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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431177/altered-functional-connectivity-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-eeg-study
#1
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Sanghun Lee, Jung-Hoon Kim, Jung-Ah Lim, Tae-Joon Kim, Jung-Ick Byun, Min Hee Jeong, Kwang Su Cha, Jeong Woo Choi, Kyung Hwan Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Kon Chu, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung
Study Objectives: Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered as a prodromal stage of synucleinopathy. Although loss of functional connectivity is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, network characteristics of electroencephalography (EEG) in iRBD are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated resting-state EEG functional connectivity to identify the brain network changes in patients with iRBD. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 20 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 16 control subjects...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430839/pathological-imitative-behavior-and-response-preparation-in-schizophrenia
#2
Denisas Dankinas, Sigita Melynyte, Aldona Siurkute, Kastytis Dapsys
Introduction: Pathological imitative behavior (ehopraxia) is occasionally observed in schizophrenia patients. However, only a severe form of echopraxia can be detected with the help of a direct observation. Therefore, our goal was to study a latent form of pathological imitative behavior in this disorder, which is indicated by an increase of imitative tendencies. Method: In our study, 14 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy subjects were employed in two tasks: (a) in an imitative task they had to copy a hand action seen on a screen; (b) in a counter-imitative task they had to make a different movement (which involves an inhibition of prepotent imitative tendency that is impaired in case of pathological imitative behavior)...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428563/a-sublethal-dose-of-a-neonicotinoid-insecticide-disrupts-visual-processing-and-collision-avoidance-behaviour-in-locusta-migratoria
#3
Rachel H Parkinson, Jacelyn M Little, John R Gray
Neonicotinoids are known to affect insect navigation and vision, however the mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood. A visual motion sensitive neuron in the locust, the Descending Contralateral Movement Detector (DCMD), integrates visual information and is involved in eliciting escape behaviours. The DCMD receives coded input from the compound eyes and monosynaptically excites motorneurons involved in flight and jumping. We show that imidacloprid (IMD) impairs neural responses to visual stimuli at sublethal concentrations, and these effects are sustained two and twenty-four hours after treatment...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425221/conceptualizing-movement-by-expert-bobath-instructors-in-neurological-rehabilitation
#4
Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek, Cheryl A Cott
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Movement, a core aspect of physiotherapy practice, and integral to the clinical reasoning process has undergone limited theoretical development. Instead, research has focused on intervention effectiveness embedded within the positivist paradigm. The purpose of this study was to explore how expert neurorehabilitation therapists conceptualize movement as part of their clinical reasoning. METHOD: A qualitative interpretive descriptive approach consisting of stimulated recall using video-recorded treatment sessions and in-depth interviews was used...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424088/research-exploring-physical-activity-in-care-homes-reach-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Anne Forster, Jennifer Airlie, Karen Birch, Robert Cicero, Bonnie Cundill, Alison Ellwood, Mary Godfrey, Liz Graham, John Green, Claire Hulme, Rebecca Lawton, Vicki McLellan, Nicola McMaster, Amanda Farrin
BACKGROUND: As life expectancy increases and the number of older people, particularly those aged 85 years and over, expands there is an increase in demand for long-term care. A large proportion of people in a care home setting spend most of their time sedentary, and this is one of the leading preventable causes of death. Encouraging residents to engage in more physical activity could deliver benefits in terms of physical and psychological health, and quality of life. This study is the final stage of a programme of research to develop and preliminarily test an evidence-based intervention designed to enhance opportunities for movement amongst care home residents, thereby increasing levels of physical activity...
