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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227204/canada-s-supreme-court-abolishes-promise-of-the-patent
#1
John Norman, Alex Gloor
The Supreme Court of Canada has done away with the 'promise of the patent' doctrine. This doctrine invalidated patents to numerous otherwise useful inventions from 2005 to 2016. The Supreme Court of Canada has clarified that the statutory utility requirement requires only a scintilla of utility related to the subject matter of the invention. This utility must have been demonstrated or soundly predicted as of the Canadian filing date. The decision brings increased certainty to Canada's patent system and more closely aligns it with international norms...
December 11, 2017: Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217860/greater-palatine-nerve-neuropraxia-after-laryngeal-mask-insertion-a-rare-occurrence
#2
Jyoti Garg, Geoffrey Haw Chieh Liew, Shariq Ali Khan
With the more frequent use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) over endotracheal tubes for general anaesthesia, various cranial nerve injuries have been reported recently. We report a rare occurrence of greater palatine nerve (GPN) palsy subsequent to the use of LMA Supreme™ in a young female scheduled for hand surgery. Although the exact mechanism of a nerve injury is still a matter of further research, we postulate pressure neuropraxia of GPN as a causative factor in the development of numbness over the hard palate after the removal of LMA in the post operative period...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205770/effect-of-tooth-brushing-on-gloss-retention-and-surface-roughness-of-five-bulk-fill-resin-composites
#3
Catherine O'Neill, Laurent Kreplak, Frederick A Rueggeberg, Daniel Labrie, Carlos Alberto Kenji Shimokawa, Richard Bengt Price
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of tooth brushing on five bulk-fill resin based composites (RBCs). METHOD: Ten samples of Filtek Supreme Enamel (control), Filtek One Bulk Fill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill 2, SDR flow+, and Admira Fusion X-tra were light cured for 20 seconds using the Valo Grand curing light. After 24 hours storage in air at 37°C, specimens were brushed in a random order using Colgate OpticWhite dentifrice and a soft toothbrush. Surface gloss was measured prior to brushing, after 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 back and forth brushing cycles...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204380/electrospun-polycaprolactone-lignin-based-nanocomposite-as-a-novel-tissue-scaffold-for-biomedical-applications
#4
Mohammad Ali Salami, Faranak Kaveian, Mohammad Rafienia, Saeed Saber-Samandari, Amirsalar Khandan, Mitra Naeimi
Background: Biopolymer scaffolds have received great interest in academic and industrial environment because of their supreme characteristics like biological, mechanical, chemical, and cost saving in the biomedical science. There are various attempts for incorporation of biopolymers with cheap natural micro- or nanoparticles like lignin (Lig), alginate, and gums to prepare new materials with enhanced properties. Methods: In this work, the electrospinning (ELS) technique as a promising cost-effective method for producing polymeric scaffold fibers was used, which mimics extracellular matrix structure for soft tissue engineering applications...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191142/forensic-experts-indigent-defendants-and-the-constitution
#5
Paul S Appelbaum
Over 30 years ago, the U.S. Supreme Court held that indigent defendants raising psychiatric issues are entitled to the assistance of a mental health expert. However, the exact dimensions of that assistance, and whether the expert must be assigned exclusively to assist the defense, have been in contention ever since. In its recent decision in McWilliams v. Dunn, the Court underscored that the state-funded expert must be available to consult with the defense, not merely to evaluate the defendant, but declined to opine on whether the defense is entitled to its own expert for the purpose...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186527/grimstone-v-epsom-and-st-helier-university-hospitals-nhs-trust-it-s-not-hip-to-be-square
#6
Louise V Austin
In Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board [2015] UKSC 11 the Supreme Court redefined the standard of disclosure in informed consent to medical treatment, rejecting the application of the doctor-focused Bolam standard in favour of one focused on what was significant to patients. In Grimstone v Epsom and St Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust [2015] EWHC 3756 (QB), despite acknowledging a new standard now applied, McGowan J nevertheless used the Bolam test to determine liability for non-disclosure. This illustrates ongoing judicial deference to the medical profession and this case commentary explores that decision and its implications...
November 24, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178756/porosity-of-flowable-resin-composites-is-not-influenced-by-applicator-tip-diameter
#7
Rémy Balthazard, Stéphanie Jager, Olivier Ferry, Abdessellam Dahoun, Eric Mortier
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of applicator tip diameter on the inclusion of porosities in three different flowable resin composites. METHODS: The initial porosity of three syringes [Filtek Supreme XTE Flowable (XTE), Grandio Flow (GRF), Gradia Direct Flo (GDF)] was determined by 3D tomography. 25 samples per syringe, i.e. 75 samples in total, were prepared using five applicator tips of different diameters (n= 5). The porosity of the 75 samples was assessed by 3D tomography...
