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Entomology, Insects

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331679/molecular-identification-of-forensically-important-calliphoridae-and-sarcophagidae-species-using-its2-nucleotide-sequences
#1
Ji Hye Park, Yu-Hoon Kim, Chan Seon Ham, Sang Eon Shin, Hyun Ju Lee, Kwang Soo Ko, Jinhyuk Choi, Gi Hoon Son, Seong Hwan Park
The application of insect evidence to forensic investigations is mainly based on the estimation of postmortem interval and the identification of insect species from samples that are collected from the crime scene. Due to the limited number of expert taxonomists, species identification is one of the major barriers for crime scene investigators to utilize forensic entomology. Therefore, the molecular identification of species, using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, has been suggested as an alternative strategy...
January 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324320/first-survey-of-forensically-important-insects-from-human-corpses-in-shiraz-iran
#2
Mohammad D Moemenbellah-Fard, Davood Keshavarzi, Mehran Fereidooni, Aboozar Soltani
The presence of insects on human cadavers has potential judicial value in medicolegal cases. This research emphasized the important role of insects in postmortem decomposition. It was conducted to investigate the composition and abundance of insects from human corpses during autopsies in legal medicine. It was implemented in the city of Shiraz, south Iran. Insects associated with human corpses were carefully collected and put into labelled vials. They were then identified using valid taxonomic keys. Fifteen outdoor (67%) and indoor discovered cadavers were examined...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322053/insect-fauna-of-human-cadavers-in-tehran-district
#3
Fahimeh Talebzadeh, Masoud Ghadipasha, Jaber Gharedaghi, Naser Yeksan, Kamran Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi
Background: Entomological data can provide valuable information for crime scene investigations especially in post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. This study performed to determine insect fauna of human corpses in Tehran district. Methods: Insect specimens were collected from 12 human cadavers during spring and summer 2014 and were identified using morphological characteristics. Results: Four fly species including two blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae), one flesh fly Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae), and one phorid fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) and a beetle Dermestes maculatus (Dermestidae) was observed on the human cadavers...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169903/-new-public-health-challenges-in-vector-management-black-flies-in-murcia-spain
#4
Pedro F Sánchez-López, Ignacio Ruiz-Arrondo, Heiko Kotter, Francisco Pacheco Martínez, Manuel Segovia Hernández, M Elisa Gómez Campoy
Historically, no black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) nuisance has been reported in the Murcia Region. Back in September 2016 the Ojós City Council has contacted the Regional Public Health General Directorate for help regarding a local insect nuisance, most probably based on mosquitoes. After sampling with a BG-sentinel 2 trap, collecting adult specimens with an entomological aspirator, and collect larvae and pupae on submerged giant cane stalks at the river, it turned out that Simulium sergenti was the insect species causing the nuisance...
November 20, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147722/-dengue-fever-symptoms-epidemiology-entomology-pathogen-diagnosis-and-prevention
#5
D Wiemer, H Frickmann, A Krüger
Dengue infections are among the most frequent causes of febrile disease in tropical climates. Infections are caused by a flavivirus transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. Aedes aegypti mosquitos are the main transmitters of Dengue viruses. Since these insects are both diurnal and container breeders, particular prevention and control measures are required. Symptom severity varies and can range from a mild, flu-like clinical picture to severe hemorrhage and shock. The most common symptoms experienced by travelers include fever, muscular pain, headaches and skin rash...
November 16, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145003/the-importance-of-saprinus-semistriatus-coleoptera-histeridae-for-estimating-the-minimum-post-mortem-interval
#6
I Szelecz, N Feddern, C V W Seppey, J Amendt, E A D Mitchell
In forensic science, the use of entomological evidence to estimate the minimum post-mortem interval can be crucial. However, not all cadaver-visiting insects are equally useful. Our focus is on the histerid beetle Saprinus semistriatus (Scriba 1790) (Histeridae; Coleoptera). Histeridae are common predators that feed mainly on dipteran larvae on carrion and dung. We review 23 publications mentioning this species and provide new experimental data on its temporal pattern beneath and on hanging pig cadavers. In a field experiment near Neuchâtel, Switzerland, we recorded the abundance of S...
