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Acoustic deficits and elderly

Alessandra Spada Durante, Margarita Bernal Wieselberg, Nayara Roque, Sheila Carvalho, Beatriz Pucci, Nicolly Gudayol, Kátia de Almeida
INTRODUCTION: The use of hearing aids by individuals with hearing loss brings a better quality of life. Access to and benefit from these devices may be compromised in patients who present difficulties or limitations in traditional behavioral audiological evaluation, such as newborns and small children, individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum, autism, and intellectual deficits, and in adults and the elderly with dementia. These populations (or individuals) are unable to undergo a behavioral assessment, and generate a growing demand for objective methods to assess hearing...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Silvia Selinski, Stephan Getzmann, Patrick D Gajewski, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Jan G Hengstler, Michael Falkenstein, Klaus Golka
N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype is associated with age-related declines in basic sensory hearing functions. However, the possible modulatory role of NAT2 for higher cognitive functions has not yet been studied. We tested auditory goal-directed behavior and attentional control in 120 NAT2 genotyped subjects (63-88 years), using an auditory distraction paradigm in which participants responded to the duration of long and short tone stimuli. We studied involuntary shifts in attention to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli and applied event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by NAT2 status on a neurophysiological level...
December 2015: Archives of Toxicology
Steffen Kortlang, Manfred Mauermann, Stephan D Ewert
People with sensorineural hearing loss generally suffer from a reduced ability to understand speech in complex acoustic listening situations, particularly when background noise is present. In addition to the loss of audibility, a mixture of suprathreshold processing deficits is possibly involved, like altered basilar membrane compression and related changes, as well as a reduced ability of temporal coding. A series of 6 monaural psychoacoustic experiments at 0.5, 2, and 6 kHz was conducted with 18 subjects, divided equally into groups of young normal-hearing, older normal-hearing and older hearing-impaired listeners, aiming at disentangling the effects of age and hearing loss on psychoacoustic performance in noise...
January 2016: Hearing Research
Indrit Sinanaj, Marie-Louise Montandon, Cristelle Rodriguez, François Herrmann, Francesco Santini, Sven Haller, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos
Previous contributions in younger cohorts have revealed that reallocation of cerebral resources, a crucial mechanism for working memory (WM), may be disrupted by parallel demands of background acoustic noise suppression. To date, no study has explored the impact of such disruption on brain activation in elderly individuals with or without subtle cognitive deficits. We performed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study in 23 cases (mean age=75.7 y.o., 16 men) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 16 elderly healthy controls (HC, mean age=70...
December 3, 2015: Neuroscience
C Gagliardo, F Martines, F Bencivinni, G La Tona, A Lo Casto, M Midiri
We present a case of an elderly woman with no history of audiological disease with sudden onset of visual and hearing deficits associated with systemic clinical signs. On examination she had impairment of right CNs from V to X. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a cystic vestibular schwannoma with a rare intralesional fluid-fluid level correlated to a recent bleed. We include high quality MR images to show the acute impairment of the cranial nerves next to the tumour after acute bleeding. Our case report includes a voxel-based morphometry (VMB) analysis of the tumour that, as far as we know, has never been done before for such a tumour...
February 2013: Neuroradiology Journal
Ken W Grant, Therese C Walden
BACKGROUND: Traditional audiometric measures, such as pure-tone thresholds or unaided word-recognition in quiet, appear to be of marginal use in predicting speech understanding by hearing-impaired (HI) individuals in background noise with or without amplification. Suprathreshold measures of auditory function (tolerance of noise, temporal and frequency resolution) appear to contribute more to success with amplification and may describe more effectively the distortion component of hearing...
April 2013: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Adam Kupryjanow, Andrzej Czyzewski
Methods developed for real-time time scale modification (TSM) of speech signal are presented. They are based on the non-uniform, speech rate depended SOLA algorithm (Synchronous Overlap and Add). Influence of the proposed method on the intelligibility of speech was investigated for two separate groups of listeners, i.e. hearing impaired children and elderly listeners. It was shown that for the speech with average rate equal to or higher than 6.48 vowels/s, all of the proposed methods have statistically significant impact on the improvement of speech intelligibility for hearing impaired children with reduced hearing resolution and one of the proposed methods significantly improves comprehension of speech in the group of elderly listeners with reduced hearing resolution...