June 2017: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178721/the-new-generation-of-conventional-and-bulk-fill-composites-do-not-reduce-the-shrinkage-stress-in-endodontically-treated-molars
#8
Laís Rani Sales Oliveira Schliebe, Stella Sueli Lourenço Braga, Renata Afonso da Silva Pereira, Aline Arêdes Bicalho, Crisnicaw Veríssimo, Veridiana Resende Novais, Antheunis Versluis, Carlos José Soares
PURPOSE: To compare flowable and regular paste bulk-fill resin composites with old and new generation conventional composites that use incremental filling techniques for direct restoration of endodontically-treated teeth. METHODS: Four resin composites produced by the same company (3M-ESPE) were used: two conventional resin composites (old formulation, Z100, and new nanofilled formulation, Filtek Supreme XT); and two bulk-fill resin composites (flowable composite, Filtek Bulk-fill Flowable associated with Filtek Supreme, and regular paste, Filtek Bulk-fill Posterior)...
December 2016: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178709/determination-of-polymerization-shrinkage-of-different-composites-using-a-photoelastic-method
#9
Inga Rullman, Michael Patyna, Bram Janssen, Brita Willershausen
PURPOSE: To investigate the polymerization shrinkage stress of different low viscous bulk composites (SDR, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra Base, Filtek Bulk Fill) in comparison to a conventional flowable composite (Filtek Supreme XTE Flow) and to high viscous bulk and conventional composites (Filtek Supreme XTE, GrandioSO, Tetric EvoCeram, Tetric EvoCeram BulkFill, Venus Diamond, Venus Pearl), as well as to an experimental composite (Ormocer) and a sonic-activated bulk fill composite (Sonicfill), by means of photoelastic investigation...
February 2017: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176084/a-child-s-right-to-be-well-born-venereal-disease-and-the-eugenic-marriage-laws-1913-1935
#10
Paul A Lombardo
An extensive literature describes the legal impact of America's eugenics movement, and the laws mandating sterilization, restriction of marriage by race, and ethnic bans on immigration. But little scholarship focuses on the laws adopted in more than 40 states that were commonly referred to as "eugenic marriage laws." Those laws conditioned marriage licenses on medical examinations and were designed to save innocent women from lives of misery, prevent stillbirth or premature death in children, and save future generations from the myriad afflictions that accompanied "venereal infection...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172578/apa-s-amicus-curiae-program-bringing-psychological-research-to-judicial-decisions
#11
Nathalie Gilfoyle, Joel A Dvoskin
An important part of the American Psychological Association's (APA) mission is to advance psychological science "to promote health, education, and public welfare." Organizations with powerful influence on human welfare include state and federal appellate courts, especially the U.S. Supreme Court. Initially, APA's amicus briefs focused on issues of importance to both individual psychologists and public policy. As the program evolved, APA increasingly focused on informing the courts about psychological science relevant to important legal issues, including criminal, civil, juvenile, education, disability, and human rights law...
November 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171895/how-the-criminalization-of-pregnancy-robs-women-of-reproductive-autonomy
#12
Michele Goodwin
In 2003, the South Carolina Supreme Court upheld the conviction of Regina McKnight, an African American woman who was convicted at the age of twenty-two for committing "homicide by child abuse." She became the first woman in the United States to be arrested, prosecuted, and convicted for experiencing a stillbirth. Rather than an outlier case in the annals of American jurisprudence that stretched law beyond reason while restraining compassion and justice, McKnight's conviction inspired similar prosecutions of other poor black women and then of other women...
December 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171886/reproductive-rights-without-resources-or-recourse
#13
Kimberly Mutcherson
The U.S. Supreme Court declared procreation to be a fundamental right in the early twentieth century in a case involving Oklahoma's Habitual Criminal Sterilization Act, an act that permitted unconsented sterilization of individuals convicted of certain crimes. The right that the Court articulated in that case is a negative right: it requires that the government not place unjustified roadblocks in the way of people seeking to procreate, but it does not require the government to take positive steps to help people procreate if they wish to...
December 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171046/delegating-informed-consent
#14
Valerie Gutmann Koch
Ten years ago, Megan Shinal sought the care of neurosurgeon Steven Toms for the surgical treatment of a recurrent nonmalignant tumor in the pituitary region of her brain. In their twenty-minute meeting, Shinal did not make a final decision about which surgical approach she wished to pursue. Subsequently, she spoke with Tom's physician assistant once by phone and once in person, when she signed the consent form, which did not appear to designate which surgical approach she had chosen. During the operation-a total resection-Toms perforated Shinal's carotid artery, resulting in hemorrhage, stroke, brain injury, and partial blindness...
