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Movement control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228409/short-term-effects-of-combined-high-intensity-strength-and-sprint-interval-training-on-anthropometric-characteristics-and-physical-performance-of-elite-team-handball-players
#1
Souhail Hermassi, Mohamed Souhail Chelly, Georg Fieseler, Thomas Bartels, Stephan Schulze, Karl-Stefan Delank, Roy J Shepard, René Schwesig
Muscular strength and speed are critical physical factors in determining the technical and tactical skills of elite team handball players. This study thus investigated the effect of high-intensity muscular strength and sprint interval training (SIT) on lower limb explosive performance and anthropometric characteristics in 22 male handball athletes aged 20.2 ± 0.1 years. A training group (TG, n = 12) and a control group (CG, n = 10) were followed over 8 weeks parallel to regular handball training...
December 2017: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228119/rostro-caudal-connectional-heterogeneity-of-the-dorsal-part-of-the-macaque-prefrontal-area-46
#2
Elena Borra, Carolina Giulia Ferroni, Marzio Gerbella, Valentina Giorgetti, Chiara Mangiaracina, Stefano Rozzi, Giuseppe Luppino
Based on neural tracer injections we found evidence for 3 connectionally distinct sectors of the dorsal part of the macaque prefrontal area 46 (46d), located at different rostro-caudal levels. Specifically, a rostral sector displayed an almost exclusive and extensive intraprefrontal connectivity and extraprefrontal connections limited to superior temporal areas and the caudal cingulate area 31. Conversely, both a middle and a caudal sector were characterized by robust, topographically organized connections with parietal and frontal sensorimotor areas...
December 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227866/partnerships-for-active-children-in-elementary-schools-paces-first-year-process-evaluation
#3
Cate A Egan, Collin Webster, R Glenn Weaver, Ali Brian, David Stodden, Laura Russ, Danielle Nesbitt, Spyridoula Vazou
Movement integration (MI) is a strategy within comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP). School-university partnerships are recommended to leverage teachers' capacity to use MI. A mixed method process evaluation was conducted of the first year of implementing Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES). Classroom teachers (N=12) from four schools participated. Data were collected in Fall 2014 (baseline) and Spring 2015 (∼ four months of intervention) using the System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions and semi-structured interviews...
December 6, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227175/effects-of-28-day-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-hn019-supplementation-on-colonic-transit-time-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-adults-with-functional-constipation-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-and-dose-ranging-trial
#4
Alvin Ibarra, Mathilde Latreille-Barbier, Yves Donazzolo, Xavier Pelletier, Arthur C Ouwehand
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 (HN019) ameliorates chronic idiopathic constipation. Our aim was to determine the efficacy and safety of 28-day supplementation with 1 × 109 or 1 × 1010 CFU of HN019/day for constipation. A total of 228 adults who were diagnosed with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria were randomized in a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Colonic transit time (CTT), the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes that were measured using inventories-patient assessment of constipation symptoms (PAC-SYM) and quality of life (PAC-QoL), bowel function index (BFI), bowel movement frequency (BMF), stool consistency, degree of straining, bowel emptying, bloating, and pain severity-were assessed...
December 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226728/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-riluzole-for-neurodegenerative-movement-disorders-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#5
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
Neurodegenerative movement disorders mainly include Parkinson's disease, atypical parkinsonisms, Huntington disease, and hereditary ataxia. Riluzole is the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The neuroprotective effects of riluzole have been observed in experimental models of neurodegenerative movement disorders. In this paper, we aimed to systematically analyze the efficacy and safety of riluzole for patients with neurodegenerative movement disorder...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226709/enhanced-brain-network-activity-in-complex-movement-rhythms-a-simultaneous-fmri-eeg-study
#6
Bhim Mani Adhikari, Charles M Epstein, Mukesh Dhamala
Generating movement rhythms is known to involve a network of distributed brain regions associated with motor planning, control, execution, and perception of timing for the repertoire of motor actions. What brain areas are bound in the network and how the network activity is modulated by rhythmic complexity have not been completely explored. To contribute to answering these questions, we designed a study in which nine healthy participants performed simple to complex rhythmic finger movement tasks while undergoing simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography (fMRI-EEG) recordings of their brain activity during the tasks and rest...