2012: Diagnostic Pathology
Juan J G Meilán, Francisco Martínez-Sánchez, Juan Carro, José A Sánchez, Enrique Pérez
This study broaches in a novel way the analysis of cognitive impairment characteristic of the early stages of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Specifically, we attempt to determine the acoustic speech parameters that are sensitive to the onset of the disease, and their association with the language deficit characteristic of AD. Speech analysis was carried out on 21 elderly patients with AD using Praat software, which analyzes the acoustic components of speech. The data obtained were subjected to stepwise regression, using the overall scores obtained in the test as the criterion variable, and the scores on the frequency, amplitude and periodicity variables as predictors of performance...
July 2012: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Pei-Ning Wang, Wan-Yu Hsu, Yung-Yang Lin
This study aimed to characterize the cortical deficits in processing auditory inputs in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The magnetic counterparts of P50 (M50) and mismatch negativity (MMNm) during a passive oddball paradigm were analyzed with equivalent current dipole modeling. The results showed larger cortical activation of standard-evoked M50 in AD patients compared to young and elderly controls. In contrast, smaller amplitudes and longer peak latencies were found in the MMNm of the elderly and AD patients compared with young adults...
February 2012: Biological Psychology
Joseph P Walton
This summary article reviews the literature on neural correlates of age-related changes in temporal processing in the auditory brainstem. Two types of temporal processing dimensions are considered, (i) static, which can be measured using a gap detection or forward masking paradigms, and (ii) dynamic, which can be measured using amplitude and frequency modulation. Corresponding data from physiological studies comparing neural responses from young and old animals using acoustic stimuli as silent gaps-in-noise, amplitude modulation, and frequency modulation are considered in relation to speech perception...
June 1, 2010: Hearing Research
Gabriele Optale, Cosimo Urgesi, Valentina Busato, Silvia Marin, Lamberto Piron, Konstantinos Priftis, Luciano Gamberini, Salvatore Capodieci, Adalberto Bordin
BACKGROUND: Memory decline is a prevalent aspect of aging but may also be the first sign of cognitive pathology. Virtual reality (VR) using immersion and interaction may provide new approaches to the treatment of memory deficits in elderly individuals. OBJECTIVE: The authors implemented a VR training intervention to try to lessen cognitive decline and improve memory functions. METHODS: The authors randomly assigned 36 elderly residents of a rest care facility (median age 80 years) who were impaired on the Verbal Story Recall Test either to the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG)...
May 2010: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Zirka H Anastasian, Eugene Ornstein, Eric J Heyer
Elderly patients have medical and psychological problems affecting all major organ systems. These problems may alter the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of medications, or expose previous neurologic deficits simply as a result of sedation. Delayed arousal, therefore, may arise from structural problems that are pre-existent or new, or metabolic or functional disorders such as convulsive or nonconvulsive seizures. Determining the cause of delayed arousal may require clinical, chemical, and structural tests...
September 2009: Anesthesiology Clinics
Lise Gagnon, Isabelle Peretz, Tamàs Fülöp
People with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) may well be emotionally soothed by listening to music. However, very few systematic studies have been conducted to support the anecdotal evidence. DAT does damage certain cerebral structures that subsume emotional processing, and some studies have demonstrated deficits affecting emotional judgments of facial expression and prosody in DAT. Accordingly, this study addressed the question of whether DAT might leave musical emotional judgment intact. Twelve early DAT participants and 12 healthy elderly participants took part in this study...
