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Movement control

Brett R Aiello, Adam R Hardy, Mark W Westneat, Melina E Hale
Mechanosensation is a universal feature of animals that is essential for behavior, allowing detection of animals' own body movement and position as well as physical features of the environment. Fish fins provide a key vertebrate system for studying mechanosensation. The extraordinary morphological and behavioral diversity that exists across fish species provide rich opportunities for comparative mechanosensory studies in fins. The fins of fishes have been found to function as proprioceptors, by providing feedback on fin ray position and movement, and as tactile sensors, by encoding pressures applied to the fin surface...
June 18, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Alli Gokeler, Romain Seil, Gino Kerkhoffs, Evert Verhagen
Efficacy studies have demonstrated decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates for athletes participating in injury prevention programs. Typically, ACL injury prevention programs entail a combination of plyometrics, strength training, agility and balance exercises. Unfortunately, improvements of movement patterns are not sustained over time. The reason may be related to the type of instructions given during training. Encouraging athletes to consciously control knee movements during exercises may not be optimal for the acquisition of complex motor skills as needed in complex sports environments...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Valentina Cazzato, S Makris, J C Flavell, Carmelo Mario Vicario
Social group categorization has been mainly studied in relation to ownership manipulations involving highly-salient multisensory cues. Here, we propose a novel paradigm that can implicitly activate the embodiment process in the presence of group affiliation information, whilst participants complete a task irrelevant to social categorization. Ethnically White participants watched videos of White- and Black-skinned models writing a proverb. The writing was interrupted 7, 4 or 1 s before completion. Participants were tasked with estimating the residual duration following interruption...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Jason Lanoue, Evangelos D Leonardos, Bernard Grodzinski
Translocation of assimilates is a fundamental process involving carbon and water balance affecting source/sink relationships. Diurnal patterns of CO2 exchange, translocation (carbon export), and transpiration of an intact tomato source leaf were determined during 14 CO2 steady-state labeling under different wavelengths at three pre-set photosynthetic rates. Daily patterns showed that photosynthesis and export were supported by all wavelengths of light tested including orange and green. Export in the light, under all wavelengths was always higher than that at night...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jonathan B Dingwell, Nicole K Bohnsack-McLagan, Joseph P Cusumano
As humans walk or run, external (environmental) and internal (physiological) disturbances induce variability. How humans regulate this variability from stride-to-stride can be critical to maintaining balance. One cannot infer what is "controlled" based on analyses of variability alone. Assessing control requires quantifying how deviations are corrected across consecutive movements. Here, we assessed walking and running, each at two speeds. We hypothesized differences in speed would drive changes in variability, while adopting different gaits would drive changes in how people regulated stepping...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Tadeja Forjanič, Damijan Miklavčič
BACKGROUND: The efficiency of gene electrotransfer, an electroporation-based method for delivery of pDNA into target tissues, depends on several processes. The method relies on application of electric pulses with appropriate amplitude and pulse duration. A careful choice of electric pulse parameters is required to obtain the appropriate electric field distribution, which not only controls the electroporated volume, but also affects the movement of pDNA. We used numerical modeling to assess the influence of different types of electrodes and pulse parameters on reversibly electroporated volume and on the extent of pDNA-membrane interaction, which is necessary for successful gene electrotransfer...
June 18, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Helen Richmond, Clare Lait, Cynthia Srikesavan, Esther Williamson, Jane Moser, Meredith Newman, Lauren Betteley, Beth Fordham, Sophie Rees, Sarah E Lamb, Julie Bruce
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal shoulder problems are common after breast cancer treatment. There is some evidence to suggest that early postoperative exercise is safe and may improve shoulder function. We describe the development and delivery of a complex intervention for evaluation within a randomised controlled trial (RCT), designed to target prevention of musculoskeletal shoulder problems after breast cancer surgery (The Prevention of Shoulder Problems Trial; PROSPER). METHODS: A pragmatic, multicentre RCT to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of best practice usual care versus a physiotherapy-led exercise and behavioural support intervention in women at high risk of shoulder problems after breast cancer treatment...
