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Sarah Devaney, Søren Holm
This article critically considers the question of whether an increase in legal recognition of patient autonomy culminating in the decision of the Supreme Court in Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board in 2015 has led to the death of deference to doctors, not only within the courts and healthcare regulatory arenas in England and Wales but also in the consulting room and the health care system more broadly. We argue that deference has not been eradicated, but that the types of deference paid to doctors and to the medical profession have changed...
April 12, 2018: Medical Law Review
Marisol Reyes Sevilla, Ruud H Kuijs, Arie Werner, Cornelis J Kleverlaan, Frank Lobbezoo
Tooth wear in bruxing patients often results in a need for treatment with composite restorations. In some cases, bruxing patients receive an occlusal splint as a protective means as well. However, the wear between these opposing materials has not been investigated yet. The aim of this in-vitro study was to assess the wear of different splint materials against resin composite materials. A two-body wear test was conducted using the ACTA wear machine. The materials selected for this study were three composites used for direct restorations (Filtek Z250, CLEARFIL AP-X, and Filtek Supreme XT) and four occlusal splints materials, viz...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Riccardo Beltrami, Matteo Ceci, Gabriele De Pani, Lodovico Vialba, Ricaldone Federico, Claudio Poggio, Marco Colombo
Objective: To evaluate the color stability of different esthetic restorative materials after surface finishing/polishing with different procedures. Materials and Methods: All materials were polymerized into silicone rubber rings to obtain specimens identical in size. Samples were randomly assigned into four groups (10 specimens of each composite for each group), and they were finished with different procedures: Control group (Group 1), three or two polishers interspersed with diamond grit (Groups 3 and 2, respectively), and one tungsten carbide bur + one polisher interspersed with diamond grit (Group 4)...
January 2018: European Journal of Dentistry
Metin Uz, Suprem R Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S Sakaguchi, Jonathan C Claussen, Surya K Mallapragada
Adult stems cells, possessing the ability to grow, migrate, proliferate, and transdifferentiate into various specific phenotypes, constitute a great asset for peripheral nerve regeneration. Adult stem cells' ability to undergo transdifferentiation is sensitive to various cell-to-cell interactions and external stimuli involving interactions with physical, mechanical, and chemical cues within their microenvironment. Various studies have employed different techniques for transdifferentiating adult stem cells from distinct sources into specific lineages (e...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
David K Jones, Michael K Gusmano, Pamela Nadash, Edward Alan Miller
The ACA has survived multiple existential threats in the legislative and judicial branches, including dozens of congressional attempts at repeal and two major Supreme Court cases. Even as it seems that the ACA is here to stay, what the law accomplishes is far from settled. The Trump administration is using executive powers to weaken the law, in many cases the same powers that President Obama used to strengthen the effects of the reform. States have responded by seeking flexibility to pursue reforms, such as work requirements, that could not pass Congress and that were not allowed by the Obama administration...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
V Mann, F Limberg, S T W Mann, S Little, M Müller, M Sander, R Röhrig
OBJECTIVE: For emergency medicine personnel (EMP), there is little evidence concerning the adequate timing for refresher courses to maintain routine in the application of extraglottic airways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and long-term results of a simulator-based education concept teaching the basic airway management skills with extraglottic airways for EMP and also to draw conclusions concerning the adequate time interval for refresher courses. METHODS: By use of an explorative, prospective simulator-study with nonphysician EMP, airway management skills using the Larynxmaske Supreme® (LMA‑S) after an introduction lecture were examined...
April 11, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Seung Eun Hong, Min Ki Hong, Bo Young Park, Kyong Jae Woo, So Ra Kang
Purpose: Recently a controversy has arisen about so-called "ghost surgery" practices, and people have voiced their opinions for legal sanction against such practices, which clearly undermine the foundation of medical ethics. However, there has been a lack of legal basis for punishing those actions. The present study aims to examine which pre-existing legal provisions could be applied to regulate ghost surgery. Methods: The Korean Medical Service Act has a provision relating to informed consent to inhibit ghost surgery but does not include penalty provisions prohibiting ghost surgery itself...
April 2018: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
Patricia Hizo-Abes, Lauren Siegel, Gil Schreier
BACKGROUND: On February 6th, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that competent adults suffering intolerably from a grievous and irremediable medical condition have the right to the assistance of a physician in ending their own lives, an act known as physician-assisted death, and later defined as medical assistance in dying, allowing for provision by a physician or a nurse practitioner. As of June 6th, 2016, this is no longer illegal across Canada. There is strong support amongst the general population for physician-assisted death, however there is no recent data on the attitudes of terminally ill patients...
April 4, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Michelle Miller, Leslie Neal-Boylan
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to make rehabilitation nurses aware that the Supreme Court has limited some of the protections afforded by the Americans With Disabilities Act (1990) on the basis of "sovereign immunity." METHODS: The authors use the case review method to analyze Supreme Court cases and alternatives for people with disabilities discriminated against because of the state in which they live. FINDINGS: Sovereign immunity makes it more difficult for a disabled person to bring a lawsuit against a state government (as an employer or provider of a public service) under the Americans With Disabilities Act...
April 3, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
David T Felson, Tuhina Neogi
At a time when advancing understanding of osteoarthritis (OA) has created opportunities for new treatments, development of treatments has remained considerably behind advances in other rheumatic diseases. We suggest elements of trial design and measurements that have inhibited success and offer suggestions that may help break the logjam. Among the problems for pain outcomes include a reliance on a single non-optimal pain outcome, an overestimation of likely effects of treatments on pain, and the failure to identify patient subgroups most likely to respond to specific treatments...