December 10, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226195/consequences-of-inconsistency-in-air-force-tobacco-control-policy
#7
Elizabeth A Lando-King, Ruth E Malone, Christopher K Haddock, Walker S Carlos Poston, Harry A Lando, Sara A Jahnke, Nita Hawk, Elizabeth A Smith
Objectives: Although the United States Air Force (USAF) has been a leader in efforts to reduce tobacco use among service members, tobacco continues to be a problem and initiatives to decrease tobacco use further require buy-in from leadership. We explored line leaderships' perspectives on tobacco. Methods: A diverse group of 10 senior commissioned and 10 non-commissioned personnel were interviewed. Results: Respondents reported substantial changes in the culture of tobacco use during their years of service, from near ubiquity to restricted use areas...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225789/taking-control-reorganization-of-the-host-cytoskeleton-by-chlamydia
#8
REVIEW
Jordan Wesolowski, Fabienne Paumet
Both actin and microtubules are major cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells that participate in many cellular processes, including cell division and motility, vesicle and organelle movement, and the maintenance of cell shape. Inside its host cell, the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates the cytoskeleton to promote its survival and enhance its pathogenicity. In particular, Chlamydia induces the drastic rearrangement of both actin and microtubules, which is vital for its entry, inclusion structure and development, and host cell exit...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225637/incidence-of-dentinal-crack-after-root-canal-preparation-by-protaper-universal-neolix-and-safesider-systems
#9
Azadeh Harandi, Sina Mirzaeerad, Mahgol Mehrabani, Elham Mahmoudi, Ali Bijani
Introduction: This study aimed to compare the incidence of dentinal crack formation by instrumentation with ProTaper Universal system (rotary, multi-file system), SafeSider (reciprocation movement, multi-file system) and Neolix (rotary, single-file system). Methods and Materials: In this in vitro study, 60 freshly extracted mandibular first molars were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15) and a control group containing unprepared teeth (n=15). Instrumentation in different groups was accomplished using either ProTaper, Neolix or SafeSider systems up to 25/0...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225569/elimination-of-left-right-reciprocal-coupling-in-the-adult-lamprey-spinal-cord-abolishes-the-generation-of-locomotor-activity
#10
J A Messina, Alison St Paul, Sarah Hargis, Wengora E Thompson, Andrew D McClellan
The contribution of left-right reciprocal coupling between spinal locomotor networks to the generation of locomotor activity was tested in adult lampreys. Muscle recordings were made from normal animals as well as from experimental animals with rostral midline (ML) spinal lesions (~13%→35% body length, BL), before and after spinal transections (T) at 35% BL. Importantly, in the present study actual locomotor movements and muscle burst activity, as well as other motor activity, were initiated in whole animals by descending brain-spinal pathways in response to sensory stimulation of the anterior head...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224725/ror%C3%AE-spinal-interneurons-gate-sensory-transmission-during-locomotion-to-secure-a-fluid-walking-gait
#11
Stephanie C Koch, Marta Garcia Del Barrio, Antoine Dalet, Graziana Gatto, Thomas Günther, Jingming Zhang, Barbara Seidler, Dieter Saur, Roland Schüle, Martyn Goulding
Animals depend on sensory feedback from mechanosensory afferents for the dynamic control of movement. This sensory feedback needs to be selectively modulated in a task- and context-dependent manner. Here, we show that inhibitory interneurons (INs) expressing the RORβ orphan nuclear receptor gate sensory feedback to the spinal motor system during walking and are required for the production of a fluid locomotor rhythm. Genetic manipulations that abrogate inhibitory RORβ IN function result in an ataxic gait characterized by exaggerated flexion movements and marked alterations to the step cycle...
December 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224723/neural-basis-of-cognitive-control-over-movement-inhibition-human-fmri-and-primate-electrophysiology-evidence
#12
Kitty Z Xu, Brian A Anderson, Erik E Emeric, Anthony W Sali, Veit Stuphorn, Steven Yantis, Susan M Courtney
Executive control involves the ability to flexibly inhibit or change an action when it is contextually inappropriate. Using the complimentary techniques of human fMRI and monkey electrophysiology in a context-dependent stop signal task, we found a functional double dissociation between the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) and the bi-lateral frontal eye field (FEF). Different regions of rVLPFC were associated with context-based signal meaning versus intention to inhibit a response, while FEF activity corresponded to success or failure of the response inhibition regardless of the stimulus response mapping or the context...
December 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224355/structural-features-and-domain-movements-controlling-substrate-binding-and-cofactor-specificity-in-class-ii-hmg-coa-reductase
#13
Bradley R Miller, Yan Kung
The key mevalonate pathway enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR) uses the cofactor NAD(P)H to reduce HMG-CoA to mevalonate in the production of countless metabolites and natural products. Although HMGR inhibition by statin drugs is well understood, several mechanistic details of HMGR catalysis remain unresolved, and the structural basis for the wide range in cofactor specificity for either NADH or NADPH among HMGRs from different organisms is also unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of HMGR from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpHMGR) alongside kinetic data on the enzyme's cofactor preferences...