November 10, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104577/interactions-of-root-feeding-insects-with-fungal-and-oomycete-plant-pathogens
#7
REVIEW
Telsa Willsey, Syama Chatterton, Héctor Cárcamo
Soilborne fungal and oomycete pathogens are the causal agents of several important plant diseases. Infection frequently co-occurs with herbivory by root-feeding insects, facilitating tripartite interactions that modify plant performance and mortality. In an agricultural context, interactions between pathogens, herbivores, and plants can have important consequences for yield protection. However, belowground interactions are inherently difficult to observe and are often overlooked. Here, we review the impact of direct and indirect interactions between root-associated insects, fungi, and oomycetes on the development of plant disease...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092797/gold-nanoparticles-against-parasites-and-insect-vectors
#8
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli
Nanomaterials are currently considered for many biological, biomedical and environmental purposes, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is of high interest for research in parasitology and entomology, since these nanomaterials showed promising applications, ranging from detection techniques to drug development, against a rather wide range of parasites of public health relevance, as well as on insect vectors. Here, I reviewed current knowledge about the bioactivity of Au NPs on selected insect species of public health relevance, including major mosquito vectors, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus...
October 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067493/sex-specific-developmental-models-for-creophilus-maxillosus-l-coleoptera-staphylinidae-searching-for-larger-accuracy-of-insect-age-estimates
#9
Katarzyna Frątczak-Łagiewska, Szymon Matuszewski
Differences in size between males and females, called the sexual size dimorphism, are common in insects. These differences may be followed by differences in the duration of development. Accordingly, it is believed that insect sex may be used to increase the accuracy of insect age estimates in forensic entomology. Here, the sex-specific differences in the development of Creophilus maxillosus were studied at seven constant temperatures. We have also created separate developmental models for males and females of C...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058981/entomological-collections-in-the-age-of-big-data
#10
Andrew Edward Z Short, Torsten Dikow, Corrie S Moreau
With a million described species and more than half a billion preserved specimens, the large scale of insect collections is unequaled by those of any other group. Advances in genomics, collection digitization, and imaging have begun to more fully harness the power that such large data stores can provide. These new approaches and technologies have transformed how entomological collections are managed and utilized. While genomic research has fundamentally changed how many specimens are collected and curated, advances in technology have shown promise for extracting sequence data from the vast holdings already in museums...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058980/regulatory-pathways-controlling-female-insect-reproduction
#11
Sourav Roy, Tusar T Saha, Zhen Zou, Alexander S Raikhel
The synthesis of vitellogenin and its uptake by maturing oocytes during egg maturation are essential for successful female reproduction. These events are regulated by the juvenile hormones and ecdysteroids, and the nutritional signaling pathway regulated by neuropeptides. Juvenile hormones act as gonadotropins, regulating vitellogenesis in most insects, but ecdysteroids control this process in Diptera and some Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. The complex crosstalk between the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, and nutritional signaling pathways differs distinctly depending on the reproductive strategies adopted by various insects...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058979/systematics-biology-and-evolution-of-microgastrine-parasitoid-wasps
#12
James B Whitfield, Andrew D Austin, Jose L Fernandez-Triana
The braconid parasitoid wasp subfamily Microgastrinae is perhaps the most species-rich subfamily of animals on Earth. Despite their small size, they are familiar to agriculturalists and field ecologists alike as one of the principal groups of natural enemies of caterpillars feeding on plants. Their abundance and nearly ubiquitous terrestrial distribution, their intricate interactions with host insects, and their historical association with mutualistic polydnaviruses have all contributed to Microgastrinae becoming a key group of organisms for studying parasitism, parasitoid genomics, and mating biology...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058978/advances-in-attract-and-kill-for-agricultural-pests-beyond-pheromones
#13
Peter C Gregg, Alice P Del Socorro, Peter J Landolt
Attract-and-kill has considerable potential as a tactic in integrated management of pests of agricultural crops, but the use of sex pheromones as attractants is limited by male multiple mating and immigration of mated females into treated areas. Attractants for both sexes, and particularly females, would minimize these difficulties. Volatile compounds derived from plants or fermentation of plant products can attract females and have been used in traps for monitoring and control, and in sprayable attract-and-kill formulations or bait stations...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048274/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-new-iflavirus-from-armigeres-spp-mosquitoes-in-the-philippines
#14
Daisuke Kobayashi, Haruhiko Isawa, Ryosuke Fujita, Katsunori Murota, Kentaro Itokawa, Yukiko Higa, Yukie Katayama, Toshinori Sasaki, Tetsuya Mizutani, Shiroh Iwanaga, Nobuo Ohta, Arlene Garcia-Bertuso, Kyoko Sawabe
During an entomological surveillance for arthropod-borne viruses in the Philippines, we isolated a previously unrecognized virus from female Armigeres spp. mosquitoes. Whole-genome sequencing, genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated virus, designated Armigeres iflavirus (ArIFV), is a novel member of the iflaviruses (genus Iflavirus, family Iflaviridae) and phylogenetically related to Moku virus, Hubei odonate virus 4, slow bee paralysis virus and Graminella nigrifrons virus 1...
