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Entomology, Insects

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912247/molecular-evolution-in-insect-societies-an-eco-evo-devo-synthesis
#1
Amy L Toth, Sandra M Rehan
The evolution of eusociality is a perennial issue in evolutionary biology, and genomic advances have fueled steadily growing interest in the genetic changes underlying social evolution. Along with a recent flurry of research on comparative and evolutionary genomics in different eusocial insect groups (bees, ants, wasps, and termites), several mechanistic explanations have emerged to describe the molecular evolution of eusociality from solitary behavior. These include solitary physiological ground plans, genetic toolkits of deeply conserved genes, evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes, cis regulation, and the structure of gene networks, epigenetics, and novel genes...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873335/lip-b-1-is-a-novel-allergenic-protein-isolated-from-the-booklouse-liposcelis-bostrychophila
#2
O Ishibashi, K Sakuragi, Y Fukutomi, Y Kawakami, Y Kamata, M Sakurai, S Nakayama, H Uchiyama, H Kobayashi, H Kojima, T Inui
BACKGROUND: Booklice, belonging to the order Psocoptera, are small household insect pests that are distributed worldwide. Liposcelis bostrychophila (L. bostrychophila), a common home-inhabiting species of booklouse, infests old books, sheets of paper and stored food. Recent entomological and serological studies demonstrated that L. bostrychophila accounted for the majority of detectable insects in house dust and could be a potent inducer of respiratory allergy. Our recent proteomic analysis identified a potent allergenic protein from L...
November 22, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860524/insect-pathogenic-fungi-genomics-molecular-interactions-and-genetic-improvements
#3
Chengshu Wang, Sibao Wang
Entomopathogenic fungi play a pivotal role in the regulation of insect populations in nature, and representative species have been developed as promising environmentally friendly mycoinsecticides. Recent advances in the genome biology of insect pathogenic fungi have revealed genomic features associated with fungal adaptation to insect hosts and different host ranges, as well as the evolutionary relationships between insect and noninsect pathogens. By using species in the Beauveria and Metarhizium genera as models, molecular biology studies have revealed the genes that function in fungus-insect interactions and thereby contribute to fungal virulence...
November 4, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860521/phylogeny-and-evolution-of-lepidoptera
#4
Charles Mitter, Donald R Davis, Michael P Cummings
Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813669/micrornas-and-the-evolution-of-insect-metamorphosis
#5
Xavier Belles
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of a number of processes associated with metamorphosis, either in the less modified hemimetabolan mode or in the more modified holometabolan mode. The miR-100/let-7/miR-125 cluster has been studied extensively, especially in relation to wing morphogenesis in both hemimetabolan and holometabolan species. Other miRNAs also participate in wing morphogenesis, as well as in programmed cell and tissue death, neuromaturation, neuromuscular junction formation, and neuron cell fate determination, typically during the pupal stage of holometabolan species...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813668/learning-in-insect-pollinators-and-herbivores
#6
Patricia L Jones, Anurag A Agrawal
The relationship between plants and insects is influenced by insects' behavioral decisions during foraging and oviposition. In mutualistic pollinators and antagonistic herbivores, past experience (learning) affects such decisions, which ultimately can impact plant fitness. The higher levels of dietary generalism in pollinators than in herbivores may be an explanation for the differences in learning seen between these two groups. Generalist pollinators experience a high level of environmental variation, which we suggest favors associative learning...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813667/neuropeptides-as-regulators-of-behavior-in-insects
#7
Liliane Schoofs, Arnold De Loof, Matthias Boris Van Hiel
Neuropeptides are by far the largest and most diverse group of signaling molecules in multicellular organisms. They are ancient molecules important in regulating a multitude of processes. Their small proteinaceous character allowed them to evolve and radiate quickly into numerous different molecules. On average, hundreds of distinct neuropeptides are present in animals, sometimes with unique classes that do not occur in distantly related species. Acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones, or growth factors, they are extremely diverse and are involved in controlling growth, development, ecdysis, digestion, diuresis, and many more physiological processes...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813665/the-impact-of-trap-type-and-design-features-on-survey-and-detection-of-bark-and-woodboring-beetles-and-their-associates-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Jeremy D Allison, Richard A Redak
