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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918009/optical-properties-of-porcine-dermis-in-the-mid-infrared-absorption-band-of-glucose
#1
Arthur Schönhals, Hans Tholl, Mathias Glasmacher, Niels Kröger-Lui, Annemarie Pucci, Wolfgang Petrich
The optical properties of skin in the mid-infrared range are not known, despite their importance for e.g. non-invasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, transmission, absorption, scattering, and reduced scattering coefficients are quantified using a custom-built goniometer based on a quantum cascade laser operated at the glucose absorption band at a wavelength of around 9.7 μm. The measurements show a strong dominance of absorption and moderate contributions from scattering. The scattered radiation is dominated by single scattering events in the forward direction (g = 0...
December 5, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916931/manipulation-and-immobilization-of-a-single-fluorescence-nanosensor-for-selective-injection-into-cells
#2
Hairulazwan Hashim, Hisataka Maruyama, Taisuke Masuda, Fumihito Arai
Manipulation and injection of single nanosensors with high cell viability is an emerging field in cell analysis. We propose a new method using fluorescence nanosensors with a glass nanoprobe and optical control of the zeta potential. The nanosensor is fabricated by encapsulating a fluorescence polystyrene nanobead into a lipid layer with 1,3,3-trimethylindolino-6'-nitrobenzopyrylospiran (SP), which is a photochromic material. The nanobead contains iron oxide nanoparticles and a temperature-sensitive fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B...
December 1, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916695/the-advantage-of-hollow-mesoporous-carbon-as-a-near-infrared-absorbing-drug-carrier-in-chemo-photothermal-therapy-compared-with-ir-820
#3
Qinfu Zhao, Xiudan Wang, Yue Yan, Da Wang, Ying Zhang, Tongying Jiang, Siling Wang
In this study, we synthesized a kind of hollow mesoporous carbon (HMC) as near-infrared (NIR) nanomaterial and made a comparison between HMC and IR-820 commercially available in terms of heat generation properties and thermal stability exposed under NIR laser irradiation. The NIR-induced photothermal tests indicated that HMC had excellent heat generating capacity and remained stable after exposed to NIR laser irradiation for several times. On the contrary, the IR-820 was thermal unstable and degraded completely after exposed to NIR laser irradiation for only one time...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911934/efficacy-of-noninvasive-stellate-ganglion-blockade-performed-using-physical-agent-modalities-in-patients-with-sympathetic-hyperactivity-associated-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Chun-De Liao, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Tsan-Hon Liou, Hung-Chou Chen, Chi-Lun Rau
BACKGROUND: Stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) is mainly used to relieve symptoms of neuropathic pain in conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome and has several potential complications. Noninvasive SGB performed using physical agent modalities (PAMs), such as light irradiation and electrical stimulation, can be clinically used as an alternative to conventional invasive SGB. However, its application protocols vary and its clinical efficacy remains controversial. This study investigated the use of noninvasive SGB for managing neuropathic pain or other disorders associated with sympathetic hyperactivity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910579/in-situ-calibration-of-the-foil-detector-for-an-infrared-imaging-video-bolometer-using-a-carbon-evaporation-technique
#5
K Mukai, B J Peterson, S Takayama, R Sano
The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a useful diagnostic for the multi-dimensional measurement of plasma radiation profiles. For the application of IRVB measurement to the neutron environment in fusion plasma devices such as the Large Helical Device (LHD), in situ calibration of the thermal characteristics of the foil detector is required. Laser irradiation tests of sample foils show that the reproducibility and uniformity of the carbon coating for the foil were improved using a vacuum evaporation method...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910533/the-conceptual-design-of-interferometer-polarimeter-system-on-hl-2m
#6
Y Zhou, H X Wang, Y G Li, Y Li, W J Chen, J Yi, Z C Deng
HL-2M is a new medium-sized tokamak with major radius of 1.78 m, minor radius of 0.65 m, and aspect ratio of 2.8 and will be finished soon. In the conceptual design, a double-pass, horizontal view, multi-channel far-infrared (FIR) laser interferometer/polarimeter system (at 432 μm) is proposed to simultaneously measure the phase change and the Faraday rotation for density and current profile reconstruction. A vertical CO2 dispersion interferometer system (with wavelength of 10.6 μm and 5.3 μm) is designed to measure the line density, which will mainly be used for density feedback...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910519/design-of-thomson-scattering-diagnostic-system-on-j-text
#7
Yinan Zhou, Li Gao, Jiefeng Huang, Qingshuang Qiu, Ge Zhuang
An infrared multi-channel Thomson scattering diagnostic system is designed from the viewpoint of development of the proposed system on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT). A 3 J/50 Hz Nd:YAG laser, which is injected vertically into plasma in the direction from top to bottom, serves as the power source of the system. The scattering light is then collected horizontally and is transmitted to an interference-filter avalanche photodiode based polychromater for spectrum analysis. The system covers the half plasma cross section, providing 14 spatial points with 2 cm resolution...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910476/operation-results-of-the-kstar-far-infrared-interferometer