April 2, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Andrea Schubert, Christopher Ziegler, Andrea Bernhard, Ralf Bürgers, Nicolai Miosge
OBJECTIVES: Tooth-colored composites have emerged as a standard restorative material in caries therapy and have largely replaced materials such as silver amalgam or glass ionomer cements. In addition to their superior esthetics and desirable mechanical properties, composites also comprise negative characteristics, such as wear, shrinkage, and an adverse biocompatibility. Modifications of classic resin-based dental composites have been developed to overcome these shortcomings. For example, ormocers are innovative inorganic-organic hybrid polymers that form a siloxane network modified by the incorporation of organic groups...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Roger W Byard, Mike Munro
On 30th March 1902 Police Constable George Doyle and Carnarvon Station manager Albert Dahlke were allegedly gunned down at Lethbridge's Pocket in Central Queensland. Approximately 90 kg of ash and burnt human remains with articles belonging to the two men were later found in saddle bags left at the scene on a police horse. Subsequently two local cattle and horse thieves, Patrick and James Kenniff, were convicted in the Queensland Supreme Court of the wilful murder of Constable Doyle. Patrick was executed by hanging on 12th January 1903 and James had his sentence reduced to life imprisonment with hard labor...
March 29, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
David T Wong, Alister Ooi, Kawal P Singh, Amelie Dallaire, Vina Meliana, Jason Lau, Frances Chung, Mandeep Singh, Jean Wong
PURPOSE: Studies comparing the recently introduced Ambu® AuraGain™ (Auragain) with the LMA® Supreme™ (Supreme) supraglottic airway (SGA) have reported conflicting results regarding differences in oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP). This randomized-controlled trial investigated the OLP of the Auragain compared with the Supreme in patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. METHODS: Adult patients with a body mass index ≤ 40 kg·m-2 presenting for ambulatory surgery and requiring an SGA were randomized to receive either the Auragain or the Supreme...
March 26, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Karissa Haugeberg
Before elective abortion was legalized nationally in 1973 with the U.S. Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, seventeen states and the District of Columbia liberalized their abortion statutes. While scholars have examined the history of physicians who had performed abortions before and after it was legal and of feminists' work to expand the range of healthcare choices available to women, we know relatively little about nurses' work with abortion. By focusing on the history of nursing in those states that liberalized their abortion laws before Roe, this article reveals how women who sought greater control over their lives by choosing abortion encountered medical professionals who were only just beginning to question the gendered conventions that framed labor roles in American hospitals...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Malcolm K Smith, Tracey Carver
The UK Supreme Court in Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board adopts an approach to information disclosure in connection with clinical treatment that moves away from medical paternalism towards a more patient-centred approach. In doing so, it reinforces the protection afforded to informed consent and autonomous patient decision making under the law of negligence. However, some commentators have expressed a concern that the widening of the healthcare providers' duty of disclosure may provide impetus, in future cases, for courts to adopt a more rigorous approach to the application of causation principles...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
M M AlShaafi, A AlQussier, M Q AlQahtani, R B Price
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different mold materials, their diameters, and light-curing units on the mechanical properties of three resin-based composites (RBC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A conventional nano-filled resin composite (Filtek Supreme Ultra, 3M Oral Care, St Paul, MN, USA) and two bulk-fill composites materials, Tetric Evoceram Bulk fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and Aura Bulk Fill (SDI, Bayswater, VIC, Australia), were tested...
March 23, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Jia Wang, Xiaoping Shi, Tao Xu, Geng Wang
Objectives A failed first attempt at laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion could increase the risk of laryngospasm, hypoxemia, and postoperative sore throat. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors for failed first-attempt LMA placement. Methods In total, 461 patients who underwent general anesthesia with a Supreme LMA (Teleflex Medical, Shanghai, China) and who had an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status of I to III were prospectively enrolled. The LMA was inserted after anesthetic induction...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Aram A Schvey, Claire Kim
U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence undermines access to contraception by permitting individuals, institutions, and even corporations to claim religious objections to ensuring contraceptive insurance coverage, thus imposing those beliefs on non-adherents and jeopardizing their access to essential reproductive-health services. This jurisprudence is not only harmful but also runs contrary to the laws and policies of peer nations, as well as international human rights principles, which are more protective of the rights of health-care recipients to make their own decisions about contraception free from interference...
2018: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
Aída Kemelmajer de Carlucci
The new Argentine Civil and Commercial Code includes the prevention principle. The precautionary Principle is regulated by the Environmental Protection Act.A significant number of cases have reached the Supreme Court of the Nation. This Court, in general, estimates that the decisions concerning the precautionary principle have definitive nature, i.e., are not merely provisional. Usually, the situation is caused by the State itself, which fails to control. The different decisions show a Judiciary worried about protecting the environment...
October 13, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Jean-Sélim Driouich, Souand Mohamed Ali, Abdennour Amroun, Fabien Aubry, Xavier de Lamballerie, Antoine Nougairède
Reverse genetics systems enable the manipulation of viral genomes and are proving to be essential for studying RNA viruses. Methods for generating clonal virus populations are particularly useful for studying the impact of genomic modifications on viral properties. Here, by exploiting a chikungunya virus model, we compare viral populations and their replicative fitness when generated using either the rapid and user-friendly PCR-based ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) method or classical infectious clone technology...
March 21, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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