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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813033/a-vision-based-wayfinding-system-for-visually-impaired-people-using-situation-awareness-and-activity-based-instructions
#1
Eunjeong Ko, Eun Yi Kim
A significant challenge faced by visually impaired people is 'wayfinding', which is the ability to find one's way to a destination in an unfamiliar environment. This study develops a novel wayfinding system for smartphones that can automatically recognize the situation and scene objects in real time. Through analyzing streaming images, the proposed system first classifies the current situation of a user in terms of their location. Next, based on the current situation, only the necessary context objects are found and interpreted using computer vision techniques...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812061/behavioral-comorbidities-and-drug-treatments-in-a-zebrafish-scn1lab-model-of-dravet-syndrome
#2
Brian P Grone, Tiange Qu, Scott C Baraban
Loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A cause Dravet syndrome (DS), a catastrophic childhood epilepsy in which patients experience comorbid behavioral conditions, including movement disorders, sleep abnormalities, anxiety, and intellectual disability. To study the functional consequences of voltage-gated sodium channel mutations, we use zebrafish with a loss-of-function mutation in scn1lab, a zebrafish homolog of human SCN1A. Homozygous scn1lab(s552/s552) mutants exhibit early-life seizures, metabolic deficits, and early death...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812043/swallowing-markers-in-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy
#3
Haruhiko Banno, Masahisa Katsuno, Keisuke Suzuki, Seiya Tanaka, Noriaki Suga, Atsushi Hashizume, Tomoo Mano, Amane Araki, Hirohisa Watanabe, Yasushi Fujimoto, Masahiko Yamamoto, Gen Sobue
OBJECTIVE: We examined the characteristics of dysphagia in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a hereditary neuromuscular disease causing weakness of limb, facial, and oropharyngeal muscles via a videofluoroscopic swallowing study, and investigated the plausibility of using these outcome measures for quantitative analysis. METHODS: A videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed on 111 consecutive patients with genetically confirmed spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and 53 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810906/atypical-presentation-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-two-case-reports
#4
Maria Cristina Maggio, Greta Mastrangelo, Aldo Skabar, Alessandro Ventura, Marco Carrozzi, Giuseppe Santangelo, Francesca Vanadia, Giovanni Corsello, Rolando Cimaz
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by severe neurological and psychiatric symptoms and a difficult diagnosis. The disease is often secondary to a neoplastic lesion, seldom diagnosed years later. Psychiatric symptoms are prevalent in adults; neurologic symptoms are more evident in children, who typically present primarily with neurological symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, the association with juvenile idiopathic arthritis has not been described...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808088/the-armadillo-protein-p0071-controls-kif3-motor-transport
#5
Alexander Becher, Tim Eiseler, Marc Porzner, Paul Walther, René Keil, Susanne Bobrovich, Mechthild Hatzfeld, Thomas Seufferlein
We here report a novel function of the armadillo protein p0071 during KIF3/kinesin-2-mediated transport. Secretion of chromogranin A and matrix metallopeptidase 9 from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells or pancreatic cancer cells, respectively, was substantially reduced following knockdown of p0071. Vesicle tracking indicated impaired directional persistence of vesicles upon p0071 depletion. This suggests a disturbed balance between plus- and minus-end directed microtubule transport in cells lacking p0071...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807673/gpr55-a-therapeutic-target-for-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Marta Celorrio, Estefanía Rojo-Bustamante, Diana Fernández-Suárez, Elena Sáez, Ander Estella-Hermoso de Mendoza, Christa E Müller, María J Ramírez, Julen Oyarzábal, Rafael Franco, María S Aymerich
The GPR55 receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain, especially in the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. Indeed, motor behavior is impaired in mice lacking GPR55, which also display dampened inflammatory responses. Abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) isomer, is a GPR55 agonist that may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we explored whether modulating GPR55 could also represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805504/neural-basis-of-altered-earlier-attention-and-higher-order-biological-motion-processing-in-schizophrenia
#7
Yukiko Matsumoto, Hideyuki Takahashi, Jun Miyata, Genichi Sugihara, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Schizophrenia patients have impairments of biological motion (BM) perception, which provides critical information about social cognition. Because social cognition is underpinned by attention, the impairments of BM perception in schizophrenia could be partially attributable to altered attention. To elucidate the impairments in attention and social perception in schizophrenia, we investigated the neural basis of impaired BM processing using MRI in respect to attention deficits by eye tracker. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to evaluate the relationship between BM perception and gray matter (GM) volume...
