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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913536/hemostasis-in-the-very-young
#1
Gili Kenet, Assaf Arie Barg, Ulrike Nowak-Göttl
Hemostasis is a dynamic process that starts in utero. The coagulation system evolves with age, as evidenced by marked physiological differences in the concentration of the majority of hemostatic proteins in early life compared with adulthood. This concept, known as "developmental hemostasis," has important biological and clinical implications. Overall, impaired platelet function, along with physiologically reduced levels of vitamin K-dependent and contact coagulation factors, may cause poorer clot firmness even in healthy neonates...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913437/thymoquinone-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-activation-of-sirt1-signaling
#2
Yunyang Lu, Yingda Feng, Dan Liu, Zhiran Zhang, Kai Gao, Wei Zhang, Haifeng Tang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is a leading factor responsible for damage in myocardial infarction, resulting in additional injury to cardiac tissues involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of Nigella sativa L. seeds, has been reported to possess various biological activities. However, few reports regarding myocardial protection are available at present. Therefore, this study was conducted aiming to investigate the protective effect of TQ against MI/R injury and to clarify its potential mechanism...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913424/postponement-of-canine-puberty-by-neonatal-administration-of-a-long-term-release-gnrh-superagonist
#3
M Faya, C Marchetti, M Priotto, M Grisolía, F D'Francisco, C Gobello
The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency and clinical safety of postnatal administration of a GnRH agonist on canine puberty postponement. Sexual steroids and histological gonadal changes were also described. Twenty-four littermate puppies were randomly assigned to: Deslorelin acetate 18.8 mg sc (DESLO; n = 12) or Placebo: sc (PLACE; n = 12) postnatally. The dogs were clinically and endocrinologically followed up until puberty when they were gonadectomized and their gonads histomorphometrically studied...
June 2, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913282/structural-network-maturation-of-the-preterm-human-brain
#4
REVIEW
Tengda Zhao, Virendra Mishra, Tina Jeon, Minhui Ouyang, Qinmu Peng, Lina Chalak, Jessica Lee Wisnowski, Roy Heyne, Nancy Rollins, Ni Shu, Hao Huang
During the 3rd trimester, large-scale neural circuits are formed in the human brain, resulting in a highly efficient and segregated connectome at birth. Despite recent findings identifying important preterm human brain network properties such as rich-club organization, how the structural network develops differentially across brain regions and among different types of connections in this period is not yet known. Here, using high resolution diffusion MRI of 77 preterm-born and full-term neonates scanned at 31...
June 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913244/during-development-ng2-glial-cells-of-the-spinal-cord-are-restricted-to-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-but-generate-astrocytes-upon-acute-injury
#5
Wenhui Huang, Xianshu Bai, Laura Stopper, Bogdan Catalin, Luciana Politti Cartarozzi, Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff
NG2 glia are self-renewal cells widely populating the entire central nervous system (CNS). The differentiation potential of NG2 glia in the brain has been systematically studied. However, the fate of NG2 glia in the spinal cord during development and after injury is still unclear. Here, we took advantage of faithful expression of Cre in NG2-CreERT2 knock-in mice to demonstrate that spinal NG2 glia remain committed to the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage and generate OLs, but not astrocytes or neurons, during development...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913208/influence-of-parp-1-inhibition-in-the-cardiotoxicity-of-the-topoisomerase-2-inhibitors-doxorubicin-and-mitoxantrone
#6
Roberto Marques Damiani, Dinara Jaqueline Moura, Cassiana Macagnan Viau, Verônica Brito, Ana Moira Morás, João Antonio Pêgas Henriques, Jenifer Saffi
Doxorubicin (DOX) and Mitoxantrone (MTX) are very effective drugs for a range of tumors despite being highly cardiotoxic. DNA topoisomerase 2 beta (Top2ß) was revealed as key mediator of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, although ROS generation is also an important mechanism. Oxidative stress is also an important issue in MTX-induced cardiotoxicity that is manifested by mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies have demonstrated the relationship between PARP-1 overactivation and cell viability in DOX-treated cardiomyocytes...
