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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933354/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-mitochondrial-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Juan M Suárez-Rivero, Marina Villanueva-Paz, Patricia de la Cruz-Ojeda, Mario de la Mata, David Cotán, Manuel Oropesa-Ávila, Isabel de Lavera, Mónica Álvarez-Córdoba, Raquel Luzón-Hidalgo, José A Sánchez-Alcázar
Mitochondria are very versatile organelles in continuous fusion and fission processes in response to various cellular signals. Mitochondrial dynamics, including mitochondrial fission/fusion, movements and turnover, are essential for the mitochondrial network quality control. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics can cause neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in which mitochondrial fusion and transport are impaired, or dominant optic atrophy which is caused by a reduced mitochondrial fusion. On the other hand, mitochondrial dysfunction in primary mitochondrial diseases promotes reactive oxygen species production that impairs its own function and dynamics, causing a continuous vicious cycle that aggravates the pathological phenotype...
December 23, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932886/immediate-responses-of-the-cockroach-blaptica-dubia-after-the-exposure-to-sulfur-mustard
#2
Tanja Popp, Robin Lüling, Ingrid Boekhoff, Thomas Seeger, Francisco Branoner, Thomas Gudermann, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Dirk Steinritz
The chemical agent sulfur mustard (SM) causes erythema, skin blisters, ulcerations, and delayed wound healing. It is accepted that the underlying molecular toxicology is based on DNA alkylation. With an expected delay, DNA damage causes impairment of protein biosynthesis and disturbance of cell division. However, using the cockroach model Blaptica dubia, the presented results show that alkylating compounds provoke immediate behavior responses along with fast changes in the electrical field potential (EFP) of neurons, suggesting that lesions of DNA are probably not the only effect of alkylating compounds...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932407/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-grip-force-control-in-patients-with-cerebellar-degeneration
#3
Liane John, Michael Küper, Thomas Hulst, Dagmar Timmann, Joachim Hermsdörfer
BACKGROUND: The control of grip forces when moving a hand held object is impaired in patients with cerebellar degeneration. We asked the question whether after-effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the lateral cerebellum or M1 improved grip force control in cerebellar patients. METHODS: Grip force control while holding an object during cyclic arm movements was assessed in patients with pure cerebellar degeneration (n = 14, mean age 50...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931996/a-modified-seated-side-tapping-test-in-which-the-arms-are-crossed-also-reflects-gait-function-in-community-dwelling-elderly
#4
Satoshi Fuchioka, Akira Iwata, Yumi Higuchi, Mari Miyake, Seiji Kanda, Toshimasa Nishiyama
[Purpose] Seated side tapping test (SST) performance is associated with mobility impairment in the elderly. Although this test was developed to assess trunk function, interpretation of its results may be confounded by the upper-limb movements in its protocol. Here, this study aimed to validate the association between trunk function and gait function by means of the Arms Crossed SST (AC-SST), a modified version of the SST in which the arms are crossed over the chest, to exclude the effects of the upper limbs...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931614/phase-dependent-deficits-during-reach-to-grasp-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Yuming Lei, Monica A Perez
Most cervical spinal cord injuries result in asymmetrical functional impairments in hand and arm function. However, the extent to which reach-to-grasp movements are affected in humans with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) remains poorly understood. Using kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) recordings in hand and arm muscles we studied the different phases of unilateral self-paced reach-to-grasp movements (arm acceleration, hand opening and closing) to a small cylinder in the more and less affected arms of individuals with cervical SCI and age-matched controls...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931469/restorative-effects-of-curcumin-on-sleep-deprivation-induced-memory-impairments-and-structural-changes-of-the-hippocampus-in-a-rat-model
#6
Ali Noorafshan, Fatemeh Karimi, Ali-Mohammad Kamali, Saied Karbalay-Doust, Mohammad Nami
The present study examined the consequences of rapid eye-movement sleep-deprivation (REM-SD) with or without curcumin treatment. The outcome measures comprised quantitative features in the three-dimensional reconstructed (3DR) CA1 and dentate gyrus in experimental and control animals using stereological procedures. Male rats were arbitrarily assigned to nine groups based on the intervention and treatment administered including: 1-cage control+distilled water, 2-cage control+curcumin (100mg/kg/day), 3-cage control+olive oil, 4-REM-SD+distilled water, 5-REM-SD+curcumin, 6-REM-SD+olive oil, 7-grid-floor control+distilled water, 8-grid-floor control+curcumin, and 9-grid-floor control+olive oil...
