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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533766/predicting-the-hma-lma-status-in-marine-sponges-by-machine-learning
#1
Lucas Moitinho-Silva, Georg Steinert, Shaun Nielsen, Cristiane C P Hardoim, Yu-Chen Wu, Grace P McCormack, Susanna López-Legentil, Roman Marchant, Nicole Webster, Torsten Thomas, Ute Hentschel
The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been observed in sponge-microbe symbiosis, although the extent of this pattern remains poorly unknown. We characterized the differences between the microbiomes of HMA (n = 19) and LMA (n = 17) sponges (575 specimens) present in the Sponge Microbiome Project. HMA sponges were associated with richer and more diverse microbiomes than LMA sponges, as indicated by the comparison of alpha diversity metrics. Microbial community structures differed between HMA and LMA sponges considering Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) abundances and across microbial taxonomic levels, from phylum to species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533588/transformative-learning-experience-for-physical-therapy-students-through-a-community-health-promotion-project-for-mothers-of-hearing-challenged-children
#2
Masami Yokogawa, Masako Notoya, Sachiko Madokoro
[Purpose] The purpose of this project was to expose physical therapy students to transformative learning through a community health promotion project for mothers of hearing-challenged children. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were three mothers with their respective hearing-challenged child and twenty physical therapy students. The project consisted of seven sessions supervised throughout by a physical therapy instructor. The students participated in seven sessions, while the mothers were required to attend only two sessions of a health checkup and exercise program...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533457/the-perfection-of-mimicry-an-information-approach
#3
REVIEW
Thomas N Sherratt, Casey A Peet-Paré
We consider why imperfect deceptive mimics can persist when it appears to be in the predator's interest to discriminate finely between mimics and their models. One theory is that a receiver will accept being duped if the model and mimic overlap in appearance and the relative costs of attacking the model are high. However, a more fundamental explanation for the difficulty of discrimination is not based on perceptual uncertainty, but simply based on a lack of information. In particular, predators in the process of learning may cease sampling imperfect mimics entirely because the immediate pay-off and future value of information is low, allowing such mimics to persist...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533294/type-2-diabetes-demystifying-the-global-epidemic
#4
Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Rajendra Pradeepa, Shashank R Joshi, Viswanathan Mohan
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has attained the status of a global pandemic, spreading from affluent industrialized nations to the emerging economies of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. There is significant global variation in susceptibility to T2D, with Pacific Islanders, Asian Indians, and Native Americans being considerably more prone to develop the disorder. Although genetic factors may play a part, the rapidity with which diabetes prevalence has risen among these populations reflects the far-ranging and rapid socioeconomic changes to which they have been exposed over the past few decades...
June 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532500/extending-access-to-essential-services-against-constraints-the-three-tier-health-service-delivery-system-in-rural-china-1949-1980
#5
Xing Lin Feng, Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, Jun Zhong, Jin Xu, Beibei Yuan, Qingyue Meng, Dina Balabanova
BACKGROUND: China has made remarkable progress in scaling up essential services during the last six decades, making health care increasingly available in rural areas. This was partly achieved through the building of a three-tier health system in the 1950s, established as a linked network with health service facilities at county, township and village level, to extend services to the whole population. METHODS: We developed a Theory of Change to chart the policy context, contents and mechanisms that may have facilitated the establishment of the three-tier health service delivery system in rural China...
