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Diffusion Tensor MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913326/improvement-in-white-matter-tract-reconstruction-with-constrained-spherical-deconvolution-and-track-density-mapping-in-low-angular-resolution-data-a-pediatric-study-and-literature-review
#1
Benedetta Toselli, Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Gabriele Arnulfo, Andrea Canessa, Giovanni Morana, Andrea Rossi, Marco Massimo Fato
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) allows noninvasive investigation of brain structure in vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a frequently used application of DW-MRI that assumes a single main diffusion direction per voxel, and is therefore not well suited for reconstructing crossing fiber tracts. Among the solutions developed to overcome this problem, constrained spherical deconvolution with probabilistic tractography (CSD-PT) has provided superior quality results in clinical settings on adult subjects; however, it requires particular acquisition parameters and long sequences, which may limit clinical usage in the pediatric age group...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912749/functional-connectivity-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-epilepsy-patients-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures
#2
Syu-Jyun Peng, Yue-Loong Hsin
The corpus callosum (CC) plays an important role in generalization of seizure activity. We used resting-state function magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the regional and interregional functional connectivity of CC in patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative and secondarily generalized seizures. We measured the multi-regional coherences of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals via rs-fMRI, cortical thickness via high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, and white matter (WM) integrity via diffusion-tensor imaging in 16 epilepsy patients as well as in 16 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904988/neurite-dispersion-a-new-marker-of-multiple-sclerosis-spinal-cord-pathology
#3
Francesco Grussu, Torben Schneider, Carmen Tur, Richard L Yates, Mohamed Tachrount, Andrada Ianuş, Marios C Yiannakas, Jia Newcombe, Hui Zhang, Daniel C Alexander, Gabriele C DeLuca, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
OBJECTIVE: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the multiple sclerosis spinal cord is limited by low specificity regarding the underlying pathological processes, and new MRI metrics assessing microscopic damage are required. We aim to show for the first time that neurite orientation dispersion (i.e., variability in axon/dendrite orientations) is a new biomarker that uncovers previously undetected layers of complexity of multiple sclerosis spinal cord pathology. Also, we validate against histology a clinically viable MRI technique for dispersion measurement (neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, NODDI), to demonstrate the strong potential of the new marker...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902421/the-impact-of-white-matter-fiber-orientation-in-single-acquisition-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#4
Marta Lancione, Michela Tosetti, Graziella Donatelli, Mirco Cosottini, Mauro Costagli
The aim of this work was to assess the impact of tissue structural orientation on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reliability, and to provide a criterion to identify voxels in which measures of magnetic susceptibility (χ) are most affected by spatial orientation effects. Four healthy volunteers underwent 7-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multi-echo, gradient-echo sequences were used to obtain quantitative maps of frequency shift (FS) and χ. Information from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the relationship between tissue orientation and FS measures and QSM...
September 13, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901594/quantitative-evaluation-of-breast-cancer-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging-initial-results
#5
Edna Furman-Haran, Noam Nissan, Verónica Ricart-Selma, Carmen Martinez-Rubio, Hadassa Degani, Julia Camps-Herrero
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) yields several parameters that have not been tested in response evaluation to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare in reference to histopathology findings the ability of DTI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to monitor response to NAC. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Twenty patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 1...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894296/test-retest-reliability-of-high-spatial-resolution-diffusion-tensor-and-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging
#6
Pashtun Shahim, Laurena Holleran, Joong H Kim, David L Brody
We assessed the test-retest reliability of high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). Diffusion MRI was acquired using a Siemens 3 Tesla Prisma scanner with 80 mT/m gradients and a 32-channel head coil from each of 3 concussive traumatic brain injury (cTBI) patients and 4 controls twice 0 to 24 days apart. Coefficients of variation (CoV) for DTI parameters were calculated in each DTI Studio parcellated white matter tract at 1.25 mm and 1.75 mm isotropic voxel resolution, as well as DKI parameters at 1...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893125/diffusion-tensor-magnetic-resonance-imaging-driven-growth-modeling-for-radiotherapy-target-definition-in-glioblastoma
#7
Morten B Jensen, Trine L Guldberg, Anja Harbøll, Slávka Lukacova, Jesper F Kallehauge
BACKGROUND: The clinical target volume (CTV) in radiotherapy is routinely based on gadolinium contrast enhanced T1 weighted (T1w + Gd) and T2 weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (T2w FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences which have been shown to over- or underestimate the microscopic tumor cell spread. Gliomas favor spread along the white matter fiber tracts. Tumor growth models incorporating the MRI diffusion tensors (DTI) allow to account more consistently for the glioma growth...