A large literature on the survey and detection of forest Coleoptera and their associates exists. Identification of patterns in the effect of trap types and design features among guilds and families of forest insects would facilitate the optimization and development of intercept traps for use in management programs.Wereviewed the literature on trapping bark and woodboring beetles and their associates and conducted meta-analyses to examine patterns in effects across guilds and families; we observed the following general patterns: (a) Panel traps were superior to multiple-funnel traps, (b) bark beetles and woodborers were captured in higher numbers in traps treated with a surface treatment to make them slippery than untreated traps, (c) panel and multiple-funnel traps equipped with wet cups outperformed traps with dry cups, (d) black traps were superior to white and clear traps, and (e) purple traps were as good as or superior to green traps for Agrilus spp...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813663/impacts-of-insect-herbivores-on-plant-populations
#9
Judith H Myers, Rana M Sarfraz
Apparent feeding damage by insects on plants is often slight. Thus, the influences of insect herbivores on plant populations are likely minor. The role of insects on host-plant populations can be elucidated via several methods: stage-structured life tables of plant populations manipulated by herbivore exclusion and seed-addition experiments, tests of the enemy release hypothesis, studies of the effects of accidentally and intentionally introduced insect herbivores, and observations of the impacts of insect species that show outbreak population dynamics...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783641/environmental-niche-modelling-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-identifies-lutzomyia-intermedia-as-the-main-vector-species-in-southeastern-brazil
#10
Viviane Coutinho Meneguzzi, Claudiney Biral Dos Santos, Gustavo Rocha Leite, Blima Fux, Aloísio Falqueto
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by sand flies. The state of Espírito Santo (ES), an endemic area in southeast Brazil, has shown a considerably high prevalence in recent decades. Environmental niche modelling (ENM) is a useful tool for predicting potential disease risk. In this study, ENM was applied to sand fly species and CL cases in ES to identify the principal vector and risk areas of the disease. Sand flies were collected in 466 rural localities between 1997 and 2013 using active and passive capture...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766412/reflectance-based-determination-of-age-and-species-of-blowfly-puparia
#11
Sasha C Voss, Paola Magni, Ian Dadour, Christian Nansen
Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757574/a-comparison-of-carcass-decomposition-and-associated-insect-succession-onto-burnt-and-unburnt-pig-carcasses
#12
Craig S McIntosh, Ian R Dadour, Sasha C Voss
The rate of decomposition and insect succession onto decomposing pig carcasses were investigated following burning of carcasses. Ten pig carcasses (40-45 kg) were exposed to insect activity during autumn (March-April) in Western Australia. Five replicates were burnt to a degree described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) level #2, while five carcasses were left unburnt as controls. Burning carcasses greatly accelerated decomposition in contrast to unburnt carcasses. Physical modifications following burning such as skin discolouration, splitting of abdominal tissue and leathery consolidation of skin eliminated evidence of bloat and altered microambient temperatures associated with carcasses throughout decomposition...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744049/crispr-cas9-in-locusts-successful-establishment-of-an-olfactory-deficiency-line-by-targeting-the-mutagenesis-of-an-odorant-receptor-co-receptor-orco
#13
Yan Li, Jie Zhang, Dafeng Chen, Pengcheng Yang, Feng Jiang, Xianhui Wang, Le Kang
Locusts are important agricultural pests worldwide and regarded as study models for entomology. However, the absence of targeted gene manipulation systems for locusts has restricted their applications for research. Herein, we report the successful use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to induce a targeted heritable mutagenesis of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. The target sequence of gRNA was designed to disrupt the gene encoding the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and examine the roles of the odorant receptor pathway in the locust...
