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Movement control

Shaogui Wu, Jiayang Wang, Xuemei Pu, Laicai Li, Quan Li
RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the primary machine responsible for transcription. Its ability to distinguish between correct (cognate) and incorrect (noncognate) nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) is important for fidelity control in transcription. In this work, we investigated the substrate selection mechanism of T7 RNAP from the perspective of energetics. The dissociation free energies were determined for matched and unmatched base pairs in the preinsertion complex using the umbrella sampling method. A clear hydrogen-bond-rupture peak is observed in the potential of mean force curve for a matched base pair, whereas no such peaks are present in the position of mean force profiles for unmatched ones...
April 24, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Bettina Kruck, Elizabeth A Zimmermann, Sophie Damerow, Christine Figge, Catherine Julien, Dag Wulstein, Tobias Thiele, Madge Martin, Reggie Hamdy, Marie K Reumann, Georg N Duda, Sara Checa, Bettina M Willie
During bone healing, tissue formation processes are governed by mechanical strain. Sost/sclerostin, a key Wnt signaling inhibitor and mechano-sensitive pathway, is downregulated in response to mechanical loading. Sclerostin neutralizing antibody (SclAb) increases bone formation. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether sclerostin inhibition can rescue bone healing in situations of mechanical instability, which otherwise delay healing. We investigated SclAb's influence on tissue formation in a mouse femoral osteotomy, stabilized with Rigid or Semi-rigid external fixation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Taeko Yamamoto, Masato Kaku, Hiromi Sumi, Yuka Yashima, Jin Izumino, Kotaro Tanimoto
Studies have revealed that severe apical root resorption during tooth movement is caused by the noninfective inflammatory reaction of apical root tissues. We hypothesized that loxoprofen can suppress apical root resorption during tooth movement. Cyclic tensile force (CTF) of 10 kPa was applied to the human pulp cells for 48 hours by the Flexcell Strain Unit. Loxoprofen (10 and 100 μM) was added to the culture cells, and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were examined...
2018: PloS One
Valeria Prada, Laura Mori, Susanna Accogli, Matteo Rivarola, Sara Schizzi, Mernhaz Hamedani, Angelo Schenone
The occurrence of the overwork weakness (OW) in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease has been debated for long time. Especially at the hands level, it is still unclear as to whether OW occurs. Contrasting results may relate to the different muscles groups evaluated and the instruments used. We concentrated to the upper limbs (UL). We recruited 120 subjects, 60 CMT patients and 60 normal controls and evaluated the strength of the tripod pinch and of the hand-grip with a dynamometer, the opposition ability with the Thumb Opposition Test (TOT) and applied an innovative instrumental testing of hand function using the Sensor Engineered Glove Test (SEGT), which previously demonstrated its sensitiveness to measure severity of hands dysfunction in CMT patients...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Walther Gotsmy, Paolo Lombardo, Christian Jackowski, Eva Brencicova, Wolf-Dieter Zech
BACKGROUND: In forensic autopsy, the analysis of stomach contents is important when investigating drowning cases. Three-layering of stomach contents may be interpreted as a diagnostic hint to drowning due to swallowing of larger amounts of water or other drowning media. The authors experienced frequent discrepancies of numbers of stomach content layering in drowning cases between post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy in forensic casework. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare layering of stomach contents in drowning cases between PMCT and forensic autopsy...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Junsung Woo, Joo Ok Min, Dae-Si Kang, Yoo Sung Kim, Guk Hwa Jung, Hyun Jung Park, Sunpil Kim, Heeyoung An, Jea Known, Jeongyeon Kim, Insop Shim, Hyung-Gun Kim, C Justin Lee, Bo-Eun Yoon
Tonic inhibition in the brain is mediated through an activation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors by the tonically released GABA, resulting in a persistent GABAergic inhibitory action. It is one of the key regulators for neuronal excitability, exerting a powerful action on excitation/inhibition balance. We have previously reported that astrocytic GABA, synthesized by monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), mediates tonic inhibition via GABA-permeable bestrophin 1 (Best1) channel in the cerebellum. However, the role of astrocytic GABA in regulating neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and cerebellar brain function has remained elusive...