May 23, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532308/contributions-of-national-and-global-health-estimates-to-monitoring-health-related-sustainable-development-goals-in-thailand
#6
Kanitta Bundhamcharoen, Supon Limwattananon, Khanitta Kusreesakul, Viroj Tangcharoensathien
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) triggered increased demand for data on child and maternal mortality for monitoring progress. With the advent of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and growing evidence of an epidemiological transition towards non-communicable diseases, policy makers need data on mortality and disease trends and distribution to inform effective policies and support monitoring progress. Where there are limited capacities to produce national health estimates (NHEs), global health estimates (GHEs) can fill gaps for global monitoring and comparisons...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529495/determining-the-association-between-language-and-cognitive-tests-in-poststroke-aphasia
#7
Kylie J Wall, Toby B Cumming, David A Copland
BACKGROUND: Individuals with aphasia are often excluded from studies exploring poststroke cognition because so many of the standard cognitive assessments rely on language ability. Our primary objective was to examine the association between performance on cognitive tests and performance on comprehension and naming tests in poststroke aphasia. Second, we aimed to determine the association between language performance and a real-life measure of cognition (Kettle Test). Third, we explored the feasibility of administering cognitive tests in aphasia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528651/manganese-in-marine-microbiology
#8
Colleen M Hansel
The importance of manganese in the physiology of marine microbes, the biogeochemistry of the ocean and the health of microbial communities of past and present is emerging. Manganese is distributed widely throughout the global ocean, taking the form of an essential antioxidant (Mn(2+)), a potent oxidant (Mn(3+)) and strong adsorbent (Mn oxides) sequestering disproportionately high levels of trace metals and nutrients in comparison to the surrounding seawater. Manganese is, in fact, linked to nearly all other elemental cycles and intricately involved in the health, metabolism and function of the ocean's microbiome...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526308/implementing-an-electronic-hand-hygiene-monitoring-system-lessons-learned-from-community-hospitals
#9
Catherine Edmisten, Charles Hall, Lorna Kernizan, Kimberly Korwek, Aaron Preston, Evan Rhoades, Shalin Shah, Lori Spight, Silvia Stradi, Sonia Wellman, Scott Zygadlo
BACKGROUND: Measuring and providing feedback about hand hygiene (HH) compliance is a complicated process. Electronic HH monitoring systems have been proposed as a possible solution; however, there is little information available about how to successfully implement and maintain these systems for maximum benefit in community hospitals. METHODS: An electronic HH monitoring system was implemented in 3 community hospitals by teams at each facility with support from the system vendor...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526022/a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study-of-medical-student-preferences-for-vodcast-design-format-and-pedagogical-approach
#10
Robin K Pettit, Marjorie Kinney, Lise McCoy
BACKGROUND: Vodcasts (video podcasts) are becoming increasingly popular in medical education. At A.T. Still University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (ATSU SOMA), vodcasts are an essential component of our blended learning environment, where year 2-4 students train in a contextual setting at community health centers across the U.S. Vodcasts are used far less frequently in our year 1 residential learning environment at the main campus in Arizona, but we are considering moving to significantly more interactive educational experiences with on-demand videos followed by in-class activities...
May 19, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525568/scenery-a-web-application-for-causal-network-reconstruction-from-cytometry-data
#11
Georgios Papoutsoglou, Giorgos Athineou, Vincenzo Lagani, Iordanis Xanthopoulos, Angelika Schmidt, Szabolcs Éliás, Jesper Tegnér, Ioannis Tsamardinos
Flow and mass cytometry technologies can probe proteins as biological markers in thousands of individual cells simultaneously, providing unprecedented opportunities for reconstructing networks of protein interactions through machine learning algorithms. The network reconstruction (NR) problem has been well-studied by the machine learning community. However, the potentials of available methods remain largely unknown to the cytometry community, mainly due to their intrinsic complexity and the lack of comprehensive, powerful and easy-to-use NR software implementations specific for cytometry data...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522853/multitrophic-effects-of-belowground-parasitoid-learning
#12
Denis S Willett, Hans T Alborn, Lukasz L Stelinski
The ability to learn allows organisms to take advantage of dynamic and ephemeral opportunities in their environment. Here we show that learning in belowground entomopathogenic nematodes has cascading multitrophic effects on their hosts, other nematodes, and nematophagous fungal predators. In addition to quantifying these effects, we show that social behavioral plasticity in these belowground parasitoids can amplify signaling by plant defense pathways and results in an almost doubling of insect herbivore infection by entomopathogenic nematodes...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522227/promoting-motor-skills-in-low-income-ethnic-children-the-physical-activity-in-linguistically-diverse-communities-paldc-nonrandomized-trial
#13
Anthony D Okely, Louise L Hardy, Marijka Batterham, Phillip Pearson, Kim McKeen, Lauren Puglisi
OBJECTIVES: This study reports the long-term effects of a professional learning program for classroom teachers on fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency of primary school students from ethnically diverse backgrounds. DESIGN: A cluster non-randomized trial using a nested cross-sectional design. METHODS: The study was conducted in 8 primary schools located in disadvantaged and culturally diverse areas in Sydney, Australia. The intervention used an action learning framework, with each school developing and implementing an action plan for enhancing the teaching of FMS in their school...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522086/correlates-of-sleep-quality-in-midlife-and-beyond-a-machine-learning-analysis
#14
Katherine A Kaplan, Prajesh P Hardas, Susan Redline, Jamie M Zeitzer
OBJECTIVES: In older adults, traditional metrics derived from polysomnography (PSG) are not well correlated with subjective sleep quality. Little is known about whether the association between PSG and subjective sleep quality changes with age, or whether quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) is associated with sleep quality. Therefore, we examined the relationship between subjective sleep quality and objective sleep characteristics (standard PSG and qEEG) across middle to older adulthood...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516480/development-and-feasibility-of-smartphone-application-for-cognitive-behavioural-case-management-of-individuals-with-early-psychosis
#15
Sung-Wan Kim, Ga-Young Lee, Hye-Young Yu, Eun-I Jung, Ju-Yeon Lee, Seon-Young Kim, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon
BACKGROUND: This article describes the development of the smartphone application for cognitive-behavioural case management of young individuals with early psychosis and examines the acceptance and potential clinical benefits of this application through a pilot survey. METHODS: Gwangju Bukgu-Community Mental Health Center developed and launched a smartphone application (Heal Your Mind [HYM]) for cognitive-behavioural case management and symptom monitoring. The HYM application for clients includes 6 main modules including thought record, symptom record, daily life record, official notices, communication and scales...