June 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Alessio Facchin, Janet H Bultitude, Giulia Mornati, Milena Peverelli, Roberta Daini
Prism adaptation (PA) is a technique that induces a temporary change of the alignment between different reference frames. This technique has been shown to reduce many signs of unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Two procedures of prism adaptation have been used. In concurrent exposure participants can see their arm and hand during the movement trajectory, and during terminal exposure, participants can see only the most distal few centimetres. Because the two exposures elicit different proportions of visual and proprioceptive realignment, they could present different rehabilitation efficacies...
June 18, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Harald Breivik, Tone Marte Ljosaa, Kristian Stengaard-Pedersen, Jan Persson, Hannu Aro, John Villumsen, Dorthe Tvinnemose
Objective Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) pain often have insufficient pain relief from non-opioid analgesics. The aim of this trial was to study efficacy and tolerability of a low dose 7-day buprenorphine transdermal delivery system, added to a NSAID or coxib regimen, in opioid-naïve patients with moderate to severe OA pain. Methods A 6 months randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study at 19 centres in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, in which OA patients (>40 years) with at least moderate radiographic OA changes and at least moderate pain in a hip and/or knee while on a NSAID or a coxib were randomised to a 7-day buprenorphine patch (n = 100) or an identical placebo patch (n = 99)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Gro Killi Haugstad, Unni Kirste, Siv Leganger, Elin Haakonsen, Tor S Haugstad
Introduction We have developed somatocognitive therapy as a hybrid of Mensendieck physiotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy. Womenwith chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and vulvodynia (chronic pain of the vulvae and vestibulum, VD) were recruited into two separate treatment protocols as described. Methods 60 patients with CPP were recruited from the Department of Gynaecology at the Oslo University Hospital into a randomized, controlled intervention study. The patients were randomized into three treatment groups, receiving (1) treatment as usual, (2) somatocognitive therapy, and (3) in addition receiving cognitive therapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jarkko Kalliomäki, Märta Segerdahl, Lynn Webster, Annika Reimfelt, Karin Huizar, Peter Annas, Rolf Karlsten, Hans Quiding
Aim To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of AZD1940, a novel peripherally acting cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonist, in patients undergoing third molar surgical removal. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients scheduled for surgical removal of an impacted lower third molar. Patients received a single oral dose of 800 μg AZD1940, 500 mg naproxen or placebo 1.5 h before surgery. The dose of 800 μg AZD1940 was selected based on earlier data from a single dose study in man, in which it was identified as the highest well tolerated dose...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
G Christoffersen, L Petrini, L Arendt-Nielsen
Background/aims Being able to modulate pain through visual input raises the possibility that visually distorting body size also will reduce pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether experimental cold/heat pain could be modulated through a visual illusion of an increased/decreased hand size and whether pain perception correlated with the perceived sense of control of movement. Methods 20 healthy right-handed volunteers were recruited. Hand sizes were modulated through an AR setting designed to act as a mirror...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
K V Andersen, L Nikolajsen, V Haraldsted, N T Andersen, C F Jepsen, K Soeballe
Background/aims Optimal pain treatment with minimal side-effects is essential for early mobilization and recovery in patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery. Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) with local anaesthetic might be effective and adjuncts such as ketorolac may provide additional effects on opioid requirements and pain. We tested the hypothesis that adding ketorolac significantly improves analgesia after total knee replacement surgery. Methods Sixty patients were enrolled in this prospective double-blinded study and allocated to either group R (placebo) or Group RK (ketorolac 120 mg)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Lone Knudsen, Gitte Laue Petersen, Kathrine Næsted Nørskov, Lene Vase, Nanna Finnerup, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Peter Svensson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A noxious stimulus does not necessarily cause pain. Nociceptive signals arising from a noxious stimulus are subject to modulation via endogenous inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms as they travel from the periphery to the dorsal horn or brainstem and on to higher brain sites. Research on the neural structures underlying endogenous pain modulation has largely been restricted to animal research due to the invasiveness of such studies (e.g., spinal cord transection, brain lesioning, brain site stimulation)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Gro Killi Haugstad, Unni Kirste, Siv Leganger, Elin Haakonsen, Tor S Haugstad