December 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223575/a-comparison-between-inhalational-desflurane-and-total-intravenous-anaesthesia-propofol-and-dexmedetomidine-in-improving-postoperative-recovery-for-morbidly-obese-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-double-blinded-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Abd-Elazeem Elbakry, Wesam-Eldin Sultan, Ezzeldin Ibrahim
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is commonly performed under total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) or balanced anaesthesia using an intravenous and inhalation agent. It is still unclear which anaesthesia regimen is better for this group of patients. The present study has been conducted to compare the use of the inhalation anaesthesia technique using desflurane with the TIVA technique, using propofol and dexmedetomidine. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, double-blinded study...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223464/data-journeys-identifying-social-and-technical-barriers-to-data-movement-in-large-complex-organisations
#15
Iliada Eleftheriou, Suzanne M Embury, Rebecca Moden, Peter Dobinson, Andrew Brass
Managers in complex organisations often have to make decisions on whether new software developments are worth undertaking or not. Such decisions are hard to make, especially at an enterprise level. Both costs and risks are regularly underestimated, despite the existence of a plethora of software and systems engineering methodologies aimed at predicting and controlling them. Our objective is to help managers and stakeholders of large, complex organisations (like the National Health Service in the UK) make better informed decisions on the costs and risks of planned new software systems that will reuse or extend their existing information infrastructure...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222560/masseteric-nerve-transfer-for-facial-nerve-paralysis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Alexander W Murphey, William B Clinkscales, Samuel L Oyer
Importance: A review of the role of masseteric nerve transfer is needed to guide its use in facial reanimation. Objective: To systematically review the available literature, and, when applicable, analyze the combined outcomes of masseteric nerve transfer to better define its role in reanimation and to guide further research. Data Sources: Two independent researchers conducted the review using PubMed-NCBI and Scopus literature databases for studies on masseteric nerve transfer for facial nerve paralysis...
December 7, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221774/sleep-dependent-motor-sequence-memory-consolidation-in-individuals-with-periodic-limb-movements
#17
Valya Sergeeva, Jeremy Viczko, Laura B Ray, Adrian M Owen, Stuart M Fogel
Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during sleep increase with age and are associated with striatal neurodegeneration and dopamine deficiency. Limb movements are often associated with disruptions to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Motor skill memory consolidation recruits the striatum, and learning-dependent striatal activation is associated with NREM sleep. Therefore, we investigated whether de novo individuals who significantly experience elevated levels of PLMs but have not been formally diagnosed with periodic limb movement disorder had learning and sleep-related memory deficits and whether these deficits were related to sleep quality and symptom severity...
December 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220541/yoga-for-stroke-rehabilitation
#18
REVIEW
Maggie Lawrence, Francisco T Celestino Junior, Hemilianna Hs Matozinho, Lindsay Govan, Jo Booth, Jane Beecher
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major health issue and cause of long-term disability and has a major emotional and socioeconomic impact. There is a need to explore options for long-term sustainable interventions that support stroke survivors to engage in meaningful activities to address life challenges after stroke. Rehabilitation focuses on recovery of function and cognition to the maximum level achievable, and may include a wide range of complementary strategies including yoga.Yoga is a mind-body practice that originated in India, and which has become increasingly widespread in the Western world...
December 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220402/bodily-motion-fluctuation-improves-reaching-success-rate-in-a-neurophysical-agent-via-geometric-stochastic-resonance
#19
Shogo Yonekura, Yasuo Kuniyoshi
Organisms generate a variety of noise types, including neural noise, sensory noise, and noise resulting from fluctuations associated with movement. Sensory and neural noises are known to induce stochastic resonance (SR), which improves information transfer to the subjects control systems, including the brain. As a consequence, sensory and neural noise provide behavioral benefits, such as stabilization of posture and enhancement of feeding efficiency. In contrast, the benefits of fluctuations in the movements of a biological system remain largely unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220325/direction-modulation-of-muscle-synergies-in-a-hand-reaching-task
#20
Sharon Israely, Gerry Leisman, Chay Machluf, Tal Shnitzer, Eli Carmeli
Functional tasks of the upper extremity can be executed by a variety of muscular patterns, independent of the direction, speed and load of the task. This large number of degrees of freedom imposes a significant control burden on the CNS. Previous studies suggested that the human cortex synchronizes a discrete number of neural functional units within the brainstem and spinal cord, i.e. muscle synergies, by linearly combining them to execute a great repertoire of movements. Further exploring this control mechanism, we aim to study whether a single set of muscle synergies might be generalized to express movements in different directions...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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