June 15, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913173/diagnostic-accuracy-of-4-th-generation-architect-hiv-ag-ab-combo-assay-and-utility-of-signal-to-cutoff-ratio-to-predict-false-positive-hiv-tests-in-pregnancy
#7
Emily H Adhikari, Devin Macias, Donna Gaffney, Sarah White, Vanessa L Rogers, Donald D McIntire, Scott W Roberts
BACKGROUND: False positive HIV screening tests in pregnancy may lead to unnecessary interventions in labor. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a new algorithm for HIV diagnosis using a 4th generation screening test, which detects antibodies to HIV as well as p24 antigen and has a shorter window period compared with prior generations. A reactive screen requires a differentiation assay, and supplemental qualitative RNA testing is necessary for nonreactive differentiation assay...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913172/physiological-impacts-of-housing-maned-wolves-chrysocyon-brachyurus-with-female-relatives-or-unrelated-males
#8
Marieke K Jones, Lauren E Reiter, Michael P Gilmore, Elizabeth W Freeman, Nucharin Songsasen
The maned wolf is a threatened canid species native to South America. Previous studies have suggested the species exhibits induced ovulation. In captive breeding facilities, reproductive success is low while rates of neonatal mortality are high. Females that are not recommended for breeding are frequently housed together. However there has never been a systematic study of the reproductive consequences of co-housing females. This study was conducted for three purposes, to: (1) corroborate the presence of induced ovulation, (2) determine whether elevated cortisol is implicated in neonatal pup mortality, and (3) evaluate the endocrine correlates of group housed females...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913124/preventive-effects-of-astragaloside-iv-and-its-active-sapogenin-cycloastragenol-on-cardiac-fibrosis-of-mice-by-inhibiting-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#9
Yu Wan, Lu Xu, Yunxia Wang, Nuerbiya Tuerdi, Min Ye, Rong Qi
Cardiac fibrosis is a common feature of many cardiac pathophysiologic conditions. Recently, it has been shown that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiac fibrosis. Here, the inhibitory effects and possible mechanism of astragaloside IV (AST) and its active sapogenin cycloastragenol (CAG) on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac fibrosis were investigated. In our study, BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with 5mg/kg ISO for 7 consecutive days to induce cardiac fibrosis...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913028/neonatal-compartment-syndrome-treated-within-the-first-24-hours-of-life
#10
Allison K Tetreault, Derek P Axibal, Frank A Scott
Neonatal compartment syndrome is rare. There are multiple proposed etiologies, including infection, vascular insult, and mechanical compression. Much like compartment syndrome in adults, delayed surgical intervention for neonatal compartment syndrome can have catastrophic results. The authors present a unique case of a neonate who presented with left forearm and hand swelling and skin ulceration after vaginal delivery. Findings from the evaluation for vascular injury, infection, and hypercoagulability were normal...
June 18, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913021/implementation-of-a-clinical-prediction-model-using-daily-postnatal-weight-gain-birth-weight-and-gestational-age-to-risk-stratify-rop
#11
Kortany McCauley, Anupama Chundu, Helen Song, Robin High, Donny Suh
PURPOSE: To develop a simple prognostic model using postnatal weight gain, birth weight, and gestational age to identify infants at risk for developing severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: Medical records from two tertiary referral centers with the diagnosis code "Retinopathy of Prematurity" were evaluated. Those with a birth weight of 1,500 g or less, gestational age of 30 weeks or younger, and unstable clinical courses were included. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to transform three independent variables into a growth rate algorithm...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913015/comparison-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-methadone-vs-morphine-for-treatment-of-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Jonathan M Davis, Jeffrey Shenberger, Norma Terrin, Janis L Breeze, Mark Hudak, Elisha M Wachman, Peter Marro, Erica L Oliveira, Karen Harvey-Wilkes, Adam Czynski, Barbara Engelhardt, Karen D'Apolito, Debra Bogen, Barry Lester
Importance: Although opioids are used to treat neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), the best pharmacologic treatment has not been established. Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of methadone and morphine in NAS. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this randomized, double-blind, intention-to-treat trial, term infants from 8 US newborn units whose mothers received buprenorphine, methadone, or opioids for pain control during pregnancy were eligible...