September 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929129/an-automated-home-cage-system-to-assess-learning-and-performance-of-a-skilled-motor-task-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#7
Cameron L Woodard, Federico Bolaños, James D Boyd, Gergely Silasi, Timothy H Murphy, Lynn A Raymond
Behavioral testing is a critical step in assessing the validity of rodent models of neurodegenerative disease, as well as evaluating the efficacy of pharmacological interventions. In models of Huntington's disease (HD), a gradual progression of impairments is observed across ages, increasing the need for sensitive, high-throughput and longitudinal assessments. Recently, a number of automated systems have been developed to perform behavioral profiling of animals within their own home-cage, allowing for 24-h monitoring and minimizing experimenter interaction...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928603/functional-capacity-and-motor-performance-of-upper-limbs-in-individuals-with-cerebellar-disorders-a-pilot-study
#8
Vivian Farahte Giangiardi, Sandra Maria Sbeghen F de Freitas, Flávia P de Paiva Silva, Renata Morales Banjai, Sandra Regina Alouche
In simple daily activities carried out by the upper limbs, the cerebellum is responsible for the adaptations required for the accurate movement based on previous experiences and external references. This paper aims to characterize the performance of the upper limbs after a cerebellar disease. We evaluated the digital and handgrip strength, dexterity, and function of the upper limbs. The motor performance of the upper limbs was assessed through the use of a digitizing tablet by performing aiming movements with the upper limb most affected by cerebellar disease and the paired limb of the healthy group...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928195/reach-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-trial-of-rehabilitation-very-early-in-congenital-hemiplegia
#9
Roslyn N Boyd, Jenny Ziviani, Leanne Sakzewski, Iona Novak, Nadia Badawi, Kerstin Pannek, Catherine Elliott, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Koa Whittingham, Jane Valentine, Cathy Morgan, Margaret Wallen, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Lisa Findlay, Robert Ware, Simona Fiori, Stephen Rose
OBJECTIVES: Congenital hemiplegia is the most common form of cerebral palsy (CP). Children with unilateral CP show signs of upper limb asymmetry by 8 months corrected age (ca) but are frequently not referred to therapy until after 12 months ca. This study compares the efficacy of infant-friendly modified constraint-induced movement therapy (Baby mCIMT) to infant friendly bimanual therapy (Baby BIM) on upper limb, cognitive and neuroplasticity outcomes in a multisite randomised comparison trial...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928141/a-genetic-screen-for-impaired-systemic-rnai-highlights-the-crucial-role-of-dicer-like-2
#10
Christelle Taochy, Nial R Gursanscky, Jiangling Cao, Stephen J Fletcher, Uwe Dressel, Neena Mitter, Matthew R Tucker, Anna M Koltunow, John L Bowman, Hervé Vaucheret, Bernard J Carroll
Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of transgenes involves abundant 21 nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and low abundance 22 nt siRNAs produced from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by DCL4 and DCL2, respectively. However, DCL2 facilitates the recruitment of RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6) to ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1)-derived cleavage products, resulting in more efficient amplification of secondary and transitive dsRNA and siRNAs. Here, we describe a reporter system where RDR6-dependent PTGS is initiated by restricted expression of an inverted-repeat dsRNA specifically in the root tip, allowing a genetic screen to identify mutants impaired in RDR6-dependent systemic PTGS...
September 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926420/seronegative-paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-thymoma
#11
Jaime Toro, David Cuellar-Giraldo, Alejandra Duque, Karla Minota, Jorge Patiño, Manuel García
Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune syndrome characterized by the acute or subacute onset of encephalopathy, memory loss, confusion, temporal lobe seizures, and behavioral and mood changes. Although most patients with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis have antineuronal antibodies, advances in the field now permit the diagnosis without autoantibody test results. In this case illustrating the new diagnostic criteria, we report a 70-year-old woman who was brought to the emergency room after the acute onset of cognitive impairment, altered mental status, and choreoathetoid movements...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922041/garment-therapy-does-not-improve-function-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#12
Hannah Wells, Jodie Marquez, Luke Wakely
AIMS: To conduct a systematic review asking, does garment therapy improve motor function in children with cerebral palsy? METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to review the literature. Inclusion criteria involved the wearing of therapy suits/garments in children with cerebral palsy. The primary outcome of interest was movement related function and secondary outcomes included impairment, participation, parental satisfaction and adverse outcomes of garment wear...