November 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029589/environmental-adaptations-ecological-filtering-and-dispersal-central-to-insect-invasions
#15
David Renault, Mathieu Laparie, Shannon J McCauley, Dries Bonte
Insect invasions, the establishment and spread of nonnative insects in new regions, can have extensive economic and environmental consequences. Increased global connectivity accelerates rates of introductions, while climate change may decrease the barriers to invader species' spread. We follow an individual-level insect- and arachnid-centered perspective to assess how the process of invasion is influenced by phenotypic heterogeneity associated with dispersal and stress resistance, and their coupling, across the multiple steps of the invasion process...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992421/functional-hypoxia-in-insects-definition-assessment-and-consequences-for-physiology-ecology-and-evolution
#16
Jon F Harrison, Kendra Greenlee, Wilco C E P Verberk
Insects can experience functional hypoxia, a situation in which O2 supply is inadequate to meet oxygen demand. Assessing when functional hypoxia occurs is complex, because responses are graded, age and tissue dependent, and compensatory. Here, we compare information gained from metabolomics and transcriptional approaches and by manipulation of the partial pressure of oxygen. Functional hypoxia produces graded damage, including damaged macromolecules and inflammation. Insects respond by compensatory physiological and morphological changes in the tracheal system, metabolic reorganization, and suppression of activity, feeding, and growth...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981854/dipterofauna-associated-with-rat-carcasses-in-the-atlantic-forest-southeastern-brazil
#17
R P Carvalho, W T A Azevedo, A L Figueiredo, C S S Lessa, V M Aguiar
Each biome has its own fauna and intrinsic local conditions that determine the succession patterns of insects on carcasses. For this reason, regional studies are very important to forensics. This study deals with the flies that visit carcasses of Rattus rattus (L., 1758) in the Atlantic Forest remnant of Floresta da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We compare the diversity and relative abundance of fly families and species throughout the four seasons of the year and test for correlations between certain environmental variables and fly richness...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977775/the-psychology-of-superorganisms-collective-decision-making-by-insect-societies
#18
Takao Sasaki, Stephen C Pratt
Under the superorganism concept, insect societies are so tightly integrated that they possess features analogous to those of single organisms, including collective cognition. If so, colony function might fruitfully be studied using methods developed to understand individual animals. Here, we review research that uses psychological approaches to understand decision making by colonies. The application of neural models to collective choice shows fundamental similarities between how brains and colonies balance speed/accuracy trade-offs in decision making...
October 4, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968147/insect-borne-plant-pathogens-and-their-vectors-ecology-evolution-and-complex-interactions
#19
Sanford D Eigenbrode, Nilsa Bosque-Pérez, Thomas S Davis
The transmission of insect-borne plant pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, and fungi depends upon the abundance and behavior of their vectors. These pathogens should therefore be selected to influence their vectors to enhance their transmission, either indirectly, through the infected host plant, or directly, after acquisition of the pathogen by the vector. Accumulating evidence provides partial support for the occurrence of vector manipulation by plant pathogens, especially for plant viruses, for which a theoretical framework can explain patterns in the specific effects on vector behavior and performance depending on their modes of transmission...
October 2, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963944/new-records-of-forensic-entomofauna-in-legally-buried-and-exhumed-human-infants-remains-in-buenos-aires-argentina
#20
Roxana Mariani, Rocío García-Mancuso, Graciela L Varela, Ivana Kierbel
The study of carrion fauna associated with buried human corpses from a forensic perspective could provide useful information in criminal investigations. Insects and other arthropods remains sampled of 44 legally exhumed infant skeletons from La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). They were identified at different taxonomic levels depending on the state of preservation. The specific diversity, abundance and frequency were analyzed and each taxon was assigned to the hypothetical colonization sequence: burial colonization, post-exhumation contamination at cemetery deposit or soil fauna...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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