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Diffusion Tensor MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730720/microstructural-white-matter-brain-abnormalities-in-patients-with-idiopathic-fecal-incontinence
#1
J Muthulingam, S Haas, T M Hansen, S Laurberg, L Lundby, H S Jørgensen, A M Drewes, K Krogh, J B Frøkjaer
BACKGROUND: Abnormal central nervous system processing of visceral sensation may be a part of the pathogenesis behind idiopathic fecal incontinence (IFI). Our aim was to characterize brain differences in patients with IFI and healthy controls by means of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: In 21 female patients with IFI and 15 female healthy controls, whole-brain structural differences in gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, and white matter tracts fractional anisotropy (FA) were quantified...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729936/are-there-differences-in-brain-morphology-according-to-handedness
#2
Han Jang, Jae Youn Lee, Kang Il Lee, Kang Min Park
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the differences in brain morphology according to handedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy subjects were enrolled (21 right-handers and 21 nonright-handers). The two groups were classified according to the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Measures of cortical morphology, such as thickness, surface area, volume, and curvature, and the volumes of subcortical structures, such as the amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, and thalamus, were compared between the groups according to handedness using whole-brain 3D T1-weighted MRI...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725550/dti-measures-identify-mild-and-moderate-tbi-cases-among-patients-with-complex-health-problems-a-receiver-operating-characteristic-analysis-of-u-s-veterans
#3
Keith L Main, Salil Soman, Franco Pestilli, Ansgar Furst, Art Noda, Beatriz Hernandez, Jennifer Kong, Jauhtai Cheng, Jennifer K Fairchild, Joy Taylor, Jerome Yesavage, J Wesson Ashford, Helena Kraemer, Maheen M Adamson
Standard MRI methods are often inadequate for identifying mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Advances in diffusion tensor imaging now provide potential biomarkers of TBI among white matter fascicles (tracts). However, it is still unclear which tracts are most pertinent to TBI diagnosis. This study ranked fiber tracts on their ability to discriminate patients with and without TBI. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging data from military veterans admitted to a polytrauma clinic (Overall n = 109; Age: M = 47...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725549/performance-of-unscented-kalman-filter-tractography-in-edema-analysis-of-the-two-tensor-model
#4
Ruizhi Liao, Lipeng Ning, Zhenrui Chen, Laura Rigolo, Shun Gong, Ofer Pasternak, Alexandra J Golby, Yogesh Rathi, Lauren J O'Donnell
Diffusion MRI tractography is increasingly used in pre-operative neurosurgical planning to visualize critical fiber tracts. However, a major challenge for conventional tractography, especially in patients with brain tumors, is tracing fiber tracts that are affected by vasogenic edema, which increases water content in the tissue and lowers diffusion anisotropy. One strategy for improving fiber tracking is to use a tractography method that is more sensitive than the traditional single-tensor streamline tractography...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720778/visualization-of-kidney-fibrosis-in-diabetic-nephropathy-by-long-diffusion-tensor-imaging-mri-with-spin-echo-sequence
#5
Jun-Ya Kaimori, Yoshitaka Isaka, Masaki Hatanaka, Satoko Yamamoto, Naotsugu Ichimaru, Akihiko Fujikawa, Hiroshi Shibata, Akira Fujimori, Sosuke Miyoshi, Takashi Yokawa, Kagayaki Kuroda, Toshiki Moriyama, Hiromi Rakugi, Shiro Takahara
Renal fibrosis (RF) is an indicator for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of CKD and end-stage renal disease in Western populations, the ability of MRI to evaluate RF in DN patients has not been determined. As a first step to identify possible MRI methods for RF evaluation, we examined the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI to evaluate RF in a rat model of DN (SHR/NDmcr-cp(cp/cp): SHR/ND). The signal-to-noise ratio in DTI MRI was enhanced using a spin-echo sequence, and a special kidney attachment was developed for long-term stabilization...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714593/free-water-improves-detection-of-changes-in-the-substantia-nigra-in-parkinsonism-a-multisite-study
#6
Edward Ofori, Florian Krismer, Roxana G Burciu, Ofer Pasternak, Johanna L McCracken, Mechelle M Lewis, Guangwei Du, Nikolaus R McFarland, Michael S Okun, Werner Poewe, Christoph Mueller, Elke R Gizewski, Michael Schocke, Christian Kremser, Hong Li, Xuemei Huang, Klaus Seppi, David E Vaillancourt
BACKGROUND: Imaging markers that are sensitive to parkinsonism across multiple sites are critically needed for clinical trials. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the substantia nigra using single- and bi-tensor models of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in PD, MSA, and PSP. METHODS: The study cohort (n = 425) included 107 healthy controls and 184 PD, 63 MSA, and 71 PSP patients from 3 movement disorder centers. Bi-tensor free water, free-water-corrected fractional anisotropy, free-water-corrected mean diffusivity, single-tensor fractional anisotropy, and single-tensor mean diffusivity were computed for the anterior and posterior substantia nigra...
