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Hui Liu, Yu Cao, Wei Li, Zhao Zhang, Erik Jeppesen, Wei Wang
Pulse inputs of heavy metals are expected to increase with a higher frequency of extreme climate events (heavy rain), leading to stronger erosion of contaminated and fertilized farmland soils to freshwaters, with potentially adverse effects on lake ecosystems. We conducted a 5-month mesocosm study to elucidate the responses of the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria spinulosa and phytoplankton to four different doses of cadmium (Cd): 0 (control), 0.05, 0.5, and 5 g m(-2) (CK, I, II, and III, respectively) under mesotrophic conditions...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuriana Aguilar-Sanchez, Diego Fainstein, Rafael Mejia-Alvarez, Ariel L Escobar
In the heart, molecular signaling studies are usually performed in isolated myocytes. However, many pathological situations such as ischemia and arrhythmias can only be fully understood at the whole organ level. Here, we present the spectroscopic technique of local field fluorescence microscopy (LFFM) that allows the measurement of cellular signals in the intact heart. The technique is based on a combination of a Langendorff perfused heart and optical fibers to record fluorescent signals. LFFM has various applications in the field of cardiovascular physiology to study the heart under normal and pathological conditions...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
J Rösner, A Liotta, E A Angamo, C Spies, U Heinemann, R Kovács
Dynamic alterations in flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence permit insight into energy metabolism-dependent changes of intramitochondrial redox potential. Monitoring FAD fluorescence in living tissue is impeded by photobleaching, restricting the length of microfluorimetric recordings. In addition, photodecomposition of these essential electron carriers negatively interferes with energy metabolism and viability of the biological specimen. Taking advantage of pulsed LED illumination, here we determined the optimal excitation settings giving the largest fluorescence yield with the lowest photobleaching and interference with metabolism in hippocampal brain slices...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
Sheraz Hussain, Mohammad Faizan Zahid, Arshalooz Jamila Rahman, Mehnaz Atiq Ahmed, Shahnaz Hamid Ibrahim
Mumps is an acute viral illness that follows a self-limiting course but up to 10% of cases have a complicated course with the involvement of other organ systems. Myocarditis is reported as a complication but the incidence has greatly fallen ever since the development of the mumps vaccine. A child presented to our department with parotid swelling and fever. Persistent tachycardia with irregular pulse led to further cardiac work up which showed decreased ejection fraction and raised serum cardiac enzymes, indicating myocardial damage...
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Muath Nairat, Arkaprabha Konar, Vadim V Lozovoy, Warren F Beck, G J Blanchard, Marcos Dantus
Fast population transfer from higher to lower excited states occurs via internal conversion (IC) and is the basis of Kasha's rule, which states that spontaneous emission takes place from the lowest excited state of the same multiplicity. Photonic control over IC is of interest because it would allow direct influence over intramolecular nonradiative decay processes occurring in condensed phase. Here we tracked the S2 and S1 fluorescence yield for different cyanine dyes in solution as a function of linear chirp...
March 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Patrick Steiner, Andreas Ebneter, Lieselotte Erika Berger, Martin Zinkernagel, Boris Považay, Christoph Meier, Jens H Kowal, Carsten Framme, Ralf Brinkmann, Sebastian Wolf, Raphael Sznitman
PURPOSE: Selective retina therapy (SRT) is a novel treatment for retinal pathologies, solely targeting the RPE. During SRT, the detection of an immediate tissue reaction is challenging, as tissue effects remain limited to intracellular RPE photodisruption. Time-resolved ultra-high axial resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) is thus evaluated for the monitoring of dynamic optical changes at and around the RPE during SRT. METHODS: An experimental OCT system with an ultra-high axial resolution of 1...
October 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
S Chaudray, J Zipperle, A Islam, M Nimmervoll, L Karner, H Redl, S Bahrami, P Dungel
INTRODUCTION: Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is clinically used to attenuate inflammation and improve tissue repair processes. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red LED light on inflammatory response in a whole blood in vitro model as well as in isolated granulocytes. METHODS: Human whole blood was stimulated with 1ng/ml LPS for 4 h. Pulsed LED light (632 nm) was applied either 1 h or 4 h after LPS for 10 min. Granulocytes were stimulated with PMA or fMLP respectively, and treated with LED-light likewise...