October 12, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721180/darkness-as-factor-influencing-the-oviposition-delay-in-calliphora-vicina-diptera-calliphoridae
#14
Teresa Bonacci, Pierpaolo Storino, Stefano Scalercio, Pietro Brandmayr
Many environmental and intrinsic factors (e.g. limited access to the body) can disrupt insect activity, causing a delay in the colonization of a corpse. These elements could hinder an accurate estimation of the minimum Post-mortem Interval (minPMI), raising questions about the limits of forensic entomology. Blow fly are considered mainly diurnal and relatively inactive at night, at extreme temperatures and in dark conditions. Data on their ability to lay eggs in darkness and in laboratory conditions are scarce...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720080/a-call-to-insect-scientists-challenges-and-opportunities-of-managing-insect-communities-under-climate-change
#15
Jessica J Hellmann, Ralph Grundel, Chris Hoving, Gregor W Schuurman
As climate change moves insect systems into uncharted territory, more knowledge about insect dynamics and the factors that drive them could enable us to better manage and conserve insect communities. Climate change may also require us to revisit insect management goals and strategies and lead to a new kind of scientific engagement in management decision-making. Here we make five key points about the role of insect science in aiding and crafting management decisions, and we illustrate those points with the monarch butterfly and the Karner blue butterfly, two species undergoing considerable change and facing new management dilemmas...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649317/behavioral-sabotage-of-plant-defenses-by-insect-folivores
#16
David E Dussourd
Plant susceptibility to herbivore attack is determined not just by the suite of defenses present in different tissues of the plant, but also by the capabilities of the herbivore for tolerating, circumventing, or disarming the defenses. This article reviews the elaborate behaviors exhibited by leaf-chewing insects that appear to function specifically to deactivate hostplant defenses. Shortcomings in our understanding and promising areas for future research are highlighted. Behaviors covered include vein cutting, trenching, girdling, leaf clipping, and application of fluids from exocrine glands...
September 16, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611954/development-of-the-green-bottle-fly-lucilia-illustris-at-constant-temperatures
#17
Yu Wang, Liang-Liang Li, Jiang-Feng Wang, Min Wang, Li-Jun Yang, Lu-Yang Tao, Ying-Na Zhang, Yi-Ding Hou, Jun Chu, Zai-Lin Hou
Lucilia illustris (Meigen 1826) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a cosmopolitan species that commonly colonizes carcasses and occasionally acts as parasites of humans or livestock, making it an insect of significant importance in forensic, medical, and veterinary entomology. However, only a few studies have documented the development of L. illustris. Here, we studied the developmental duration and larval body length changes of L. illustris under nine constant temperatures ranging from 15.0 to 35.0°C. Using these results, we generated an isomorphen diagram, thermal summation model, and isomegalen diagram for L...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507464/rapid-identification-of-the-botanical-and-entomological-sources-of-honey-using-dna-metabarcoding
#18
Sean W J Prosser, Paul D N Hebert
Honey is generated by various bee species from diverse plants, and because the value of different types of honey varies more than 100-fold, it is a target for fraud. This paper describes a protocol that employs DNA metabarcoding of three gene regions (ITS2, rbcLa, and COI) to provide an inexpensive tool to simultaneously deliver information on the botanical and entomological origins of honey. This method was used to examine seven varieties of honey: light, medium, dark, blended, pasteurized, creamed, and meliponine...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504617/eco-friendly-larvicides-from-indian-plants-effectiveness-of-lavandulyl-acetate-and-bicyclogermacrene-on-malaria-dengue-and-japanese-encephalitis-mosquito-vectors
#19
Marimuthu Govindarajan, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filiariasis and Zika virus. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493250/protein-self-marking-by-ectoparasites-a-case-study-using-bed-bugs-hemiptera-cimicidae
#20
Frances S Sivakoff, Susan C Jones, Scott A Machtley, James R Hagler
The ability to mark individuals is a critical feature of many entomological investigations, including dispersal studies. Insect dispersal is generally investigated using mark-release-recapture techniques, whereby marked individuals are released at a known location and then captured at a measured distance. Ectoparasite dispersal has historically been challenging to study, in part because of the ethical concerns associated with releasing marked individuals. Here, we introduce the protein self-marking technique, whereby ectoparasites mark themselves in the field by feeding on the blood of an introduced host...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
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