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Central versus posterior approach

Murat Karacorlu, Isil Sayman Muslubas, Mumin Hocaoglu, Hakan Ozdemir, Serra Arf, Omer Uysal
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of radial optic neurotomy (RON) in patients with optic disk pit maculopathy and to compare the functional and anatomical outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with temporal side single RON versus PPV without RON. METHODS: This retrospective study included 15 eyes of 15 consecutive patients who had surgery for optic disk pit maculopathy. Patients were followed for 12 to 115 months after surgery. Anatomical and functional results were evaluated with optical coherence tomography, MP-1 microperimetry in the central 20°, and measurement of best-corrected visual acuity...
June 14, 2016: Retina
Lin Liang, Xinlei Chen, Weimin Jiang, Xuefeng Li, Jie Chen, Lijun Wu, Yangyi Zhu
BACKGROUND: Both kyphoplasty (KP) and vertebroplasty (VP) are effective for patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF), but which approach might be more effective remains unclear, so we decided to update earlier systematic reviews. OBJECTIVE: Review and analyze studies published as of August 2015 that compared clinical outcomes and complications of KP versus VP. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SEARCH METHOD: Published reports up to August 2015 were found in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)...
May 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Damian A Stanley
Learning about other peoples' attributes, e.g. whether an individual is generous or selfish, is central to human social cognition. It is well documented that a network of cortical regions is reliably activated when we engage social processes. However, little is known about the specific computations performed by these regions or whether such processing is specialized for the social domain. We investigated these questions using a task in which participants (N= 26) learned about four peoples' generosity by watching them choose to share money with third party partners, or not...
April 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
M Mathur, A V L D'Souza, D Prasad, R Garsa, N Bansal, R Jhorawat, S Sharma, P Beniwal, D Agrawal, V Malhotra
Internal jugular (IJ) catheter insertion for hemodialysis (HD) is an indispensable procedure in the management of patients with renal failure. The central approach is favored over posterior approach to insert IJ catheters. There are no studies comparing the outcomes between the two approaches. The aim of this study was to compare central approach with posterior approach for IJ HD catheter insertion and to analyze various outcomes like procedure-related complication rates, catheter insertion failure rates, interruptions during dialysis due to blood flow obstruction and catheter infection rates between the two methods among patients receiving HD...
September 2015: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Simon C McSweeney, Matthew Cichero
BACKGROUND: Tarsal tunnel syndrome is classified as a focal compressive neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve or one of its associated branches individually or collectively. The tunnel courses deep to fascia, the flexor retinaculum and within the abductor hallucis muscle of the foot/ankle. The condition is rare and regularly under-diagnosed leading to a range of symptoms affecting the plantar margins of the foot. There are many intervention strategies for treating tarsal tunnel syndrome with limited robust evidence to guide the clinical management of this condition...
December 2015: Foot
Arnau Benet, Shawn L Hervey-Jumper, Jose Juan González Sánchez, Michael T Lawton, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE: Transcortical and transsylvian corridors have been previously described as the main surgical approaches to the insula, but there is insufficient evidence to support one approach versus the other. The authors performed a cadaveric comparative study regarding insular exposure, surgical window and freedom, between the transcortical and transsylvian approaches (with and without cutting superficial sylvian bridging veins). Surgical anatomy and skull surface reference points to the different insular regions are also described...
February 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Bernardo O Ratilal, João Costa, Lia Pappamikail, Cristina Sampaio
BACKGROUND: Basilar skull fractures predispose patients to meningitis because of the possible direct contact of bacteria in the paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx or middle ear with the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage has been associated with a greater risk of contracting meningitis. Antibiotics are often given prophylactically, although their role in preventing bacterial meningitis has not been established. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics for preventing meningitis in patients with basilar skull fractures...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Felicity R P Borrie, David R Bearn, Nicola P T Innes, Zipporah Iheozor-Ejiofor
BACKGROUND: Comforting behaviours, such as the use of pacifiers (dummies, soothers), blankets and finger or thumb sucking, are common in babies and young children. These comforting habits, which can be referred to collectively as 'non-nutritive sucking habits' (NNSHs), tend to stop as children get older, under their own impetus or with support from parents and carers. However, if the habit continues whilst the permanent dentition is becoming established, it can contribute to, or cause, development of a malocclusion (abnormal bite)...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Malcolm P Hilton, Darren K Pinder
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 1, 2002 and previously updated in 2004 and 2007.Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a syndrome characterised by short-lived episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position. It is a common cause of vertigo presenting to primary care and specialist otolaryngology clinics. Current treatment approaches include rehabilitative exercises and physical manoeuvres, including the Epley manoeuvre...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
David Del Curto, Marcel Jun Tamaoki, Délio E Martins, Eduardo Barros Puertas, João Carlos Belloti
BACKGROUND: The choice of surgical approach for the management of subaxial cervical spine facet dislocations is a controversial subject amongst spine surgeons. Reasons for this include differences in the technical familiarity and experience of surgeons with the different surgical approaches, and variable interpretation of image studies regarding the existence of a traumatic intervertebral disc herniation and of the neurological status of the patient. Moreover, since the approaches are dissimilar, important variations are likely in neurological, radiographical and clinical outcomes...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jimmy C Yang, George Papadimitriou, Ryan Eckbo, Edward H Yeterian, Lichen Liang, Darin D Dougherty, Sylvain Bouix, Yogesh Rathi, Martha Shenton, Marek Kubicki, Emad N Eskandar, Nikos Makris
Subcaudate tractotomy (SCT) is a neurosurgical lesioning procedure that can reduce symptoms in medically intractable obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Due to the putative importance of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in symptomatology, fibers that connect the OFC, SCT lesion, and either the thalamus or brainstem were investigated with two-tensor tractography using an unscented Kalman filter approach. From this dataset, fibers were warped to Montreal Neurological Institute space, and probability maps with center-of-mass analysis were subsequently generated...