July 17, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714054/the-functional-relevance-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-comparison-to-conventional-mri-in-patients-with-cervical-compressive-myelopathy
#7
Young-Mi Yang, Woo-Kyoung Yoo, Je Hyun Yoo, Yoon Hae Kwak, Jae-Keun Oh, Ji-Sun Song, Seok Woo Kim
OBJECTIVE: To determine the functional relevance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and conventional MRI (signal intensity change in T2, compression ratio) by measuring the correlation of these parameters with clinical outcome measured by the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 cervical myelopathy (CM) patients participated in this prospective cohort study. The severities of CM were assessed using the mJOA score...
July 17, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712990/supervoxel-based-statistical-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-schizotypal-personality-disorder
#8
Teng Zhang, Lin Shi, Qing Zhang, Jianlin Wu, Jian Lv, Defeng Wang
To study white matter changes in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), we developed a new statistical analysis method based on supervoxels for diffusion tensor imaging. Twenty patients with SPD and eighteen healthy controls were recruited from a pool of 3000 first-year university undergraduates, and underwent MRI using a 3T scanner. Diffusion tensors were first normalized into ICBM-152 space followed by a supervoxel segmentation based on graph clustering to segment white matter tensors into diffusion homogeneous supervoxels...
July 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712716/differentiation-of-glioma-malignancy-grade-using-diffusion-mri
#9
Ivan I Maximov, Aram S Tonoyan, Igor N Pronin
Modern diffusion MR protocols allow one to acquire the multi-shell diffusion data with high diffusion weightings in a clinically feasible time. In the present work we assessed three diffusion approaches based on diffusion and kurtosis tensor imaging (DTI, DKI), and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) as possible biomarkers for human brain glioma grade differentiation based on the one diffusion protocol. We used three diffusion weightings (so called b-values) equal to 0, 1000, and 2500s/mm(2) with 60 non-coplanar diffusion directions in the case of non-zero b-values...
July 13, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712330/the-role-of-abnormalities-in-the-corpus-callosum-in-social-cognition-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Skye McDonald, Jacqueline A Rushby, Katie I Dalton, Samantha K Allen, Nicklas Parks
The corpus callosum (CC) is vulnerable to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Social cognition requires integration of non-verbal and verbal information in order to understand social behaviour and may be compromised if the CC is damaged. 17 adults with severe, chronic TBI and 17 control participants underwent structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. A region of interest analysis examined fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) across regions of the CC. Performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): part 1 (emotion recognition) and parts 2 and 3 (social inference), was examined in relation to FA and MD...
July 17, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711563/application-of-neurite-orientation-dispersion-and-density-imaging-or-diffusion-tensor-imaging-to-quantify-the-severity-of-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-and-assess-postoperative-neurological-recovery
#11
Genki Okita, Tetsuro Ohba, Tomohiro Takamura, Shigeto Ebata, Ryo Ueda, Hiroshi Onishi, Hirotaka Haro, Masaaki Hori
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Surgical outcome and the severity of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are unpredictable and cannot be estimated by conventional anatomical MRI. The utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to quantify the severity of CSM and assess postoperative neurological recovery has been investigated. However, whether conventional DTI should be applied in a clinical setting remains controversial. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is a recently introduced model-based diffusion-weighted MRI technique that quantifies specific microstructural features related directly to neuronal morphology...
July 12, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710579/magnetic-resonance-neurography-current-perspectives-and-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Avneesh Chhabra, Ananth J Madhuranthakam, Gustav Andreisek
Magnetic resonance neurography (also called MRN or MR neurography) refers to MR imaging dedicated to the peripheral nerves. It is a technique that enhances selective multiplanar visualisation of the peripheral nerve and pathology by encompassing a combination of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and diffusion imaging pulse sequences. Referring physicians who seek imaging techniques that can depict and diagnose peripheral nerve pathologies superior to conventional MR imaging are driving the demand for MRN. This article reviews the pathophysiology of peripheral nerves in common practice scenarios, technical considerations of MRN, current indications of MRN, normal and abnormal neuromuscular appearances, and imaging pitfalls...