Historic background and development of our somatocognitive approach Mensendieck physiotherapy of the Oslo School is a tradition of physiotherapy founded by the American physician Bess Mensendieck, a contemporary and fellow student of Sigmund Freud at the Paris School of Neurology. It builds on the principles of functional anatomy and the theories of motor learning. We have further developed the theory and practice from this physiotherapy tradition, challenged by the enormous load of patients with longstanding, incapacitating pain on western health care systems, by seeking to incorporate inspirational ideas from body oriented dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Hong Wei, Jin-Lu Huang, Bin Hao, Yan-Chao Wang, Gong Nian, Ai-Niu Ma, Xin-Yan Li, Yong-Xiang Wang, Antti Pertovaara
Background Sleep deprivation as well as peripheral neuropathy and cutaneous neurogenic inflammation has a facilitatory effect on pain perception. Here we studied whether oxidative stress-related mechanisms in the spinal cord that have been shown to contribute to pain facilitation in peripheral neuropathy and cutaneous neurogenic inflammation play a role in sleep deprivation-induced pain hypersensitivity Methods Flower pot method was used to induce rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REMSD) of 48 h duration in the rat that had a chronic intrathecal (i...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Gerhard H H Müller-Schwefe, Michael A Überall
Background and purpose Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has antinociceptive and muscle-relaxant properties. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy and safety of a single BoNT-A (Dysport®) treatment in myofascial back pain. Methods In this randomized, open-label, multicenter study, adults with myofascial lower back pain received Dysport® injections at four trigger points (60,80 or 120 units per injection point). Patients were followed for 12 weeks. The a priori primary endpoint was a pooled evaluation, at Week 6, of seven measures of efficacy, including pain intensity (patient diary), modified Pain Disability Index (PDI) score, use of interfering concomitant analgesics, and patient-rated global efficacy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Andrew R C Grigg, Ruben Kretzschmar, Robin S Gilli, Jan G Wiederhold
Environmental mercury (Hg) pollution is a matter of global concern. Mercury speciation controls its environmental behaviour, and stable isotope ratios can potentially trace Hg movement through environmental compartments. Here we investigated Hg in industrially contaminated soils and sediments (Visp, Valais, Switzerland) using concentration and stable isotope analysis (CV-MC-ICP-MS) of total digests, and a four-step sequential extraction procedure. The sequential extraction employed (1) water (labile Hg species), (2) NaOH or Na4 P2 O7 (organically-bound Hg), (3) hydroxylamine-HCl (Hg bound to Mn and Fe (oxyhydr)oxides), and (4) aqua regia (residual Hg pools)...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ben Serrien, Naaike Verhaeghe, Silke Verhaeghe, Bruno Tassignon, Jean-Pierre Baeyens
Hysteresis in the coordination of movement can be described in the language of coordination dynamics as an asymmetrical response of a system's order parameter with respect to opposite changes in a control parameter. For movement tasks involving a large number of active degrees-of-freedom, the order parameter can be modelled with a pattern recognition approach like Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). This study explored this method in a rope-skipping task, which involves the coordinated oscillation of several segments in the lower and upper limb and trunk and we compared the results to a classical order parameter like continuous relative phase...
June 15, 2018: Human Movement Science
Christopher T Richards, Laura B Porro
Spherical Linear Interpolation (SLERP) has long been used in computer animation to interpolate movements between two 3D orientations. We developed a forward kinematics (FK) approach using quaternions and SLERP to predict how frogs modulate jump kinematics between start posture and takeoff. Frog limb kinematics have been studied during various activities, yet the causal link between differences in joint kinematics and locomotor variation remains unknown. We varied 1) takeoff angle from 8 to 60 degrees; 2) turn angle from 0 to 18 degrees; and 3) initial body pitch from 0 to 70 degrees...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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