June 2015: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Joel S Beckett, Eric D Brooks, Cheryl Lacadie, Brent Vander Wyk, Roger J Jou, Derek M Steinbacher, R Todd Constable, Kevin A Pelphrey, John A Persing
OBJECT: Sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (sNSC) is the most common form of NSC. The condition is associated with a high prevalence (> 50%) of deficits in executive function. The authors employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI to evaluate whether hypothesized structural and functional connectivity differences underlie the observed neurocognitive morbidity of sNSC. METHODS: Using a 3-T Siemens Trio MRI system, the authors collected DTI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI data in 8 adolescent patients (mean age 12...
June 2014: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Khalid Alsheikh, Dominique Behrends, Adam Cota, Paul A Martineau
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether the use of a flexible guide pin and reamer through an anterior single-incision approach would allow for a more anatomic insertion point on the radial tuberosity when compared with the traditional rigid instrumentation used for cortical button fixation. METHODS: Seven matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric upper extremity specimens were used in this study. One specimen from each matched pair was randomly assigned to undergo a simulated repair using the standard instrumentation required for a cortical button fixation device, and the other specimens were assigned to undergo the same repair using a 42° anterior cruciate ligament femoral guide with a flexible guide pin and reamer...
May 2014: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Mohammad O Sharif, Alison Merry, Melanie Catleugh, Martin Tickle, Paul Brunton, Stephen M Dunne, Vishal R Aggarwal, Lee Yee Chong
BACKGROUND: Amalgam is a common filling material for posterior teeth, as with any restoration amalgams have a finite life-span. Traditionally replacement was the ideal approach to treat defective amalgam restorations, however, repair offers an alternative more conservative approach where restorations are only partially defective. Repairing a restoration has the potential of taking less time and may sometimes be performed without the use of local anaesthesia hence it may be less distressing for a patient when compared with replacement...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mohammad O Sharif, Melanie Catleugh, Alison Merry, Martin Tickle, Stephen M Dunne, Paul Brunton, Vishal R Aggarwal, Lee Yee Chong
BACKGROUND: Composite filling materials have been increasingly used for the restoration of posterior teeth in recent years as a tooth-coloured alternative to amalgam. As with any filling material composites have a finite life-span. Traditionally, replacement was the ideal approach to treat defective composite restorations, however, repairing composites offers an alternative more conservative approach to the tooth structure where restorations are partly still serviceable. Repairing the restoration has the potential of taking less time and may sometimes be performed without the use of local anaesthesia hence it may be less distressing for a patient when compared with replacement...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wiebe C Verra, Lennard G H van den Boom, Wilco Jacobs, Darren J Clement, Ate A B Wymenga, Rob G H H Nelissen
BACKGROUND: The functional and clinical basis on which to choose whether or not to retain the posterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty surgery remained unclear after a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis in 2005, which contained eight clinical trials. Several new trials have been conducted since then. Hence, an update of the review was performed. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to assess the benefits and harms of retention compared to sacrifice of the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee...
2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Øyvind Holme, Michael Bretthauer, Atle Fretheim, Jan Odgaard-Jensen, Geir Hoff
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most frequent cancer in the world. As the sojourn time for this cancer is several years and a good prognosis is associated with early stage diagnosis, screening has been implemented in a number of countries. Both screening with faecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy have been shown to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer in randomised controlled trials. The comparative effectiveness of these tests on colorectal cancer mortality has, however, never been evaluated, and controversies exist over which test to choose...
2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gui Jun Xu, Zhi Jun Li, Jian Xiong Ma, Tao Zhang, Xin Fu, Xin Long Ma
PURPOSE: To critically review and summarize the literature comparing the results of surgery via an anterior approach and that via a posterior approach for the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures to identify the better approach. METHODS: In this meta-analysis, we conducted electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and other databases using the search terms "thoracolumbar fractures", "anterior", "posterior", "controlled clinical trials"...
October 2013: European Spine Journal
Amy A Pruitt, Francesc Graus, Myrna R Rosenfeld
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the preferred treatment for an expanding range of neoplastic and nonmalignant conditions. Increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOTs) add an additional population of immunosuppressed patients with multiple potential neurological problems. While the spectrum of neurological complications varies with conditioning procedure and hematopoietic cell or solid organ source, major neurological complications occur with all transplantation procedures. This 2 part review emphasizes a practical consultative approach to central and peripheral nervous system problems related to HCT or SOT with clinical and neuroimaging examples from the authors' institutional experience with the following conditions: the diversity of manifestations of common infections such as varicella zoster virus, Aspergillus, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), drug therapy-related complications, stroke mechanisms, the spectrum of graft versus host disease (GVHD), and neurologically important syndromes of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)...
January 2013: Neurohospitalist
John H Kempen, Elizabeth A Sugar, Glenn J Jaffe, Nisha R Acharya, James P Dunn, Susan G Elner, Susan L Lightman, Jennifer E Thorne, Albert T Vitale, Michael M Altaweel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate agreement between fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) results for diagnosis of macular edema in patients with uveitis. DESIGN: Multicenter cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred seventy-nine eyes with uveitis from 255 patients. METHODS: The macular status of dilated eyes with intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, or panuveitis was assessed via Stratus-3 OCT and FA...
September 2013: Ophthalmology
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