July 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708864/abnormal-lateralization-of-fine-motor-actions-in-tourette-syndrome-persists-into-adulthood
#13
D Martino, C Delorme, E Pelosin, A Hartmann, Y Worbe, L Avanzino
Youth with Tourette syndrome (TS) exhibit, compared to healthy, abnormal ability to lateralize digital sequential tasks. It is unknown whether this trait is related to inter-hemispheric connections, and whether it is preserved or lost in patients with TS persisting through adult life. We studied 13 adult TS patients and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers. All participants undertook: 1) a finger opposition task, performed with the right hand (RH) only or with both hands, using a sensor-engineered glove in synchrony with a metronome at 2 Hz; we calculated a lateralization index [(single RH-bimanual RH)/single RH X 100) for percentage of correct movements (%CORR); 2) MRI-based diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography of inter-hemispheric corpus callosum (CC) connections between supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortices (M1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707256/monitoring-in-vivo-the-mammary-gland-microstructure-during-morphogenesis-from-lactation-to-post-weaning-using-diffusion-tensor-mri
#14
Noam Nissan, Edna Furman-Haran, Myra Shapiro-Feinberg, Dov Grobgeld, Hadassa Degani
Lactation and the return to the pre-conception state during post-weaning are regulated by hormonal induced processes that modify the microstructure of the mammary gland, leading to changes in the features of the ductal / glandular tissue, the stroma and the fat tissue. These changes create a challenge in the radiological workup of breast disorder during lactation and early post-weaning. Here we present non-invasive MRI protocols designed to record in vivo high spatial resolution, T2-weighted images and diffusion tensor images of the entire mammary gland...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704294/early-detection-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-white-matter-injury-an-mr-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#15
Youngseob Seo, Geun-Tae Kim, Jin Wook Choi
The purpose of this study was to compare diffusion tensor metrics in normal age-matched neonates with survivors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Thirty-five normal, 27 HIE, and 13 ECMO infants underwent MRI at 3 T. Neurodevelopmental assessments were performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, anterior commissure, genu corpus callosum and splenium of the corpus callosum, anterior and posterior limb of the internal capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and the centrum semiovale were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics modified for use in neonates...
July 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700727/longitudinal-increases-of-brain-metabolite-levels-in-5-10-year-old-children
#16
Martha J Holmes, Frances C Robertson, Francesca Little, Steven R Randall, Mark F Cotton, Andre J W van der Kouwe, Barbara Laughton, Ernesta M Meintjes
Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies reveal significant changes in brain structure and structural networks that occur together with cognitive and behavioral maturation in childhood. However, the underlying cellular changes accompanying brain maturation are less understood. Examining regional age-related changes in metabolite levels provides insight into the physiology of neurodevelopment. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures localize brain metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686785/liquid-crystal-phantom-for-validation-of-microscopic-diffusion-anisotropy-measurements-on-clinical-mri-systems
#17
Markus Nilsson, Johan Larsson, Dan Lundberg, Filip Szczepankiewicz, Thomas Witzel, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Karin Bryskhe, Daniel Topgaard
PURPOSE: To develop a phantom for validating MRI pulse sequences and data processing methods to quantify microscopic diffusion anisotropy in the human brain. METHODS: Using a liquid crystal consisting of water, detergent, and hydrocarbon, we designed a 0.5-L spherical phantom showing the theoretically highest possible degree of microscopic anisotropy. Data were acquired on the Connectome scanner using echo-planar imaging signal readout and diffusion encoding with axisymmetric b-tensors of varying magnitude, anisotropy, and orientation...
July 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681749/bilateral-anterior-capsulotomy-for-patients-with-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-multicenter-long-term-follow-up-study
#18
Hong Bin Liu, Qi Zhong, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this retrospective study were to analyze the short-term and long-term effects and complications of stereotactic anterior capsulotomy for patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The advantages and disadvantages of stereotactic anterior capsulotomy have been discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October 2007 and June 2010, 37 patients with OCD underwent anterior capsulotomy in West China Hospital of Sichuan University or Mian Yang Central Hospital...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681514/behavioral-and-stereological-characterization-of-hdc-ko-mice-relation-to-tourette-syndrome
#19
Shamsiiat Abdurakhmanova, Karthik Chary, Mikko Kettunen, Alejandra Sierra, Pertti Panula
A premature termination codon in the human histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) gene has been identified in a family suffering from Guilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). In the current study we investigated if mice lacking the histamine producing enzyme HDC share the morphological and cytological phenotype with GTS patients by using magnetic resonance (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), unbiased stereology and immunohistochemistry. Behavior of Hdc knock-out (Hdc KO) mice was assessed in an open field test. The results of stereological, volumetric and DTI analysis measurements showed no significant differences between control and Hdc KO mice...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677058/structural-changes-in-parkinson-s-disease-voxel-based-morphometry-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-analyses-based-on-123-i-mibg-uptake
#20
Kazufumi Kikuchi, Akio Hiwatashi, Osamu Togao, Koji Yamashita, Ryo Somehara, Ryotaro Kamei, Shingo Baba, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi Kira, Hiroshi Honda
OBJECTIVE: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may exhibit symptoms of sympathetic dysfunction that can be measured using (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. We investigated the relationship between microstructural brain changes and (123)I-MIBG uptake in patients with PD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses. METHODS: This retrospective study included 24 patients with PD who underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy...
July 4, 2017: European Radiology
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