#8
June-Woo Juhn, K C Lee, H M Wi, Y S Kim, Y U Nam
The 2015 KSTAR experimental campaign was the first year of routine measurement with a far infrared interferometer (FIRI) utilizing 118.87 μm CH3OH lasers at maximum 200 mW CW beam power. By using rtEFIT reconstruction, the path lengths of interferometers can be calculated and so the line-averaged electron densities n¯e from the FIRI and a millimeter-wave interferometer were in excellent agreement. In this way, the number of successfully diagnosed discharges is counted: 1003 shots or 83.7% of sustained discharges, defined as shots of plasma current IP ≥ 0...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910420/high-sensitivity-far-infrared-laser-diagnostics-for-the-c-2u-advanced-beam-driven-field-reversed-configuration-plasmas
#9
B H Deng, M Beall, J Schroeder, G Settles, P Feng, J S Kinley, H Gota, M C Thompson
A high sensitivity multi-channel far infrared laser diagnostics with switchable interferometry and polarimetry operation modes for the advanced neutral beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is described. The interferometer achieved superior resolution of 1 × 10(16) m(-2) at >1.5 MHz bandwidth, illustrated by measurement of small amplitude high frequency fluctuations. The polarimetry achieved 0.04° instrument resolution and 0.1° actual resolution in the challenging high density gradient environment with >0...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910411/design-and-characterization-of-a-prototype-divertor-viewing-infrared-video-bolometer-for-nstx-u
#10
G G van Eden, M L Reinke, B J Peterson, T K Gray, L F Delgado-Aparicio, M A Jaworski, J Lore, K Mukai, R Sano, S N Pandya, T W Morgan
The InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful tool to measure radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas due to its ability to obtain 2D images of plasma emission using a technique that is compatible with the fusion nuclear environment. A prototype IRVB has been developed and installed on NSTX-U to view the lower divertor. The IRVB is a pinhole camera which images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μm thick, 9 × 7 cm(2) Pt foil and monitors the resulting spatio-temporal temperature evolution using an IR camera...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910372/far-forward-collective-scattering-measurements-by-fir-polarimeter-interferometer-on-j-text-tokamak
#11
P Shi, J Chen, L Gao, Y Liu, H Liu, Y N Zhou, G Zhuang
The multi-channel three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system on J-TEXT tokamak has been exploited to measure far-forward collective scattering from electron density fluctuations. The diagnostic utilizes far infrared lasers operated at 432 μm with 17-channel vertical chords (3 cm chord spacing), covering the entire cross section of plasma. Scattering laser power is measured using a high-sensitivity Schottky planar diode mixer which can also detect polarimetric and interferometric phase simultaneously. The system provides a line-integrated measurement of density fluctuations with maximum measurable wave number: k⊥max ≤ 2 cm(-1) and time response up to 350 kHz...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910346/initial-measurements-of-plasma-current-and-electron-density-profiles-using-a-polarimeter-interferometer-point-for-long-pulse-operation-in-east-invited
#12
H Q Liu, J P Qian, Y X Jie, W X Ding, D L Brower, Z Y Zou, W M Li, H Lian, S X Wang, Y Yang, L Zeng, T Lan, Y Yao, L Q Hu, X D Zhang, B N Wan
A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development)...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910311/improved-density-profile-measurements-in-the-c-2u-advanced-beam-driven-field-reversed-configuration-frc-plasmas
#13
M Beall, B H Deng, H Gota
In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO2/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 10(16) m(-2) at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910304/highly-compact-fiber-fabry-perot-interferometer-a-new-instrument-design
#14
B K Nowakowski, D T Smith, S T Smith
This paper presents the design, construction, and characterization of a new optical-fiber-based, low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer with a simple cavity formed by two reflecting surfaces (the end of a cleaved optical fiber and a plane, reflecting counter-surface), for the continuous measurement of displacements of several nanometers to several tens of millimeters. No beam collimation or focusing optics are required, resulting in a displacement sensor that is extremely compact (optical fiber diameter 125 μm), is surprisingly tolerant of misalignment (more than 5°), and can be used over a very wide range of temperatures and environmental conditions, including ultra-high-vacuum...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910225/two-new-non-centrosymmetric-selenides-azn4in5se12-a-rb-cs-synthesis-characterization-and-nonlinear-optical-properties
#15
Liming Wu, Hua Lin, Yu-Jun Zheng, Xiao-Ning Hu, Hong Chen, Ju-Song Yu
Two new non-centrosymmetric polar quaternary selenides, namely, RbZn4In5Se12 and CsZn4In5Se12, have been synthesized and structurally characterized. They exhibit 3D diamond-like framework (DLF) consisting of corner shared MSe4 (M = Zn/In) tetrahedra, in which the A+ ions are located. Both compounds are thermally stable up to 1300 K and exhibit large transmittance in the infrared region (0.65-25 μm) with measured optical band gaps of 2.06 eV for RbZn4In5Se12 and 2.11 eV for CsZn4In5Se12. Inspiringly, they exhibit good balance between strong second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency (3...
