic reorganization, and suppression of activity, feeding, and growth...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981854/dipterofauna-associated-with-rat-carcasses-in-the-atlantic-forest-southeastern-brazil
#13
R P Carvalho, W T A Azevedo, A L Figueiredo, C S S Lessa, V M Aguiar
Each biome has its own fauna and intrinsic local conditions that determine the succession patterns of insects on carcasses. For this reason, regional studies are very important to forensics. This study deals with the flies that visit carcasses of Rattus rattus (L., 1758) in the Atlantic Forest remnant of Floresta da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We compare the diversity and relative abundance of fly families and species throughout the four seasons of the year and test for correlations between certain environmental variables and fly richness...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977775/the-psychology-of-superorganisms-collective-decision-making-by-insect-societies
#14
Takao Sasaki, Stephen C Pratt
Under the superorganism concept, insect societies are so tightly integrated that they possess features analogous to those of single organisms, including collective cognition. If so, colony function might fruitfully be studied using methods developed to understand individual animals. Here, we review research that uses psychological approaches to understand decision making by colonies. The application of neural models to collective choice shows fundamental similarities between how brains and colonies balance speed/accuracy trade-offs in decision making...
October 4, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968147/insect-borne-plant-pathogens-and-their-vectors-ecology-evolution-and-complex-interactions
#15
Sanford D Eigenbrode, Nilsa Bosque-Pérez, Thomas S Davis
The transmission of insect-borne plant pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, and fungi depends upon the abundance and behavior of their vectors. These pathogens should therefore be selected to influence their vectors to enhance their transmission, either indirectly, through the infected host plant, or directly, after acquisition of the pathogen by the vector. Accumulating evidence provides partial support for the occurrence of vector manipulation by plant pathogens, especially for plant viruses, for which a theoretical framework can explain patterns in the specific effects on vector behavior and performance depending on their modes of transmission...
October 2, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963944/new-records-of-forensic-entomofauna-in-legally-buried-and-exhumed-human-infants-remains-in-buenos-aires-argentina
#16
Roxana Mariani, Rocío García-Mancuso, Graciela L Varela, Ivana Kierbel
The study of carrion fauna associated with buried human corpses from a forensic perspective could provide useful information in criminal investigations. Insects and other arthropods remains sampled of 44 legally exhumed infant skeletons from La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). They were identified at different taxonomic levels depending on the state of preservation. The specific diversity, abundance and frequency were analyzed and each taxon was assigned to the hypothetical colonization sequence: burial colonization, post-exhumation contamination at cemetery deposit or soil fauna...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954078/description-of-the-feeding-preferences-of-triatominae-in-the-chagas-disease-surveillance-study-for-the-state-of-pernambuco-brazil-hemiptera-reduviidae
#17
Maria Beatriz Araújo Silva, Kelly Reis de Menezes, Maria Clara Guerra de Farias, Maria Sandra Andrade, Caio Cesar Alves Victor, Elias Seixas Lorosa, José Jurberg
INTRODUCTION: Studying the feeding preferences of triatomines is an important entomological surveillance tool, since continuous surveillance of the disease is necessary. METHODS: The precipitin reaction was used to describe the feeding preferences of triatomines along with their natural infection by flagellates similar to Tyrpanosoma cruzi. Six hundred eighty-seven insects were examined, including Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and Panstrongylus lutzi...
July 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945976/social-immunity-emergence-and-evolution-of-colony-level-disease-protection
#18
Sylvia Cremer, Christopher D Pull, Matthias A Fürst
Social insect colonies have evolved many collectively performed adaptations that reduce the impact of infectious disease and that are expected to maximize their fitness. This colony-level protection is termed social immunity, and it enhances the health and survival of the colony. In this review, we address how social immunity emerges from its mechanistic components to produce colony-level disease avoidance, resistance, and tolerance. To understand the evolutionary causes and consequences of social immunity, we highlight the need for studies that evaluate the effects of social immunity on colony fitness...
September 25, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945569/-thermoregulation-behavior-in-necrophagous-dipteran-larvae
#19
Cindy Aubernon, Valéry Hédouin, Damien Charabidzé
The forensic entomology is the use of insects to date the death. The forensic expert assessment is based on the development of necrophagous insects which are growing on the cadaver, to calculate their age and then estimate the Post-Mortem Interval. This development depends on a number of parameters like temperature, species or behavior. The French Forensic Taphonomy unit, the only expert team on the subject in France, works on the biology, physiology and ethology of the necrophagous insects. Their works are focused on thermoregulation behavior and thermal preferendum of maggot masses, aggregation phenomenon and social interaction or on food intake...
August 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942377/quantifying-pteridines-in-the-heads-of-blow-flies-diptera-calliphoridae-application-for-forensic-entomology
#20
J A Cammack, M H Reiskind, L M Guisewite, S S Denning, D W Watson
In forensic cases involving entomological evidence, establishing the postcolonization interval (post-CI) is a critical component of the investigation. Traditional methods of estimating the post-CI rely on estimating the age of immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from remains. However, in cases of delayed discovery (e.g., when remains are located indoors), these insects may have completed their development and be present in the environment as adults. Adult fly collections are often ignored in cases of advanced decomposition because of a presumed little relevance to the investigation; herein we present information on how these insects can be of value...
September 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
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