August 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805093/monitoring-disease-progression-in-spinocerebellar-ataxias-implications-for-treatment-and-clinical-research
#8
Lidia Sarro, Lorenzo Nanetti, Anna Castaldo, Caterina Mariotti
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are autosomal dominant diseases characterized by progressive gait and limb incoordination, disequilibrium, dysarthria, and eye movement disturbances. Approximately 40 genetic subtypes of SCAs are known and classified according to the causative disease gene/locus. With the possibility of the specific genetic diagnosis in patients and at-risk family members, several clinical scales and functional tests have been validated and used in ataxic patients with the purposes of measuring the entity of disease progression in natural history studies and the possible slowing of neurological impairment in therapeutic trials...
August 13, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803535/robotic-assistance-for-training-finger-movement-using-a-hebbian-model-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Justin B Rowe, Vicky Chan, Morgan L Ingemanson, Steven C Cramer, Eric T Wolbrecht, David J Reinkensmeyer
BACKGROUND: Robots that physically assist movement are increasingly used in rehabilitation therapy after stroke, yet some studies suggest robotic assistance discourages effort and reduces motor learning. OBJECTIVE: To determine the therapeutic effects of high and low levels of robotic assistance during finger training. METHODS: We designed a protocol that varied the amount of robotic assistance while controlling the number, amplitude, and exerted effort of training movements...
August 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803362/perceptuo-motor-planning-during-functional-reaching-after-stroke
#10
Margit Alt Murphy, Melanie C Baniña, Mindy F Levin
In healthy young adults, reaching movements are planned such that the initial grasp position on the object is modulated based on the final task goal. This perceptuo-motor coupling has been described as the end-state comfort effect. This study aimed to determine the extent to which visuo-perceptual and motor deficits, but not neglect, due to stroke impact end-state comfort measured as the grasp-height effect. Thirty-four older adults (17 controls, 17 chronic stroke) performed a functional goal-directed two-sequence task with each arm, consisting of reaching and moving a cylindrical object (drain plunger) from an initial to four target platform heights, standardized to body height, in a block randomized sequence...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802364/the-reliability-of-flexible-nasolaryngoscopy-in-the-identification-of-vocal-fold-movement-impairment-in-young-infants
#11
Yi-Chun Carol Liu, Tyler McElwee, Mary Musso, Tara L Rosenberg, Julina Ongkasuwan
OBJECTIVE: Flexible nasolaryngoscopy (FNL) is considered the gold standard for evaluation of vocal fold mobility but there has been no data on the reliability of interpretation in the infant population. Visualization may be limited by excessive movement, secretions, or floppy supraglottic structures that prevent accurate diagnosis of vocal fold movement impairment (VFMI). We sought to evaluate the inter- and intra-rater reliability of FNL for the evaluation of VFMI in young infants. STUDY TYPE: Case-control...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802220/comparison-of-lower-limb-muscle-strength-between-diabetic-neuropathic-and-healthy-subjects-using-opensim
#12
Alessandra Scarton, Ilse Jonkers, Annamaria Guiotto, Fabiola Spolaor, Gabriella Guarneri, Angelo Avogaro, Claudio Cobelli, Zimi Sawacha
Diabetes neuropathy and vasculopathy are the two major complications of diabetes mellitus, leading to diabetic foot disease, of which the worst consequences are plantar ulcers and amputations. Motor impairments like joint stiffness and loss of balance are distinctive effects of diabetes and they have been extensively explored. However, while altered muscle function has been also assessed through experimentally measured surface electromyography, little is known about muscle forces. The objective of this study was to estimate muscle forces in subjects with diabetes and to use these data to identify differences with respect to a population of healthy subjects matched for age and BMI...