December 1, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908131/molecular-dynamics-investigation-of-desorption-and-ion-separation-following-picosecond-infrared-laser-pirl-ablation-of-an-ionic-aqueous-protein-solution
#16
J Zou, C Wu, W D Robertson, L V Zhigilei, R J D Miller
Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to characterize the ablation process induced by a picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) operating in the regime of desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE) of a model peptide (lysozyme)/counter-ion system in aqueous solution. The simulations were performed for ablation under typical experimental conditions found within a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), that is in vacuum with an applied electric field (E = ± 10(7) V/m), for up to 2 ns post-ablation and compared to the standard PIRL-DIVE ablation condition (E = 0 V/m)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906510/thermohydrogel-containing-melanin-for-photothermal-cancer-therapy
#17
Miri Kim, Hyun Soo Kim, Min Ah Kim, Hyanghwa Ryu, Hwan-Jeong Jeong, Chang-Moon Lee
Melanin is an effective absorber of light and can extend to near infrared (NIR) regions. In this study, a natural melanin is presented as a photothermal therapeutic agent (PTA) because it provides a good photothermal conversion efficiency, shows biodegradability, and does not induce long-term toxicity during retention in vivo. Poloxamer solution containing melanin (Pol-Mel) does not show any precipitation and shows sol-gel transition at body temperature. After irradiation from 808 nm NIR laser at 1.5 W cm(-2) for 3 min, the photothermal conversion efficiency of Pol-Mel is enough to kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906341/intra-half-cycle-interference-of-low-energy-photoelectron-in-strong-midinfrared-laser-fields
#18
Hui Xie, Min Li, Yang Li, Yueming Zhou, Peixiang Lu
Using semiclassical models with implementing interference effects, we study the low-energy photoelectron intra-half-cycle interferences among nonscattering trajectories and multiple forward scattering trajectories of atoms ionized by a strong mid-infrared laser field. Tracing back to the initial tunneling coordinates, we find that up to three kinds of forward scattering trajectories have substantial contributions to the low-energy photoelectrons. Those multiple forward scattering trajectories depend sensitively on the initial transverse momentum at the tunnel exit and they lead to sign reversal of the transverse momentum of the electrons...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906339/shaping-of-ultraviolet-femtosecond-laser-pulses-by-fourier-domain-harmonic-generation
#19
E Hertz, F Billard, G Karras, P Béjot, B Lavorel, O Faucher
We present a method to finely tailor ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses using a pulse shaper with ability in the infrared/visible spectral range. We have developed to that end a frequency doubling module in which the up-conversion mechanism is carried out in the Fourier plane of a 4 f -line. The pulse shaper is used to imprint a spectral phase and/or amplitude onto the fundamental pulse. The shaped pulse is then frequency doubled through the module which transfers the applied spectral shaping to the second harmonic field in a predictable manner...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906234/generation-of-spectral-clusters-in-a-mixture-of-noble-and-raman-active-gases
#20
Pooria Hosseini, Amir Abdolvand, Philip St J Russell
We report a novel scheme for the generation of dense clusters of Raman sidebands. The scheme uses a broadband-guiding hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) filled with a mixture of H<sub>2</sub>, D<sub>2</sub>, and Xe for efficient interaction between the gas mixture and a green laser pump pulse (532 nm, 1 ns) of only 5 μJ of energy. This results in the generation from noise of more than 135 rovibrational Raman sidebands covering the visible spectral region with an average spacing of only 2...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
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