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Entomology, Insects

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768552/natural-infection-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-triatomines-and-seropositivity-for-chagas-disease-of-dogs-in-rural-areas-of-rio-grande-do-norte-brazil
#1
Yannara Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza, Jamille Maia E Magalhães, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo de Sousa, Luiz Ney d'Escoffier, Tânia Zaverucha do Valle, Teresa Cristina Monte Gonçalves, Hélcio Reinaldo Gil-Santana, Thais Aaparecida Kazimoto, Sthenia Santos Albano Amora
INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi. Its main reservoir is the domestic dog, especially in rural areas with favorable characteristics for vector establishment and proliferation. The aims of this study were to collect data, survey and map the fauna, and identify T. cruzi infection in triatomines, as well as to assess the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in dogs in rural areas of the municipality of Mossoró, Brazil. METHODS: An active entomologic research was conducted to identify adult specimens through an external morphology dichotomous key...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755261/spider-assemblages-associated-with-different-crop-stages-of-irrigated-rice-agroecosystems-from-eastern-uruguay
#2
Leticia Bao, Juaquín Ginella, Mónica Cadenazzi, Enrique A Castiglioni, Sebastián Martínez, Luis Casales, María P Caraballo, Álvaro Laborda, Miguel Simo
The rice crop and associated ecosystems constitute a rich mosaic of habitats that preserve a rich biological diversity. Spiders are an abundant and successful group of natural predators that are considered efficient in the biocontrol of the major insect pests in agroecosystems. Spider diversity in different stages of the rice crop growth from eastern Uruguay was analysed. Field study was developed on six rice farms with rotation system with pasture, installed during intercropping stage as cover crop. Six rice crops distributed in three locations were sampled with pitfall and entomological vaccum suction machine...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753971/development-and-validation-of-an-hplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-detection-of-ketamine-in-calliphora-vomitoria-l-diptera-calliphoridae
#3
Paola A Magni, Marco Pazzi, Jessica Droghi, Marco Vincenti, Ian R Dadour
Entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic entomology that studies the detection of drugs or other toxic substances from insects developing on the decomposing tissues of a human corpse or animal carcass. Entomotoxicology also investigates the effects of these substances on insect development, survival and morphology to provide an estimation of the minimum time since death. Ketamine is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. In recent years ketamine has also been used as a recreational drug, and occasionally as a sedating drug to facilitate sexual assault...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740343/identification-of-chemosensory-genes-based-on-the-transcriptomic-analysis-of-six-different-chemosensory-organs-in-spodoptera-exigua
#4
Ya-Nan Zhang, Jia-Li Qian, Ji-Wei Xu, Xiu-Yun Zhu, Meng-Ya Li, Xiao-Xue Xu, Chun-Xiang Liu, Tao Xue, Liang Sun
Insects have a complex chemosensory system that accurately perceives external chemicals and plays a pivotal role in many insect life activities. Thus, the study of the chemosensory mechanism has become an important research topic in entomology. Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major agricultural polyphagous pest that causes significant agricultural economic losses worldwide. However, except for a few genes that have been discovered, its olfactory and gustatory mechanisms remain uncertain...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735653/arthropods-in-modern-resins-reveal-if-amber-accurately-recorded-forest-arthropod-communities
#5
Mónica M Solórzano Kraemer, Xavier Delclòs, Matthew E Clapham, Antonio Arillo, David Peris, Peter Jäger, Frauke Stebner, Enrique Peñalver
Amber is an organic multicompound derivative from the polymerization of resin of diverse higher plants. Compared with other modes of fossil preservation, amber records the anatomy of and ecological interactions between ancient soft-bodied organisms with exceptional fidelity. However, it is currently suggested that ambers do not accurately record the composition of arthropod forest paleocommunities, due to crucial taphonomic biases. We evaluated the effects of taphonomic processes on arthropod entrapment by resin from the plant Hymenaea , one of the most important resin-producing trees and a producer of tropical Cenozoic ambers and Anthropocene (or subfossil) resins...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703229/impact-of-an-integrated-control-campaign-on-tsetse-populations-in-burkina-faso
#6
Lassané Percoma, Adama Sow, Soumaïla Pagabeleguem, Ahmadou H Dicko, Oumarou Serdebéogo, Mariam Ouédraogo, Jean-Baptiste Rayaissé, Jérémy Bouyer, Adrien M G Belem, Issa Sidibé
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human and animal trypanosomosis. In Burkina Faso, a project aiming to create zones free of tsetse flies and trypanosomosis was executed from June 2006 to December 2013. After the determination of tsetse distribution in the intervention area from December 2007 to November 2008, the control campaign was launched in November 2009 and ended in December 2013. The goal was to eliminate tsetse flies from 40,000 km2 of area, through an integrated control campaign including insecticide targets, traps and cattle, sequential aerial treatment (SAT) and the mass treatment of livestock using trypanocides...