April 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Tabea S Send, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
OBJECTIVES: Several approaches, ranging from self-ratings of symptoms and impairments to objective neuropsychological testing, have been utilized during clinical evaluation in order to assess symptom and performance validity of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Motor activity has not been considered yet in this context, which is surprising given that hyperactivity is a prominent characteristic of ADHD. Hence, the goal of the present study was to explore the incremental value of motor activity when assessing the credibility of individuals with adult ADHD at clinical evaluation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Y Q Zhang, W Zhao, K T Chu, Y Zhao, L P Chen, Y Yu, X J Han
Objective: To compare the neonatal and maternal outcomes between the patients with umbilical cord around the neck (≥3 loops) and with (1 or 2 loops). Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 160 cases with multiple umbilical cord around the neck (≥3 loops) in the Department of Obstetrics, Women's Hospital School of Medicine Zhejiang University between January 2014 and April 2017.For each case, two control women who gave birth at the same day with vertex position and singletons were selected...
April 17, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Scott J Adams, Brent E Burbridge, Andreea Badea, Nadine Kanigan, Luis Bustamante, Paul Babyn, Ivar Mendez
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of a telerobotic approach to remotely perform prenatal sonographic examinations. METHODS: Thirty participants were prospectively recruited. Participants underwent a limited examination (assessing biometry, placental location, and amniotic fluid; n = 20) or a detailed examination (biometry, placental location, amniotic fluid, and fetal anatomic survey; n = 10) performed with a conventional ultrasound system. This examination was followed by an equivalent examination performed with a telerobotic ultrasound system, which enabled sonographers to remotely control all ultrasound settings and fine movements of the ultrasound transducer from a distance...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Jian Zhuang, Yangbohan Jiao, Zeqing Li, Jinxin Lang, Fei Li
Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM), one kind of scanning probe microscopy technique, featuring the advantage of non-contact imaging of sample surfaces in three dimensions with high resolution, has been widely applied in characterizations of sample topography, especially for soft materials. However, the time consuming imaging process of SICM restricts its further applications, such as in characterization of dynamic change of sample surface. In this work, a fast control mode of SICM, named as a continuous control mode, has been developed...
April 17, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Christopher M Prosser, Bryan M Hedgpeth
Extracting and identifying genetic material from environmental media (i.e. water and soil) presents a unique opportunity for researchers to assess biotic diversity and ecosystem health with increased speed and decreased cost as compared to traditional methods (e.g. trapping). The heterogeneity of soil mineralogy, spatial and temporal variations however present unique challenges to sampling and interpreting results. Specifically, fate/transport of genetic material in the terrestrial environment represents a substantial data gap...
2018: PloS One
Aled Davies
The growth of occupational pensions in the post-war era transformed the pattern of capital ownership in Britain, as workers' collective retirement savings purchased a substantial share of the national economy. This article examines the response of the Labour and Conservative parties to this significant material change, and considers how it shaped their respective politics of ownership at the end of the post-war settlement. It demonstrates that Labour and the trade union movement recognized occupational pension funds as a new form of social ownership but had to reconcile their desire to give pension scheme-members direct control over their investments with a broader belief that the funds needed be used for a state-coordinated revitalization of the industrial economy...
April 23, 2018: 20 Century British History
Elisabetta Ambron, Nicoletta Beschin, Chiara Cerrone, Sergio Della Sala
Objective: This study investigates closing-in behavior (CIB), a phenomenon observed in graphic copying tasks when responses encroach upon or overlap the model. The behavior is most common amongst individuals with dementia and amongst pre-school children. We explored the relationship between CIB and the 'distractor effect' in reaching, whereby salient visual stimuli can influence the spatial trajectory of the reach. Method: A group of individuals with overlap-CIB (n = 9), without CIB (n = 9) and healthy controls (HC; n = 6) underwent a task-irrelevant and a task-relevant distractors and the deviation of the movement trajectory towards the distractor location was measured in both tasks...