September 18, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920003/cd226-natural-killer-cells-fail-to-establish-stable-contacts-with-cancer-cells-and-show-impaired-control-of-tumor-metastasis-in-vivo
#13
Ji Sung Kim, Bo Ram Shin, Hong Kyung Lee, Jae Hee Lee, Ki Hun Kim, Jeong Eun Choi, A Young Ji, Jin Tae Hong, Youngsoo Kim, Sang-Bae Han
CD226 is an activating receptor expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, CD8(+) T cells, and other immune cells. Upon binding to its ligands expressed on target cells, CD226 activates intracellular signaling that triggers cytokine production and degranulation in NK cells. However, the role of CD226 in contact dynamics between NK and cancer cells has remained unclear. Our time-lapse images showed that individual wild-type CD226(+) NK cells contacted B16F10 melanoma cells for 23.7 min, but Cd226(-/-) NK cells only for 12...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919975/mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-distinct-clinical-entity
#14
REVIEW
Ming-Ching Wen, Ling Ling Chan, Louis C S Tan, Eng King Tan
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI) is a common clinical condition. Understanding its pathology and clinical features is important for early intervention before the onset of dementia. In the past, variable definitions and differences in neuropsychological batteries generated divergent results of the affected cognitive patterns. MAIN BODY: The introduction of PD-MCI criteria by the Movement Disorders Society (MDS) Task Force provides a more uniform system for defining and measuring PD-MCI and may improve the validity of future research...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917555/incidence-and-significance-of-adhesions-encountered-during-epicardial-mapping-and-ablation-of-ventricular-tachycardia-in-patients-with-no-history-of-prior-cardiac-surgery-or-pericarditis
#15
Anthony Li, Eric Buch, Noel G Boyle, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jason S Bradfield
BACKGROUND: Pericardial adhesions can prevent epicardial access and restrict catheter movement during mapping and ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) . The incidence of adhesions in patients without prior cardiac surgery or clinically evident pericarditis is not known. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of pericardial adhesions in patients without prior cardiac surgery or pericarditis and explore their impact. METHODS: A retrospective search of our ablation database containing patients who underwent epicardial ablation for VT was undertaken...
September 13, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917097/development-of-motor-imagery-and-anticipatory-action-planning-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-longitudinal-approach
#16
Imke L J Adams, Jessica M Lust, Peter H Wilson, Bert Steenbergen
Children with impaired motor coordination (or Development Coordination Disorder - DCD) have difficulty with the predictive control of movements, evidenced by cross-sectional studies that show impaired motor imagery and action planning abilities. What remains unclear is whether this deficit in predictive control reflects immaturity of the motor system (a developmental delay) or some deviation from normal development (a disorder). To advance this discussion the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the development of motor imagery and action planning in children with DCD...
September 13, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916260/primary-facial-reanimation-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Axel Sahovaler, David Yeh, John Yoo
Facial Paralysis (FP) profoundly impairs the life of individuals, both functionally and psychosocially. Surgical approaches to treat this condition are myriad, but the ultimate goal is to restore symmetry and movement. Ablative surgery for tumors of the head and neck region are amongst the most common etiologies causing FP and this group of patients represents unique challenges. Surgical defects may have multiple competing reconstructive requirements and addressing the FP must be considered in this context...
September 12, 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910683/the-coordination-of-shoulder-girdle-muscles-during-repetitive-arm-movements-at-either-slow-or-fast-pace-among-women-with-or-without-neck-shoulder-pain
#18
Leticia Bergamin Januario, Ana Beatriz Oliveira, Marina Machado Cid, Pascal Madeleine, Afshin Samani
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the coordination of the shoulder girdle muscles among subjects with or without neck-shoulder pain performing repetitive arm movement at either a slow or fast pace. METHODS: Thirty female adults were allocated to one of two groups-healthy controls or cases with neck-shoulder pain. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals from the clavicular, acromial, middle and lower trapezius portions and the serratus anterior muscles were recorded during a task performed for 20min at a slow pace and 20min at a fast pace...
September 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900413/impaired-cerebellum-to-primary-motor-cortex-associative-plasticity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#19
Ming-Kuei Lu, Jui-Cheng Chen, Chun-Ming Chen, Jeng-Ren Duann, Ulf Ziemann, Chon-Haw Tsai
BACKGROUND: Functional perturbation of the cerebellum (CB)-motor cortex (M1) interactions may underlie pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Recently, M1 motor excitability can be bidirectionally modulated in young subjects by corticocortical paired associative stimulation (PAS) on CB and contralateral M1 with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), probably through the cerebello-dentato-thalamo-cortical (CDTC) circuit...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900032/nucleolar-and-spindle-associated-protein-1-nusap1-interacts-with-a-sumo-e3-ligase-complex-during-chromosome-segregation
#20
Christine A Mills, Aussie Suzuki, Anthony Arceci, Jin Yao Mo, Alex Duncan, Edward D Salmon, Michael J Emanuele
The mitotic spindle is composed of dynamic microtubules and associated proteins that together direct chromosome movement during mitosis. The spindle plays a vital role in accurate chromosome segregation fidelity and is a therapeutic target in cancer. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms by which many spindle associated proteins function remains unknown. The Nucleolar and Spindle Associated Protein NUSAP1 is a microtubule binding protein implicated in spindle stability and chromosome segregation. We show here that NUSAP1 localizes to dynamic spindle microtubules in a unique chromosome-centric pattern, in the vicinity of overlapping microtubules, during metaphase and anaphase of mitosis...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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