July 31, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801420/protocol-study-for-a-randomised-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial-involving-virtual-reality-and-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-improvement-of-upper-limb-motor-function-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#13
Jamile Benite Palma Lopes, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Renata Calhes Franco de Moura, Roberta Delasta Lazzari, Natalia de Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Isabela Miziara, Gileno Edu Lameira de Melo, Arislander Jonathan Lopes Dumont, Manuela Galli, Claudia Santos Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome results in neuromotor impairment that affects selective motor control, compromising the acquisition of motor skills and functional independence. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate and compare the effects of multiple-monopolar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex during upper limb motor training involving virtual reality on motor control, muscle activity, cerebral activity and functional independence...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800709/the-major-outer-membrane-protein-mopb-is-required-for-twitching-movement-and-affects-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-in-two-xylella-fastidiosa-strains
#14
Hongyu Chen, Prem Prasad Kandel, Luisa Fernanda Cruz, Paul Anthony Cobine, Leonardo De La Fuente
MopB is a major outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterial plant pathogen that causes losses on many economically important crops. Based on in silico analysis, the uncharacterized MopB protein of X. fastidiosa contains a β-barrel structure with an OmpA-like domain and a predicted calcium-binding motif. Here, MopB function was studied by mutational analysis taking advantage of the natural competence of X. fastidiosa. Mutants of mopB were constructed in two different X. fastidiosa strains, the type strain 'Temecula' and the more virulent 'WM1-1'...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800305/influence-of-chronic-neck-pain-on-cervical-joint-position-error-jpe-comparison-between-young-and-elderly-subjects
#15
Khalid A Alahmari, Ravi Shankar Reddy, Paul Silvia, Irshad Ahmad, Venkat Nagaraj, Mohammad Mahtab
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of cervical joint position sense in subjects with chronic neck pain has gained importance in recent times. Different authors have established increased joint position error (JPE) in subjects with acute neck pain. However, there is a paucity of studies to establish the influence of chronic neck pain on cervical JPE. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to understand the influence of chronic neck pain on cervical JPE, and to examine the differences in cervical JPE between young and elderly subjects with chronic neck pain...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799704/the-nature-consequences-and-management-of-neurological-disorders-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Bahman Jabbari, Nosratola D Vaziri
Perhaps no other organ in the body is affected as often and in as many ways as the brain is in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several factors contribute to the neurological disorders in CKD including accumulation of uremic toxins, metabolic and hemodynamic disorders, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired blood brain barrier among others. The neurological disorders in CKD involve both peripheral and central nervous system. The peripheral neurological symptoms of CKD are due to somatic and cranial peripheral neuropathies as well as a myopathy...
August 11, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798912/force-myography-for-monitoring-grasping-in-individuals-with-stroke-with-mild-to-moderate-upper-extremity-impairments-a-preliminary-investigation-in-a-controlled-environment
#17
Gautam P Sadarangani, Xianta Jiang, Lisa A Simpson, Janice J Eng, Carlo Menon
There is increasing research interest in technologies that can detect grasping, to encourage functional use of the hand as part of daily living, and thus promote upper-extremity motor recovery in individuals with stroke. Force myography (FMG) has been shown to be effective for providing biofeedback to improve fine motor function in structured rehabilitation settings, involving isolated repetitions of a single grasp type, elicited at a predictable time, without upper-extremity movements. The use of FMG, with machine learning techniques, to detect and distinguish between grasping and no grasping, continues to be an active area of research, in healthy individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798679/mobility-as-the-purpose-of-postural-control
#18
Charlotte Le Mouel, Romain Brette
Counteracting the destabilizing force of gravity is usually considered to be the main purpose of postural control. However, from the consideration of the mechanical requirements for movement, we argue that posture is adjusted in view of providing impetus for movement. Thus, we show that the posture that is usually adopted in quiet standing in fact allows torque for potential movement. Moreover, when performing a movement-either voluntarily or in response to an external perturbation-we show that the postural adjustments are organized both spatially and temporally so as to provide the required torque for the movement...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795452/resistance-training-does-not-alter-same-day-sleep-architecture-in-institutionalized-older-adults
#19
Jeffrey E Herrick, Shipra Puri, Kathy C Richards
Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in institutionalized older adults that reduces their quality of life and may contribute to progression of cognitive impairment. While we found that a 7-week combination of resistance training, walking and social activity significantly improved sleep in institutionalized older adults compared with a usual care control group, no one to our knowledge has determined the acute effects of resistance training on same-day sleep in this population. Given the effort required to promote exercise adherence in institutionalized older adults and to obtain a positive training effect, understanding of the acute effects of resistance training on same-day sleep architecture should be elucidated, especially with respect to unintended consequences...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794249/not-all-scn1a-epileptic-encephalopathies-are-dravet-syndrome-early-profound-thr226met-phenotype
#20
Lynette G Sadleir, Emily I Mountier, Deepak Gill, Suzanne Davis, Charuta Joshi, Catherine DeVile, Manju A Kurian, Simone Mandelstam, Elaine Wirrell, Katherine C Nickels, Hema R Murali, Gemma Carvill, Candace T Myers, Heather C Mefford, Ingrid E Scheffer
OBJECTIVE: To define a distinct SCN1A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with early onset, profound impairment, and movement disorder. METHODS: A case series of 9 children were identified with a profound developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and SCN1A mutation. RESULTS: We identified 9 children 3 to 12 years of age; 7 were male. Seizure onset was at 6 to 12 weeks with hemiclonic seizures, bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, or spasms...
August 9, 2017: Neurology
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