September 12, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890843/magnetic-resonance-imaging-evidence-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-effects-on-central-auditory-processing-a-review
#8
Yi Zhan, Jay C Buckey, Abigail M Fellows, Yuxin Shi
New research suggests that individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have central auditory processing deficits. To review the evidence for HIV affecting parts of the central nervous system involved in central auditory processing, we performed a systematic review of the literature. The objective was to determine whether existing studies show evidence for damage to structures associated with central auditory pathways in HIV. We searched PubMed for papers that used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy or functional MRI in individuals infected with HIV...
July 2017: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881433/structural-connectivity-defined-thalamic-subregions-have-different-functional-connectivity-abnormalities-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-implications-for-clinical-correlations
#9
Alessandro d'Ambrosio, Milagros Hidalgo de la Cruz, Paola Valsasina, Elisabetta Pagani, Bruno Colombo, Mariaemma Rodegher, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
In spite of the well-known importance of thalami in multiple sclerosis (MS), only limited data on whole and subregional thalamic functional connectivity (FC) changes are available. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we performed a structural connectivity based thalamic parcellation and investigated subregional thalamic resting-state (RS) FC alterations and their relationship with clinical/cognitive measures in MS. MRI data from a reference set of healthy controls (HC) were used to parcellate the thalami into five subregions, according to their structural connectivity...
September 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879883/the-role-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-spinal-pathology-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Dan C Li, James G Malcolm, Rima S Rindler, Griffin R Baum, Avinash Rao, Shekar N Khurpad, Faiz U Ahmad
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for noninvasive, in vivo visualization of white matter fiber tracts in the central nervous system by measuring the diffusion of water molecules. It provides both quantitative and qualitative (i.e., tractography) means to describe a region-of-interest. While protocols for the use of DTI are better established in the brain, the efficacy and potential applications of DTI in spinal cord pathology are less understood. In this review, we examine the current literature regarding the use of DTI in the spinal cord pathology, and in particular its diagnostic and prognostic value in traumatic injury, spinal tumors, cervical myelopathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis...
September 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879086/emotion-detection-deficits-and-changes-in-personality-traits-linked-to-loss-of-white-matter-integrity-in-primary-progressive-aphasia
#11
Namita Multani, Sebastiano Galantucci, Stephen M Wilson, Tal Shany-Ur, Pardis Poorzand, Matthew E Growdon, Jung Yun Jang, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
Non-cognitive features including personality changes are increasingly recognized in the three PPA variants (semantic-svPPA, non fluent-nfvPPA, and logopenic-lvPPA). However, differences in emotion processing among the PPA variants and its association with white matter tracts are unknown. We compared emotion detection across the three PPA variants and healthy controls (HC), and related them to white matter tract integrity and cortical degeneration. Personality traits in the PPA group were also examined in relation to white matter tracts...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878729/structural-functional-and-metabolic-brain-markers-differentiate-collision-versus-contact-and-non-contact-athletes
#12
Nathan W Churchill, Michael G Hutchison, Alex P Di Battista, Simon J Graham, Tom A Schweizer
There is growing concern about how participation in contact sports affects the brain. Retrospective evidence suggests that contact sports are associated with long-term negative health outcomes. However, much of the research to date has focused on former athletes with significant health problems. Less is known about the health of current athletes in contact and collision sports who have not reported significant medical issues. In this cross-sectional study, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate multiple aspects of brain physiology in three groups of athletes participating in non-contact sports (N = 20), contact sports (N = 22), and collision sports (N = 23)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871106/3d-imaging-of-the-brain-morphology-and-connectivity-defects-in-a-model-of-psychiatric-disorders-map6-ko-mice
#13
Ulysse Gimenez, Benoit Boulan, Franck Mauconduit, Fanny Taurel, Maxime Leclercq, Eric Denarier, Jacques Brocard, Sylvie Gory-Fauré, Annie Andrieux, Hana Lahrech, Jean Christophe Deloulme
In the central nervous system, microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6) is expressed at high levels and is crucial for cognitive abilities. The large spectrum of social and cognitive impairments observed in MAP6-KO mice are reminiscent of the symptoms observed in psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, and respond positively to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. MAP6-KO mice have therefore been proposed to be a useful animal model for these diseases. Here, we explored the brain anatomy in MAP6-KO mice using high spatial resolution 3D MRI, including a volumetric T1w method to image brain structures, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) for white matter fiber tractography...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868785/incomplete-initial-nutation-diffusion-imaging-an-ultrafast-single-scan-approach-for-diffusion-mapping
#14
Andrada Ianuş, Noam Shemesh
PURPOSE: Diffusion MRI is confounded by the need to acquire at least two images separated by a repetition time, thereby thwarting the detection of rapid dynamic microstructural changes. The issue is exacerbated when diffusivity variations are accompanied by rapid changes in T2 . The purpose of the present study is to accelerate diffusion MRI acquisitions such that both reference and diffusion-weighted images necessary for quantitative diffusivity mapping are acquired in a single-shot experiment...