October 2015: Shock
W Kyle Mitchell, Bethan E Phillips, John P Williams, Debbie Rankin, Jonathan N Lund, Daniel J Wilkinson, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
Essential amino acids (EAA) are responsible for skeletal muscle anabolic effects after nutrient intake. The pattern of appearance of EAA in blood, e.g., after intake of "slow" or "fast" protein sources or in response to grazing vs. bolus feeding patterns, may impact anabolism. However, the influence of this on muscle anabolism is poorly understood, particularly in older individuals. We determined the effects of divergent feeding profiles of EAA on blood flow, anabolic signaling, and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in older men...
September 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jinmyoung Joo, Xiangyou Liu, Venkata Ramana Kotamraju, Erkki Ruoslahti, Yoonkey Nam, Michael J Sailor
The luminescence lifetime of nanocrystalline silicon is typically on the order of microseconds, significantly longer than the nanosecond lifetimes exhibited by fluorescent molecules naturally present in cells and tissues. Time-gated imaging, where the image is acquired at a time after termination of an excitation pulse, allows discrimination of a silicon nanoparticle probe from these endogenous signals. Because of the microsecond time scale for silicon emission, time-gated imaging is relatively simple to implement for this biocompatible and nontoxic probe...
June 23, 2015: ACS Nano
Adrien Barbet, François Balembois, Amandine Paul, Jean-Philippe Blanchot, Anne-Lise Viotti, Jacques Sabater, Frédéric Druon, Patrick Georges
We describe here what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first LED pumped Nd:YVO₄ laser. Near-IR LED arrays with a wavelength centered close to 850 nm were used to pump transversely the crystal. By pulsing LEDs, with a duration of the order of the laser transition lifetime, we obtained sufficient pump intensities to reach the laser threshold. At a frequency of 250 Hz, we obtained an output energy of 40 μJ at 1064 nm for an input pump energy of 7.4 mJ, which corresponds to an optical efficiency of 0.5%...
December 1, 2014: Optics Letters
Alexander Golberg, G Felix Broelsch, Daniela Vecchio, Saiqa Khan, Michael R Hamblin, William G Austen, Robert L Sheridan, Martin L Yarmush
Emerging bacterial resistance renders many antibiotics ineffective, making alternative strategies of wound disinfection important. Here the authors report on a new, physical burn wound disinfection method: pulsed electric fields (PEFs). High voltage, short PEFs create nonthermal, permanent damage to cell membranes, possibly by irreversible electroporation. In medicine, PEF technology has recently been used for nonthermal ablation of solid tumors. The authors have expanded the spectrum of PEF applications in medicine to burn wound disinfection...
January 2015: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Adilson José da Silva, Antônio Carlos Luperni Horta, Ana Maria Velez, Mônica Rosas C Iemma, Cíntia Regina Sargo, Raquel Lc Giordano, Maria Teresa M Novo, Roberto C Giordano, Teresa Cristina Zangirolami
In spite of the large number of reports on fed-batch cultivation of E. coli, alternative cultivation/induction strategies remain to be more deeply exploited. Among these strategies, it could be mentioned the use of complex media with combination of different carbon sources, novel induction procedures and feed flow rate control matching the actual cell growth rate. Here, four different carbon source combinations (glucose, glycerol, glucose + glycerol and auto-induction) in batch media formulation were compared...
2013: SpringerPlus
Gwenaëlle Sana, Marie-Agnès Dragon-Durey, Marina Charbit, Karim Bouchireb, Caroline Rousset-Rouvière, Etienne Bérard, Rémi Salomon, Véronique Frémeaux-Bacchi, Patrick Niaudet, Olivia Boyer
BACKGROUND: Anti-complement factor H (CFH) autoantibody (Ab)-associated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) has a poor prognosis, but no consensus exists on its treatment. METHODS: We report the follow-up of four children with anti-CFH Ab (8,000 to >32,000 arbitrary units)-associated aHUS after plasma exchanges (PEs), prednisone, and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy with the evolution of anti-CFH Ab titers and kidney function. RESULTS: Patient 1 received PEs + prednisone + cyclophosphamide pulses after two relapses following PEs and then PEs + rituximab...