April 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423418/rna-seq-validation-of-rnai-identifies-additional-gene-connectivity-in-tribolium-castaneum-coleoptera-tenebrionidae
#6
Lindsey C Perkin, Alison R Gerken, Brenda Oppert
RNA interference (RNAi) is a functional genomics tool to correlate genotype and phenotype by delivering targeted, gene-specific, and complementary dsRNA into a host via injection, feeding, or other means in order to reduce gene expression. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, RNAi has been successful via injected dsRNA at all life stages. Traditionally, successful transcript knockdown has been quantified by qPCR on a gene-by-gene basis, where only expression of the target gene and normalization genes are evaluated...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422986/a-critical-like-collective-state-leads-to-long-range-cell-communication-in-dictyostelium-discoideum-aggregation
#7
Giovanna De Palo, Darvin Yi, Robert G Endres
The transition from single-cell to multicellular behavior is important in early development but rarely studied. The starvation-induced aggregation of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum into a multicellular slug is known to result from single-cell chemotaxis towards emitted pulses of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). However, how exactly do transient, short-range chemical gradients lead to coherent collective movement at a macroscopic scale? Here, we developed a multiscale model verified by quantitative microscopy to describe behaviors ranging widely from chemotaxis and excitability of individual cells to aggregation of thousands of cells...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422634/functional-brain-stimulation-in-a-chronic-stroke-survivor-with-moderate-impairment
#8
Heather T Peters, Janell Pisegna, Julie Faieta, Stephen J Page
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with repetitive, task-specific training (RTP) on upper-extremity (UE) impairment in a chronic stroke survivor with moderate impairment. METHOD: The participant was a 54-yr-old woman with chronic, moderate UE hemiparesis after a single stroke that had occurred 10 yr before study enrollment. She participated in 45-min RTP sessions 3 days/wk for 8 wk. tDCS was administered concurrent to the first 20 min of each RTP session...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419325/dissecting-molecular-and-physiological-response-mechanisms-to-high-solar-radiation-in-cyanic-and-acyanic-leaves-a-case-study-on-red-and-green-basil
#9
Massimiliano Tattini, Federico Sebastiani, Cecilia Brunetti, Alessio Fini, Sara Torre, Antonella Gori, Mauro Centritto, Francesco Ferrini, Marco Landi, Lucia Guidi
Photosynthetic performance and the expression of genes involved in light signaling and the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were analysed in green ('Tigullio', TIG) and red ('Red Rubin', RR) basil. The aim was to detect the physiological and molecular response mechanisms to high sunlight. The attenuation of blue-green light by epidermal anthocyanins was shown to evoke shade-avoidance responses with consequential effects on leaf morpho-anatomical traits and gas exchange performance. Red basil had a lower mesophyll conductance, partially compensated by the less effective control of stomatal movements, in comparison with TIG...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416095/self-and-other-agency-in-people-with-passivity-first-rank-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#10
Kyran T Graham-Schmidt, Mathew T Martin-Iverson, Flavie A V Waters
Individuals with passivity (first-rank) symptoms report that their actions, thoughts and sensations are influenced or controlled by an external (non-self) agent. Passivity symptoms are closely linked to schizophrenia and related disorders yet they remain poorly understood. One dominant framework posits a role for deficits in the sense of agency. An important question is whether deficits in self-agency can be differentiated from other-agency in schizophrenia and passivity symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate self- and other-agency in 51 people with schizophrenia (n=20 current, 10 past, 21 no history of passivity symptoms), and 48 healthy controls...
April 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415980/the-effects-of-bending-speed-on-the-lumbo-pelvic-kinematics-and-movement-pattern-during-forward-bending-in-people-with-and-without-low-back-pain
#11
Sharon M H Tsang, Grace P Y Szeto, Linda M K Li, Dim C M Wong, Millie M P Yip, Raymond Y W Lee
BACKGROUND: Impaired lumbo-pelvic movement in people with low back pain during bending task has been reported previously. However, the regional mobility and the pattern of the lumbo-pelvic movement were found to vary across studies. The inconsistency of the findings may partly be related to variations in the speed at which the task was executed. This study examined the effects of bending speeds on the kinematics and the coordination lumbo-pelvic movement during forward bending, and to compare the performance of individuals with and without low back pain...
April 17, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414562/a-review-of-cochrane-systematic-reviews-of-interventions-relevant-to-orthoptic-practice
#12
Fiona J Rowe, Sue Elliott, Iris Gordon, Anupa Shah
AIM: To present an overview of the range of systematic reviews on intervention trials pertinent to orthoptic practice, produced by the Cochrane Eyes and Vision group (CEV). METHODS: We searched the 2016 Cochrane Library database (31.03.2016) to identify completed reviews and protocols of direct relevance to orthoptic practice. These reviews are currently completed and published, available on www.thecochranelibrary.com (free to UK health employees) or via the CEV website (http://eyes...
April 17, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413945/body-machine-interface-enables-people-with-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-to-control-devices-with-available-body-movements-proof-of-concept
#13
Farnaz Abdollahi, Ali Farshchiansadegh, Camilla Pierella, Ismael Seáñez-González, Elias Thorp, Mei-Hua Lee, Rajiv Ranganathan, Jessica Pedersen, David Chen, Elliot Roth, Maura Casadio, Ferdinando Mussa-Ivaldi
This study tested the use of a customized body-machine interface (BoMI) for enhancing functional capabilities in persons with cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). The interface allows people with cSCI to operate external devices by reorganizing their residual movements. This was a proof-of-concept phase 0 interventional nonrandomized clinical trial. Eight cSCI participants wore a custom-made garment with motion sensors placed on the shoulders. Signals derived from the sensors controlled a computer cursor. A standard algorithm extracted the combinations of sensor signals that best captured each participant's capacity for controlling a computer cursor...