January 2009: Neuropsychology
V S Miakotnykh, N V Matveĭchuk, N Z Talankina
The changes of visual, acoustic and cognitive evoked potentials of brain in 78 elderly patients were studied. Chronic ischemia of the heart and the brain with clinical signs of mild cognitive impairment was present in all patients. Distinct pathomorphologycal sings of structure disorders in brain were absent, and this fact was confirmed with the help of neuroimaging investigations. It was determined that deflections in the indexes of evoked potentials from the age according standard are objective and reliable diagnostic criterions both structural and functional changes in brain and initial cognitive deficit in the elderly patients with cardiovascular pathology...
2008: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Gregory A Elder, Andre Ragnauth, Nathan Dorr, Sonia Franciosi, James Schmeidler, Vahram Haroutunian, Joseph D Buxbaum
While the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is best known for its role in regulating serum cholesterol, LDLR is expressed in brain, suggesting that it may play a role in CNS function as well. Here, using mice with a null mutation in LDLR (LDLR-/-), we investigated whether the absence of LDLR affects a series of behavioral functions. We also utilized the fact that plasma cholesterol levels can be regulated in LDLR-/- mice by manipulating dietary cholesterol to investigate whether elevated plasma cholesterol might independently affect behavioral performance...
August 22, 2008: Behavioural Brain Research
Frédéric Peters, Steve Majerus, Laurence Olivier, Martial van der Linden, Eric Salmon, Fabienne Collette
Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive processes responsible for this verbal short-term storage (STS) impairment are still unclear for both populations. We explored verbal STS functioning in patients with AD, elderly participants, and young participants, by investigating a series of processes that could underlie STS impairments in normal elderly and AD populations. The processes we investigated were (a) the influence of lexical and sublexical language knowledge on short-term storage performance, (b) functioning of the phonological loop component via word length and phonological similarity effects, and (c) executive control processes (coordination and integration)...
May 2007: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Iacopo Cancelli, Italo Pittaro Cadore, Giovanni Merlino, Luca Valentinis, Ugo Moratti, Paolo Bergonzi, Gian Luigi Gigli, Mariarosaria Valente
Sensory gating is defined as the brain's ability to inhibit repetitive and irrelevant incoming sensory stimuli and is supposed to be related to cholinergic transmission. Indeed, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a cholinergic deficit that is believed to be involved in cerebral cortex hyperexcitability and short latency afferent inhibition deficit. Therefore, a sensory gating deficit may be supposed present in AD within the frame of cortex hyperexcitability and loss of cortex modulation of sensory inputs...
October 2006: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Martina Fink, Jan Churan, Marc Wittmann
PURPOSE: The relationship between auditory temporal-order perception and phoneme discrimination has been discussed for several years, based on findings, showing that patients with cerebral damage in the left hemisphere and aphasia, as well as children with specific language impairments, show deficits in temporal-processing and phoneme discrimination. Over the last years several temporal-order measurement procedures and training batteries have been developed. However, there exists no standard diagnostic tool for adults that could be applied to patients with aphasia...
2005: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Rowena J Cooper, Juanita Todd, Katherine McGill, Patricia T Michie
The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has been used in the past to study between group differences in the accuracy and retention of information in auditory sensory memory (ASM). The MMN is elicited by infrequent 'deviant' tones that differ from a repeating 'standard' tone. In the present study, the type of deviant and the time interval between tones (stimulus-onset asynchrony: SOA) were manipulated in a study of normal aging. MMN responses of an elderly (mean age = 69) and a young group (mean age = 21) to both a duration and a frequency deviant tone were measured at a short (450 ms) and long (3 s) SOA...
May 2006: Neurobiology of Aging
Liselotte Gootjes, Jan W Van Strien, Anke Bouma
In the present study, dichotic listening performance of 31 older adults was compared with performance of 25 younger adults under free and focused attention conditions. In addition to an age-related general decrease in performance, we observed in the focused attention condition increased asymmetry in the elderly group: the decrease of recall performance was stronger for the left ear (LE) then for the right ear (RE), while the increase of localisation errors were greater for the RE than for LE. Identifying and localising digits appear to be different process mediated predominantly by the left and right hemisphere, respectively...
September 2004: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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