November 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161223/the-impact-of-marriage-equality-on-sexual-minority-women-s-relationships-with-their-families-of-origin
#15
Ellen D B Riggle, Laurie Drabble, Cindy B Veldhuis, Angie Wootton, Tonda L Hughes
Support from family of origin is important to the health and well-being of sexual minority women (SMW) and structural stigma may impact that support. The recent extension of marriage rights to same-sex couples in all U.S. states provided an opportunity to examine whether this change in law would impact the relationship of SMW with their families of origin regarding their same-sex relationships, including marriage. Interviews with 20 SMW were conducted to their perceptions of how support from families of origin had been impacted by or changed since the U...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158839/characterization-of-cardiac-dynamics-in-an-acute-myocardial-infarction-model-by-four-dimensional-optoacoustic-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Hsiao-Chun Amy Lin, Xosé Luís Déan-Ben, Ivana Ivankovic, Melanie A Kimm, Katja Kosanke, Helena Haas, Reinhard Meier, Fabian Lohöfer, Moritz Wildgruber, Daniel Razansky
Extraction of murine cardiac functional parameters on a beat-by-beat basis is limited with the existing imaging modalities due to insufficient three-dimensional temporal resolution. Faster volumetric imaging methods enabling in vivo characterization of functional parameters are poised to advance cardiovascular research and provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases. We present a new approach based on analyzing contrast-enhanced optoacoustic (OA) images acquired at high volumetric frame rate without using cardiac gating or other approaches for motion correction...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157510/euthanasia-requests-in-a-canadian-psychiatric-emergency-room-a-case-series-part-1-of-the-mcgill-university-euthanasia-in-psychiatry-case-series
#17
David Benrimoh, Antoine Perreault, Frederique Van Den Eynde
Euthanasia was decriminalized in Quebec in December 2015, and Canada-wide in June 2016. Both the Provincial and Federal legislation have limited the right to medical assistance in dying (MAID) to end-of-life cases; which makes MAID inaccessible to most patients solely suffering from psychiatric illness. While some end-stage anorexia nervosa or elderly patients may meet the end-of-life criterion because of their medical comorbidities or their age (Kelly et al., 2003), repeated suicide attempts or psychotic disorganization would not qualify since they would not be seen as elements of an illness leading to a foreseeable "natural death" (Canada, 2016)...
November 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156893/meditational-spiritual-intercession-and-recovery-from-disease-in-palliative-care-a-literature-review
#18
Siddharth Agarwal, Vijai Kumar, Sapna Agarwal, Maria Paola Brugnoli, Ansh Agarwal
Human body is a biological, open system and maintains itself in the changing environment. Disease state is cured by many medicinal systems for healing. Esoteric healing (through introspective hypnosis, meditation and spiritual intercession) is the system where its believers regard Supreme Being as Omnipotent, Omnipresent and Omniscient. Such persons take ill health as a boon and pray through meditation that He may by His Mercy grant health or if God wishes otherwise, they happily accept it so that they keep moving ahead on their spiritual path...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148914/marginal-gap-formation-in-approximal-bulk-fill-resin-composite-restorations-after-artificial-ageing
#19
A Peutzfeldt, S Mühlebach, A Lussi, S Flury
The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the marginal gap formation of a packable "regular" resin composite (Filtek Supreme XTE [3M ESPE]) and two flowable "bulk fill" resin composites (Filtek Bulk Fill [3M ESPE] and SDR [DENTSPLY DeTrey]) along the approximal margins of Class II restorations. In each of 39 extracted human molars (n=13 per resin composite), mesial and distal Class II cavities were prepared, placing the gingival margins below the cemento-enamel junction. The cavities were restored with the adhesive system OptiBond FL (Kerr) and one of the three resin composites...
November 17, 2017: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142873/microhybrid-versus-nanofill-composite-in-combination-with-a-three-step-etch-and-rinse-adhesive-in-occlusal-cavities-five-year-results
#20
Safa Tuncer, Mustafa Demirci, Evren Öztaş, Neslihan Tekçe, Ömer Uysal
Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the 5-year clinical performance of occlusal carious restorations using nanofill and microhybrid composites, in combination with 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesives, in patients who were going to commence orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 restorations for occlusal caries were conducted prior to orthodontic treatment. Occlusal restorations were performed both with Filtek Supreme XT (3M ESPE) and Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) before beginning orthodontic treatment with fixed orthodontic bands...
November 2017: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
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