January 2014: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Bin Qu, Ying Huang, Weiyuan Wang, Prateek Sharma, Andrew T Kuhls-Gilcrist, Alexander N Cartwright, Albert H Titus, Daniel R Bednarek, Stephen Rudin
Use of an extensible array of Electron Multiplying CCDs (EMCCDs) in medical x-ray imager applications was demonstrated for the first time. The large variable electronic-gain (up to 2000) and small pixel size of EMCCDs provide effective suppression of readout noise compared to signal, as well as high resolution, enabling the development of an x-ray detector with far superior performance compared to conventional x-ray image intensifiers and flat panel detectors. We are developing arrays of EMCCDs to overcome their limited field of view (FOV)...
October 30, 2010: IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record
W Bang, G Dyer, H J Quevedo, A C Bernstein, E Gaul, M Donovan, T Ditmire
The kinetic energy of hot (multi-keV) ions from the laser-driven Coulomb explosion of deuterium clusters and the resulting fusion yield in plasmas formed from these exploding clusters has been investigated under a variety of conditions using the Texas Petawatt laser. An optimum laser intensity was found for producing neutrons in these cluster fusion plasmas with corresponding average ion energies of 14 keV. The substantial volume (1-10 mm(3)) of the laser-cluster interaction produced by the petawatt peak power laser pulse led to a fusion yield of 1...
February 2013: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Anna Vallverdú-Queralt, Gemma Oms-Oliu, Isabel Odriozola-Serrano, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós, Olga Martín-Belloso, Pedro Elez-Martínez
A metabolite profiling approach was used to study the effect of moderate-intensity pulsed electric field (MIPEF) treatments on the individual polyphenol and carotenoid contents of tomato fruit after refrigeration at 4°C for 24h. The MIPEF processing variables studied were electric field strength (from 0.4 to 2.0kV/cm) and number of pulses (from 5 to 30). Twenty four hours after MIPEF treatments, an increase was observed in hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanones, whereas flavonols, coumaric and ferulic acid-O-glucoside were not affected...
January 1, 2013: Food Chemistry
Atiyeh Feiz, Farahnaz Arbabzadeh Zavareh, Seyed Mohammad Razavi, Hamid Badrian, Sepideh Dolatyar, Mansoureh Vajihi
The aim of the study was to determine and compare the reaction of rat subcutaneous connective tissue to resin composites polymerized with different lights curing and lightening methods. In this in vivo study, 20 mature Wister Albino rats were used. The composite discs, 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were cured by QTH or LED light curing units with 4 different lightning methods (full power QTH, full power LED, pulse LED, and ramp LED). Five resin composite discs were implanted in each rat, so that 4 of 5 discs for implantation of cured composite discs differently and central one as control without implantation...
2012: International Journal of Dentistry
Patrick Bader, Robert Weingart, Marcel Egger
Connexin45 (Cx45) hemichannels (HCs) open in the absence of Ca(2+) and close in its presence. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we examined the role of extra- and intracellular Ca(2+) on the electrical properties of HCs. Experiments were performed on HeLa cells expressing Cx45 using electrical (voltage clamp) and optical (Ca(2+) imaging) methods. HCs exhibit a time- and voltage-dependent current (I(hc)), activating with depolarization and inactivating with hyperpolarization. Elevation of [Ca(2+)](o) from 20 nM to 2 μM reversibly decreases I(hc), decelerates its rate of activation, and accelerates its deactivation...
September 2012: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
R C Mollard, A Zykus, B L Luhovyy, M F Nunez, C L Wong, G H Anderson
Pulses are low glycaemic foods; however, their effect on satiation is unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of an ad libitum pulse meal on food intake (FI), appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after a test meal (4 h later) and on FI at the test meal. Males (n 24, 22·8 kg/m2) received one of four treatments or control. The pulse treatments contained pasta and tomato sauce and 44 % of energy from: (1) chickpeas, (2) lentils, (3) navy beans or (4) yellow peas. The control was pasta and tomato sauce (pasta and sauce)...
August 2012: British Journal of Nutrition
Andrew D Bachtel, Richard A Gray, Jayna M Stohlman, Elliot B Bourgeois, Andrew E Pollard, Jack M Rogers
We developed a new method for ratiometric optical mapping of transmembrane potential (V(m)) in cardiac preparations stained with di-4-ANEPPS. V(m)-dependent shifts of excitation and emission spectra establish two excitation bands (<481 and >481 nm) that produce fluorescence changes of opposite polarity within a single emission band (575-620 nm). The ratio of these positive and negative fluorescence signals (excitation ratiometry) increases V(m) sensitivity and removes artifacts common to both signals...
July 2011: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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