September 3, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864914/nonketotic-hyperglycinemia-spectrum-of-imaging-findings-with-emphasis-on-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#15
Shaimaa Abdelsattar Mohammad, Heba Salah Abdelkhalek
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore brain abnormalities in nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and when feasible, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography. METHODS: Seven patients with confirmed diagnosis of NKH (8 days-2 years) underwent brain MRI. Conventional T1 and T2WI were acquired in all patients, DWI in six and DTI and tractography in two (4 months and 2 years). Measurements of fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AD) and Trace from eight white matter regions were compared between the two patients and age-matched controls...
September 1, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864243/diagnostic-value-of-conventional-mri-combined-with-dti-for-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#16
Ruifang Yan, Dongming Han, Jipeng Ren, Zhansheng Zhai, Fengmei Zhou, Jingliang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NHB) is a common clinical disease and can cause bilirubin encephalopathy in severe cases. It is now widely accepted that increased signal intensity in the globus pallidus on MR T1WI is an important sign of neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy. And brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has not been used extensively to study hyperbilirubinemia (HB). So we compared newborns with different hyperbilirubinemia of different severities and healthy newborns in order to determine the relationships among MRI signal intensities, serum bilirubin levels, and the molecular changes in brain water diffusion in hyperbilirubinemia...
August 3, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861335/diffusion-tensor-image-segmentation-of-the-cerebrum-provides-a-single-measure-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-severity-related-to-cognitive-change
#17
Owen A Williams, Eva A Zeestraten, Philip Benjamin, Christian Lambert, Andrew J Lawrence, Andrew D Mackinnon, Robin G Morris, Hugh S Markus, Rebecca A Charlton, Thomas R Barrick
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the primary cause of vascular cognitive impairment and is associated with decline in executive function (EF) and information processing speed (IPS). Imaging biomarkers are needed that can monitor and identify individuals at risk of severe cognitive decline. Recently there has been interest in combining several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of SVD into a unitary score to describe disease severity. Here we apply a diffusion tensor image (DTI) segmentation technique (DSEG) to describe SVD related changes in a single unitary score across the whole cerebrum, to investigate its relationship with cognitive change over a three-year period...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859565/neuroplasticity-and-the-brain-connectome-what-can-jean-talairach-s-reflections-bring-to-modern-psychosurgery
#18
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Lévêque, Fabien Vinckier
Contrary to common psychosurgical practice in the 1950s, Dr. Jean Talairach had the intuition, based on clinical experience, that the brain connectome and neuroplasticity had a role to play in psychosurgery. Due to the remarkable progress of pharmacology at that time and to the technical limits of neurosurgery, these concepts were not put into practice. Currently, these concepts are being confirmed by modern techniques such as neuroimaging and computational neurosciences, and could pave the way for therapeutic innovation in psychiatry...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855404/cognition-and-gray-and-white-matter-characteristics-of-presymptomatic-c9orf72-repeat-expansion
#19
Janne M Papma, Lize C Jiskoot, Jessica L Panman, Elise G Dopper, Tom den Heijer, Laura Donker Kaat, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, Lieke H Meeter, Rick van Minkelen, Serge A R B Rombouts, John C van Swieten
OBJECTIVE: To investigate cognitive function, gray matter volume, and white matter integrity in the presymptomatic stage of chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 repeat expansion (C9orf72RE). METHODS: Presymptomatic C9orf72RE carriers (n = 18) and first-degree family members without a pathogenic expansion (healthy controls [HC], n = 15) underwent a standardized protocol of neuropsychological tests, T1-weighted MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging within our cohort study of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
August 30, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843078/impact-of-early-and-recent-stress-on-white-matter-microstructure-in-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Poletti Sara, Aggio Veronica, Brioschi Silvia, Bollettini Irene, Falini Andrea, Colombo Cristina, Benedetti Francesco
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a worldwide-spread pathology, characterized by lifetime-recurrent episodes. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase the lifetime risk of developing depression and affect the structure of the brain. Recent stressful events (RSE) can trigger the onset of depressive episodes, and affect grey matter volume. The aim of our study is to analyse the effect of both early and recent stress events on white matter microstructure in MDD patients and healthy volunteers...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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