May 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412953/quantification-of-task-dependent-cortical-activation-evoked-by-robotic-continuous-wrist-joint-manipulation-in-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke
#14
Martijn P Vlaar, Teodoro Solis-Escalante, Julius P A Dewald, Erwin E H van Wegen, Alfred C Schouten, Gert Kwakkel, Frans C T van der Helm
BACKGROUND: Cortical damage after stroke can drastically impair sensory and motor function of the upper limb, affecting the execution of activities of daily living and quality of life. Motor impairment after stroke has been thoroughly studied, however sensory impairment and its relation to movement control has received less attention. Integrity of the somatosensory system is essential for feedback control of human movement, and compromised integrity due to stroke has been linked to sensory impairment...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412604/highlighting-the-differential-role-of-leaf-paraheliotropism-in-two-mediterranean-cistus-species-under-drought-stress-and-well-watered-conditions
#15
Giacomo Puglielli, Susana Redondo-Gómez, Loretta Gratani, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo
The differential degree by which paraheliotropism may counterbalance the deleterious impact of high irradiance between congeneric species in relation to different water availabilities has been poorly investigated. We followed the evolution of gas exchange, quenching analysis and OJIP parameters in restrained (R) and free (F) to move leaves of Cistus monspeliensis (CM) and Cistus salvifolius (CS) under drought stress (WS) and well-watered conditions (WW). Concerning gas exchange parameters, leaf restriction effect was overall not significant in CM except in apparent carboxylation efficiency (Ce) under WS, while CS showed a significant sensitivity of maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs) and Ce even under WW...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412603/impairments-of-balance-stepping-reactions-and-gait-in-people-with-cervical-dystonia
#16
Christopher Barr, Rhiannon Barnard, Lauren Edwards, Sheila Lennon, Lynley Bradnam
BACKGROUND: Impaired balance is common in neurological disorders. Cervical dystonia is a neurological movement disorder affecting the neck. The effect of this aberrant head posture on physical function is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To compare balance, mobility, gait and stepping reactions between ten people with cervical dystonia and ten control adults. METHODS: Spatiotemporal gait parameters and walking speed were assessed using a computerised walkway...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410884/the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-motor-sequence-learning-and-upper-limb-function-after-stroke
#17
Melanie K Fleming, John C Rothwell, Laszlo Sztriha, James T Teo, Di J Newham
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of electrode arrangement on the efficacy of tDCS in stroke survivors and determine whether changes in transcallosal inhibition (TCI) underlie improvements. METHODS: 24 stroke survivors (3-124months post-stroke) with upper limb impairment participated. They received blinded tDCS during a motor sequence learning task, requiring the paretic arm to direct a cursor to illuminating targets on a monitor. Four tDCS conditions were studied (crossover); anodal to ipsilesional M1, cathodal to contralesional M1, bihemispheric, sham...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410662/lewy-body-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Douglas Galasko
Dementia syndromes associated with Lewy bodies are subdivided into dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), an underdiagnosed cause of dementia in the elderly, and Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD), cognitive impairment appearing in people diagnosed with Parkinson disease. Their neuropathologic substrates are the widespread distribution of aggregates of the protein α-synuclein in neurons in cortical brain regions, accompanied by variable Alzheimer pathology. Clinical features of DLB and PDD include distinctive changes in cognition, behavior, movement, sleep, and autonomic function...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409869/single-and-combined-effects-of-microcystins-and-saxitoxins-producer-cyanobacteria-on-the-fitness-and-antioxidant-defenses-of-cladocerans
#19
Aloysio da S Ferrão-Filho, Daniel Abreu S de Silva, Taissa A de Oliveira, Valéria Freitas de Magalhães, Stephan Pflugmacher, Eduardo Mendes da Silva
Cyanobacteria produce different toxic compounds that affect animal life, among them hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. As cyanobacteria are able to produce a variety of toxic compounds at the same time, organisms may be, generally, subjected to their combined action. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of single and combined hepatotoxic (microcystins) and neurotoxic (saxitoxins) producer cyanobacteria on cladocerans. Animals were exposed to two strains of cyanobacteria isolated from the same environment (Funil Reservoir, RJ), either in single or combined exposures...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409112/plasticity-of-premotor-cortico-muscular-coherence-in-severely-impaired-stroke-patients-with-hand-paralysis
#20
Paolo Belardinelli, Leonard Laer, Erick Ortiz, Christoph Braun, Alireza Gharabaghi
Motor recovery in severely impaired stroke patients is often very limited. To refine therapeutic interventions for regaining motor control in this patient group, the functionally relevant mechanisms of neuronal plasticity need to be detected. Cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) may provide physiological and topographic insights to achieve this goal. Synchronizing limb movements to motor-related brain activation is hypothesized to reestablish cortico-motor control indexed by CMC. In the present study, right-handed, chronic stroke patients with right-hemispheric lesions and left hand paralysis participated in a four-week training for their left upper extremity...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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