April 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698658/a-novel-use-of-infra-red-spectroscopy-nirs-and-atr-ftir-coupled-with-variable-selection-algorithms-for-the-identification-of-insect-species-diptera-sarcophagidae-of-medico-legal-relevance
#7
Taciano M Barbosa, Leomir A S de Lima, Marfran C D Dos Santos, Simão D Vasconcelos, Renata A Gama, Kássio M G Lima
Unequivocal identification of fly specimens is an essential requirement in forensic entomology. Herein, a simple, non-destructive and rapid method based on two vibrational spectroscopy techniques [Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy] coupled with variable selection techniques such as genetic algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (GA-LDA) and successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA) were applied for identifying and discriminating six species of flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) native to Neotropical regions...
April 23, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694494/asilidae-diptera-of-two-atlantic-forest-protected-areas-of-rio-de-janeiro-southeastern-brazil
#8
Danilo P Moreira-Junior, Valéria C Maia
As few Asilidae inventories of Rio de Janeiro areas have been published, there are many data gaps. This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge of richness, abundance and distribution of this family in this State. From January 2013 to March 2014, insects were collected monthly using Malaise traps and every two months using entomological nets in the Reserva Biológica União (REBIO), and Estação Ecológica Estadual de Guaxindiba (EEEG). 682 specimens of Asilidae were collected in the present study, distributed in 31 genera and 51 species (20 identified and 31 unidentified), 527 of REBIO (in 19 genera and 38 species - 14 identified and 24 unidentified), and 155 specimens of EEEG (in 12 genera and 19 species - 6 identified and 13 unidentified)...
April 23, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690042/description-of-the-male-of-antodice-quadrimaculata-martins-galileo-2003-coleoptera-cerambycidae-lamiinae-with-new-country-record-for-the-species
#9
Rafael C de Barros, Bianca Piraccini Silva, Carlos E de Alvarenga Julio
The genus Antodice Thomson, 1864 was revised by Martins Galileo (1998) and currently includes 27 species (Tavakilian Chevillotte 2017), distributed from Mexico to southern South America. Based on a single female specimen collected in Arroyo Cristal, Ka'azapá, Paraguay, the species Antodice quadrimaculata was first described by Martins Galileo in 2003. The holotype specimen was collected on 20 November 1999 by J. Jensen and is deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. With the help of Carlos Aguilar, from Paraguay's National Museum of Natural History, we were able to determine the exact location where the holotype was collected...
February 5, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682531/identification-of-forensically-important-calliphoridae-and-sarcophagidae-species-collected-in-korea-using-snapshot-multiplex-system-targeting-the-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-i-gene
#10
Ji Hye Park, Sang Eon Shin, Kwang Soo Ko, Seong Hwan Park
Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is paramount in modern forensic investigation. After the disappearance of the early postmortem phenomena conventionally used to estimate PMI, entomologic evidence provides important indicators for PMI estimation. The age of the oldest fly larvae or pupae can be estimated to pinpoint the time of oviposition, which is considered the minimum PMI (PMImin ). The development rate of insects is usually temperature dependent and species specific. Therefore, species identification is mandatory for PMImin estimation using entomological evidence...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659922/chronology-of-the-intrapuparial-development-of-the-blowfly-chrysomya-albiceps-diptera-calliphoridae-application-in-forensic-entomology
#11
Mônica Salazar-Souza, Márcia S Couri, Valeria M Aguiar
Insects display different patterns of development, and blow flies have one of the most specialized patterns of intrapuparial development of all. In forensic entomology, pupae can be used as a tool to estimate the minimum postmortem time interval (minPMI). We analyzed the intrapuparial development of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Caloricidade), whose larvae had been fed pig lungs and reared in a climate-controlled room at 28°C day/26°C night, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12 h of photophase and monitored daily. After the third-instar larvae abandoned their diet, the process of pupariation and pupation was monitored...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624105/safety-and-quality-assessment-of-smallholder-farmers-maize-in-the-western-highlands-of-guatemala
#12
José Rodrigo Mendoza, Ana Rodas, Ana Oliva, Luis Sabillón, Ana Colmenares, Jennifer Clarke, Heather E Hallen-Adams, Carlos Campabadal, Andréia Bianchini
Maize ( Zea mays) is a staple in many developing countries but is known to be prone to pest (insects, birds, and rodents) and fungal infestation. In Guatemala, mycotoxin contamination of cultivated products may occur owing to such factors as environmental conditions and the use of traditional agriculture operations. To assess the current maize conditions in Guatemala, a small-scale study was performed. Mold and insect counts and mycotoxin (aflatoxin and fumonisin) concentrations were determined on 25 farms in two townships (Chiantla and Todos Santos) of the Huehuetenango Department...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615723/identification-of-migratory-insects-from-their-physical-features-using-a-decision-tree-support-vector-machine-and-its-application-to-radar-entomology
#13
Cheng Hu, Shaoyang Kong, Rui Wang, Teng Long, Xiaowei Fu
Migration is a key process in the population dynamics of numerous insect species, including many that are pests or vectors of disease. Identification of insect migrants is critically important to studies of insect migration. Radar is an effective means of monitoring nocturnal insect migrants. However, species identification of migrating insects is often unachievable with current radar technology. Special-purpose entomological radar can measure radar cross-sections (RCSs) from which the insect mass, wingbeat frequency and body length-to-width ratio (a measure of morphological form) can be estimated...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566159/seasonal-occurrence-of-key-arthropod-pests-and-beneficial-insects-in-michigan-high-tunnel-and-field-grown-raspberries
#14
Heather Leach, Rufus Isaacs
Berry crops are increasingly produced in high tunnels, which provide growers with the opportunity to extend their production season. This is particularly beneficial for the northern region of the United States with short and unpredictable growing seasons and where rainfall limits fruit quality. However, little is known about the effect of high tunnels on the community of pests, natural enemies, or pollinators, especially in berry crops, and there are few reports of the insect community in raspberries in this region...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538297/the-six-legged-subject-a-survey-of-secondary-science-teachers-incorporation-of-insects-into-u-s-life-science-instruction
#15
Erin Ingram, Douglas Golick
To improve students' understanding and appreciation of insects, entomology education efforts have supported insect incorporation in formal education settings. While several studies have explored student ideas about insects and the incorporation of insects in elementary and middle school classrooms, the topic of how and why insects are incorporated in secondary science classrooms remains relatively unexplored. Using survey research methods, this study addresses the gap in the literature by (1) describing in-service secondary science teachers' incorporation of insects in science classrooms; (2) identifying factors that support or deter insect incorporation and (3) identifying teachers' preferred resources to support future entomology education efforts...