May 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515060/barriers-and-facilitators-experienced-in-collaborative-prospective-research-in-orthopaedic-oncology-a-qualitative-study
#16
J S Rendon, M Swinton, N Bernthal, M Boffano, T Damron, N Evaniew, P Ferguson, M Galli Serra, W Hettwer, P McKay, B Miller, L Nystrom, W Parizzia, P Schneider, A Spiguel, R Vélez, K Weiss, J P Zumárraga, M Ghert
OBJECTIVES: As tumours of bone and soft tissue are rare, multicentre prospective collaboration is essential for meaningful research and evidence-based advances in patient care. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators encountered in large-scale collaborative research by orthopaedic oncological surgeons involved or interested in prospective multicentre collaboration. METHODS: All surgeons who were involved, or had expressed an interest, in the ongoing Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumour Surgery (PARITY) trial were invited to participate in a focus group to discuss their experiences with collaborative research in this area...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514917/advancing-health-care-quality-and-safety-through-action-learning
#17
Simon Mathews, Sherita Golden, Renee Demski, Peter Pronovost, Lisa Ishii
Purpose The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how action learning can be practically applied to quality and safety challenges at a large academic medical health system and become fundamentally integrated with an institution's broader approach to quality and safety. Design/methodology/approach The authors describe how the fundamental principles of action learning have been applied to advancing quality and safety in health care at a large academic medical institution. The authors provide an academic contextualization of action learning in health care and then transition to how this concept can be practically applied to quality and safety by providing detailing examples at the unit, cross-functional and executive levels...
May 2, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514912/team-sponsors-in-community-based-health-leadership-programs
#18
Tracy Enright Patterson, Donna R Dinkin, Heather Champion
Purpose The purpose of this article is to share the lessons learned about the role of team sponsors in action-learning teams as part of community-based health leadership development programs. Design/methodology/approach This case study uses program survey results from fellow participants, action learning coaches and team sponsors to understand the value of sponsors to the teams, the roles they most often filled and the challenges they faced as team sponsors. Findings The extent to which the sponsors were perceived as having contributed to the work of the action learning teams varied greatly from team to team...
May 2, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513056/lessons-learned-from-a-pilot-study-of-an-indigenous-patient-navigator-intervention-in-queensland-australia
#19
C M Bernardes, J Martin, P Cole, T Kitchener, G Cowburn, G Garvey, E Walpole, P C Valery
Indigenous patient navigator (IPN) programmes show promise in addressing barriers to cancer care and facilitation of patient self-efficacy. The purpose of this paper is to describe and reflect upon the experience of training an IPN and implementation of the intervention in the Australian context with Indigenous cancer patients. Randomised clinical trial might provide the best available evaluation measure of an intervention but caution should be taken in the implementation process. Socio-cultural aspects and training can affect the conduct of this type of intervention...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512513/using-a-concept-inventory-to-reveal-student-thinking-associated-with-common-misconceptions-about-antibiotic-resistance
#20
Ann M Stevens, Ann C Smith, Gili Marbach-Ad, Sarah A Balcom, John Buchner, Sandra L Daniel, Jeffrey J DeStefano, Najib M El-Sayed, Kenneth Frauwirth, Vincent T Lee, Kevin S McIver, Stephen B Melville, David M Mosser, David L Popham, Birgit E Scharf, Florian D Schubot, Richard W Seyler, Patricia Ann Shields, Wenxia Song, Daniel C Stein, Richard C Stewart, Katerina V Thompson, Zhaomin Yang, Stephanie A Yarwood
Misconceptions, also known as alternate conceptions, about key concepts often hinder the ability of students to learn new knowledge. Concept inventories (CIs) are designed to assess students' understanding of key concepts, especially those prone to misconceptions. Two-tiered CIs include prompts that ask students to explain the logic behind their answer choice. Such two-tiered CIs afford an opportunity for faculty to explore the student thinking behind the common misconceptions represented by their choice of a distractor...
April 2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
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