June 18, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913009/acoustic-reflex-testing-in-neonatal-hearing-screening-and-subsequent-audiological-evaluation
#13
Lilian Cássia Bórnia Jacob-Corteletti, Eliene Silva Araújo, Josilene Luciene Duarte, Fernanda Zucki, Kátia de Freitas Alvarenga
Purpose: The aims of the study were to examine the acoustic reflex screening and threshold in healthy neonates and those at risk of hearing loss and to determine the effect of birth weight and gestational age on acoustic stapedial reflex (ASR). Method: We assessed 18 healthy neonates (Group I) and 16 with at least 1 risk factor for hearing loss (Group II); all of them passed the transient evoked otoacoustic emission test that assessed neonatal hearing. The test battery included an acoustic reflex screening with activators of 0...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912729/in-vitro-effects-of-the-fs50-protein-from-salivary-glands-of-xenopsylla-cheopis-on-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-activity-and-motility-of-mda-mb-231-human-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Bei Zhang, Zhenghui Deng, Baishuang Zeng, Shilong Yang, Xin Chen, Xueqing Xu, Jiguo Wu
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity enhances the motility and oncogene expression of metastasic cancer cells that express a neonatal alternatively spliced form of the NaV1.5 isoform. We reported previously that FS50, a salivary protein from Xenopsylla cheopis, showed inhibitory activity against the NaV1.5 channel when assayed in HEK 293T cells and antiarrhythmia effects on rats and monkeys after induction of arrhythmia by BaCl2. This study aims to identify the effect of FS50 on voltage-gated sodium channel activity and the motility of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in vitro...
June 16, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912720/the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-parent-nurse-controlled-analgesia-on-patient-outcomes-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-systematic-review-protocol
#15
Renee Muirhead, Kathryn Kynoch
The review question is: How safe is parent/nurse controlled analgesia and what is its effectiveness on patient outcomes in the neonatal intensive care unit?
June 15, 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912684/large-outbreaks-of-fungal-and-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-a-neonatal-unit-south-africa-2012-2016
#16
Erika van Schalkwyk, Samantha Iyaloo, Serisha D Naicker, Tsidiso G Maphanga, Ruth S Mpembe, Thokozile G Zulu, Mabatho Mhlanga, Sibongile Mahlangu, Motlatji B Maloba, Grace Ntlemo, Kgomotso Sanyane, Dini Mawela, Nelesh P Govender
Candidemia is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. We describe a large outbreak of Candida krusei bloodstream infections among infants in Gauteng Province, South Africa, during a 4-month period; a series of candidemia and bacteremia outbreaks in the neonatal unit followed. We detected cases by using enhanced laboratory surveillance and audited hospital wards by environmental sampling and epidemiologic studies. During July-October 2014, among 589 patients, 48 unique cases of C. krusei candidemia occurred (8...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912656/neurological-impairments-in-hypoxic-neonates-and-lactate-levels
#17
Miljana Z Jovandaric, Svetlana J Milenkovic
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic acidosis with increasing lactate concentration develops due to the lack of oxygen in the tissues. OBJECTIVES: The effect of lactic acidosis on neurological development in the first year of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 50 newborns with perinatal hypoxia requiring oxygen therapy and 50 healthy newborns. pH, pCO2, pO2, base excess (BE) and lactates from arterialized capillary blood were determined in both groups of newborns, in the first and second hours after birth, and neurological development in the first year of life was estimated...
June 18, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912645/use-of-a-modified-bubble-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-bcpap-device-for-children-in-respiratory-distress-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-safety-study
#18
Ashley R Bjorklund, Beatrice Odongkara Mpora, Marie E Steiner, Gwenyth Fischer, Cynthia S Davey, Tina M Slusher
BACKGROUND: While bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is commonly used in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to support neonates with respiratory distress, there are limited non-invasive support options for non-neonatal children. AIM: To demonstrate safety of a new device designed to support children during respiratory distress in LMIC. METHODS: A paediatric bCPAP device was designed called SEAL-bCPAP (Simplified Ear-plug Adapted-bCPAP)...
June 18, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912349/two-stage-arterial-switch-for-late-presenting-transposition-of-the-great-arteries
#19
Tornike Sologashvili, Laure Wannaz, Maurice Beghetti, Yacine Aggoun, René Prêtre, Patrick O Myers
OBJECTIVES: Ventricular retraining and arterial switch have been described in late-presenting transposition of the great arteries (TGA) in older infants who were unable to undergo neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) and late survivors of atrial switch with systemic right ventricular dysfunction. There are little data available on patients presenting between these 2 groups. This study aims to review the early and mid-term outcomes of the management of late-presenting TGA with an unprepared left ventricle (LV) by a 2-stage arterial switch...
April 17, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912264/-ending-the-culture-of-culture-negative-sepsis-in-the-neonatal-icu
#20
Alejandra Reyes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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