March 14, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534105/dengue-virus-in-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-in-urban-areas-in-the-state-of-rio-grande-do-norte-brazil-importance-of-virological-and-entomological-surveillance
#16
Arlinete S Medeiros, Diego M P Costa, Mário S D Branco, Daíse M C Sousa, Joelma D Monteiro, Sílvio P M Galvão, Paulo Roberto M Azevedo, José V Fernandes, Selma M B Jeronimo, Josélio M G Araújo
BACKGROUND: Vector control remains the sole effective method to prevent dengue virus (DENV) transmission, although a vaccine for dengue has recently become available and testing of its efficacy and coverage is being performed in multiple places. Entomological surveillance is a key factor in alerting authorities to possible outbreaks, but until now natural DENV infection of mosquito populations has been scarcely used as an early warning system to monitor fluctuating prevalence of infected mosquitoes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525582/annual-variation-in-decomposition-and-insect-succession-at-a-periurban-area-of-central-iberian-peninsula
#17
Luisa M Díaz-Aranda, Daniel Martín-Vega, Aída Gómez-Gómez, Blanca Cifrián, Arturo Baz
The variation in decomposition and insect succession among the four seasons of one year was studied for the first time in a periurban area of central Spain. During the winter trial, the carcasses showed corification, a cadaveric preservation phenomenon which apparently leaded to a significant delay in decomposition processes. The composition of the insect fauna breeding on carcasses changed significantly between trials. Active decay was mainly driven by Calliphoridae (Diptera) larvae in every season except in winter trial, when larvae of Thanatophilus species (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were the main consumers of soft tissues...
May 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508537/multiband-modulation-spectroscopy-for-the-determination-of-sex-and-species-of-mosquitoes-in-flight
#18
Alem Gebru, Samuel Jansson, Rickard Ignell, Carsten Kirkeby, Jord C Prangsma, Mikkel Brydegaard
We present a dual-wavelength polarimetric measurement method to distinguish species and sexes of disease transmitting mosquitoes in flight. By measuring co- and de-polarized backscattered light at 808 and 1550 nm, the degree of linear polarization, wingbeat frequency, reflectance, spectral ratio and glossiness of mosquitoes can be retrieved. Body and wing contributions to these signals can be separated. Whereas the optical cross section is sensitive to the aspect of observation, thus the heading direction of the insect in flight, we demonstrate that polarimetric- and spectral-band ratios are largely invariant to the aspect of observation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476938/estimation-of-postmortem-interval-pmi-based-on-empty-puparia-of-phormia-regina-meigen-diptera-calliphoridae-and-third-larval-stage-of-necrodes-littoralis-l-coleoptera-silphidae-advantages-of-using-different-pmi-indicators
#19
D Bajerlein, D Taberski, S Matuszewski
On 16 July 2015, a body of a 64-year-old man in advanced decomposition was found in an open area of the suburb of Śrem (western Poland). Postmortem interval (PMI) was estimated by forensic pathologist for 3-6 weeks. Insects were sampled from the cadaver and the soil from below the cadaver. Empty puparia of Phormia regina were the most developmentally advanced specimens of blowflies. Moreover, third instar larva of Necrodes littoralis was collected directly from the cadaver. For the estimation of minimum PMI from puparia of P...
April 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473884/interest-in-insects-the-role-of-entomology-in-environmental-education
#20
Faith J Weeks, Christian Y Oseto
University-based outreach programs have a long history of offering environmental education programs to local schools, but often these lessons are not evaluated for their impact on teachers and students. The impact of these outreach efforts can be influenced by many things, but the instructional delivery method can affect how students are exposed to new topics or how confident teachers feel about incorporating new concepts into the classroom. A study was conducted with a series of university entomology outreach programs using insects as a vehicle for teaching environmental education...
February 23, 2018: Insects
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