April 21, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Michelle F Huffaker, Michael Carchia, Bronwyn U Harris, William C Kethman, Todd E Murphy, Charlotte C D Sakarovitch, FeiFei Qin, David N Cornfield
RATIONALE: Asthma management depends on prompt identification of symptoms, which challenges both patients and providers. In asthma, a misapprehension of health between exacerbations can compromise compliance. Thus, there is a need for a tool that permits objective longitudinal monitoring without increasing the burden of patient compliance. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether changes in nocturnal physiology are associated with asthma symptoms in pediatric patients...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Rémi Castella, Lionel Arn, Estelle Dupuis, Martina F Callaghan, Bogdan Draganski, Antoine Lutti
PURPOSE: Head movements are a major source of MRI artefacts. Prospective motion correction techniques significantly improve data quality, but strong motion artefacts may remain in the data. We introduce a framework to suspend data acquisition during periods of head motion over a predefined threshold. METHODS: Data was acquired with prospective motion correction and an external optical tracking system. A predictor of motion impact was introduced that accounts for the amplitude of the signal acquired at the time of the motion...
April 24, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Nicholas Tam, Jon Torres-Unda, Cristina Granados, Jordan Santos-Concejero
BACKGROUND: Typical training programmes in elite race walkers involve high training volumes at low and moderate intensities, which have been reported to induce functional and structural adaptations at an anthropometric level. Since anthropometrical variables are closely related to movement efficiency and performance in endurance events, the aim of this study was to describe the anthropometric profile of world-class race walkers. METHODS: Twenty-nine world-class race walkers (21 men & 8 women) participated in this study...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
A C Kinsley, K VanderWaal, M E Craft, R B Morrison, A M Perez
Compartmental models have often been used to test the effectiveness and efficiency of alternative control strategies to mitigate the spread of infectious animal diseases. A fundamental principle of epidemiological modelling is that models should start as simple as possible and become as complex as needed. The simplest version of a compartmental model assumes that the population is closed, void of births and deaths and that this closed population mixes homogeneously, meaning that each infected individual has an equal probability of coming into contact with each susceptible individual in the population...
April 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Alexander C Engel, Carolyn R Broderick, Nancy van Doorn, Louise L Hardy, Belinda J Parmenter
BACKGROUND: Physical activity provides many health benefits, yet few children meet the physical activity recommendations. In school-age children, low proficiency in fundamental movement skills (FMS) is associated with low physical activity (PA). It is unknown if the same relationship exists in pre-schoolers (aged 3-5 years). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this review were to firstly evaluate interventions for improving FMS and PA levels in children aged 3-5 years and 5-12 years, and secondly to determine, where possible, if there is a similar relationship between change in FMS and change in PA across both age groups...
April 21, 2018: Sports Medicine
Nathan D Schilaty, Nathaniel A Bates, Christopher V Nagelli, Aaron J Krych, Timothy E Hewett
Background: Female patients sustain noncontact knee ligament injuries at a greater rate compared with their male counterparts. The cause of these differences in the injury rate and the movements that load the ligaments until failure are still under dispute in the literature. Purpose/Hypotheses: This study was designed to determine differences in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) strains between male and female cadaveric specimens during a simulated athletic task...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Jack A Martin, Scott C E Brandon, Emily M Keuler, James R Hermus, Alexander C Ehlers, Daniel J Segalman, Matthew S Allen, Darryl G Thelen
Muscles are the actuators that drive human movement. However, despite many decades of work, we still cannot readily assess the forces that muscles transmit during human movement. Direct measurements of muscle-tendon loads are invasive and modeling approaches require many assumptions. Here, we introduce a non-invasive approach to assess tendon loads by tracking vibrational behavior. We first show that the speed of shear wave propagation in tendon increases with the square root of axial stress. We then introduce a remarkably simple shear wave tensiometer that uses micron-scale taps and skin-mounted accelerometers to track tendon wave speeds in vivo...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
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