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Movement control

Maria Gogou, Katerina Haidopoulou, Maria Eboriadou, Evangelos Pavlou
Background The aim of this study is to investigate through polysomnography sleep quality in children with rolandic epilepsy and compare sleep variables between these children and healthy controls. Methods Our study population included 15 children with rolandic epilepsy and 27 healthy children who underwent overnight polysomnography. Parameters about sleep architecture and sleep respiratory events were recorded and analyzed. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results Patients and controls did not differ in basic epidemiological traits...
October 25, 2016: Neuropediatrics
Sten Grillner, Brita Robertson
The lamprey belongs to the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates that diverged from the mammalian evolutionary line 560 million years ago. A comparison between the lamprey and mammalian basal ganglia establishes a detailed similarity regarding its input from cortex/pallium and thalamus, as well as its intrinsic organisation and projections of the output nuclei. This means that the basal ganglia circuits now present in rodents and primates most likely had evolved already at the dawn of vertebrate evolution...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Eleonora Fiorenzato, Luca Weis, Klaus Seppi, Marco Onofrj, Pietro Cortelli, Stefano Zanigni, Caterina Tonon, Horacio Kaufmann, Timothy Michael Shepherd, Werner Poewe, Florian Krismer, Gregor Wenning, Angelo Antonini, Roberta Biundo
Current consensus diagnostic criteria for multiple system atrophy (MSA) consider dementia a non-supporting feature, although cognitive impairment and even frank dementia are reported in clinical practice. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a commonly used global cognitive scale, and in a previous study, we established an MSA-specific screening cut-off score <27 to identify cognitive impairment. Finally, MSA neuroimaging findings suggest the presence of structural alterations in patients with cognitive deficits, although the extent of the anatomical changes is unclear...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Christoph Justen, Cornelia Herbert
So far, neurophysiological studies have investigated implicit and explicit self-related processing particularly for self-related stimuli such as the own face or name. The present study extends previous research to the implicit processing of self-related movement sounds and explores their spatio-temporal dynamics. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed while participants (N = 12 healthy subjects) listened passively to previously recorded self- and other-related finger snapping sounds, presented either as deviants or standards during an oddball paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Michelle White, Kirsten Meenan, Tirth Patel, Aaron Jaworek, Robert T Sataloff
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the value of comprehensive laboratory evaluation in patients with vocal fold paralysis or paresis. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective chart review. METHODS: Records of 231 patients with vocal fold paralysis or paresis were reviewed to determine whether there is a significant increase in the number of abnormal test results compared with rates of abnormal results for these tests in the general population and whether testing resulted in clinically important diagnosis...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Andrew J Tatem, Peng Jia, Dariya Ordanovich, Michael Falkner, Zhuojie Huang, Rosalind Howes, Simon I Hay, Peter W Gething, David L Smith
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a problem for many countries classified as malaria free through cases imported from endemic regions. Imported cases to non-endemic countries often result in delays in diagnosis, are expensive to treat, and can sometimes cause secondary local transmission. The movement of malaria in endemic countries has also contributed to the spread of drug resistance and threatens long-term eradication goals. Here we focused on quantifying the international movements of malaria to improve our understanding of these phenomena and facilitate the design of mitigation strategies...
October 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Ann Meulders, Michel Meulders, Iris Stouten, Jozef De Bie, Johan W S Vlaeyen
: Fear learning deficiencies might contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain disability. Fear is often not restricted to movements (conditioned stimulus=CS+) originally associated with pain (unconditioned stimulus=US), but expands to similar movements (generalization stimuli=GSs). This spreading of fear becomes dysfunctional when overgeneralization to safe stimuli occurs. More importantly, persistence of pain-related fear to GSs despite corrective feedback might even be more debilitating and maintain long-term chronic pain disability...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Zhong-Hua Chen, Guang Chen, Fei Dai, Yizhou Wang, Adrian Hills, Yong-Ling Ruan, Guoping Zhang, Peter J Franks, Eviatar Nevo, Michael R Blatt
Grasses began to diversify in the late Cretaceous Period and now dominate more than one third of global land area, including three-quarters of agricultural land. We hypothesize that their success is likely attributed to the evolution of highly responsive stomata capable of maximizing productivity in rapidly changing environments. Grass stomata harness the active turgor control mechanisms present in stomata of more ancient plant lineages, maximizing several morphological and developmental features to ensure rapid responses to environmental inputs...
October 21, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
T Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term benefits and risks associated with antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids and the related strategies: multiple and rescue courses. METHODS: The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. RESULTS: Antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids before 34 weeks of gestation is associated in the neonatal period with a significant reduction of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death (LE1), and in possibly childhood with a reduction of cerebral palsy and increased psychomotor development index and intact survival (LE3)...
October 21, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Cheryl Dreyfus, Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Shaw D Bamber, Stig Westerlund
Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO2...
October 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Sally Cudmore, Andrea Doolan, Seán Lacey, Fergus Shanahan
The study objective was to evaluate the safety and effects of Lepicol® (pysllium fibre, inulin and 5 probiotic strains) in adults with chronic, functional constipation during a 4 week intervention. 69 subjects with functional constipation according to Rome III criteria were randomised to receive Lepicol (n = 35) or placebo (n = 34) daily. Both groups had improved frequency of bowel movements, with an increase of 1.082 bowel movements in the Lepicol group over placebo after one week, and 1.079 more than placebo after week 2, but with no significant difference at week 4...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Jerrold S Petrofsky, Michael S Laymon, Faris S Alshammari, Haneul Lee
Petrofsky, JS, Laymon, MS, Alshammari, FS, and Lee, H. Use of low level of continuous heat as an adjunct to physical therapy improves knee pain recovery and the compliance for home exercise in patients with chronic knee pain: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3107-3115, 2016-This study examined if the use of low level continuous heat (LLCH) wraps at home between physical therapy sessions at a clinic resulted in better therapy outcomes in patients with chronic knee pain. Fifty individuals with chronic nonspecific knee pain was randomly allocated to 2 groups: the LLCH group and the placebo group...
November 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Duy Dao, S M A Salehizadeh, Yeon Noj, Jo Woon Chong, Chae Cho, Dave Mcmanus, Chad E Darling, Yitzhak Mendelson, Ki H Chon
Motion and noise artifacts (MNAs) impose limits on the usability of the photoplethysmogram (PPG), particularly in the context of ambulatory monitoring. MNAs can distort PPG, causing erroneous estimation of physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). In this study we present a novel approach, "TifMA," based on using the Time-frequency spectrum of PPG to first detect the MNA-corrupted data and next discard the non-usable part of the corrupted data. The term "non-usable" refers to segments of PPG data from which the HR signal cannot be recovered accurately...
October 21, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Gordon M Patterson
The American anti-mosquito movement grew out of the discovery of the role of mosquitoes in transferring pathogens and public concern about pest and nuisance mosquitoes in the late 1800s. In the 20th century, organized mosquito control in the United States passed through three eras: mechanical, chemical, and integrated mosquito control. Mosquito control in the 21st century faces the challenge of emerging pathogens, invasive mosquito species, and balancing concerns about the environment with effective control strategies...
October 19, 2016: Insects
Marta Franceschi, Lucia Seminara, Strahinja Dosen, Matjia Strbac, Maurizio Valle, Dario Farina
Myoelectric prostheses are successfully controlled using muscle electrical activity, thereby restoring lost motor functions. However, the somatosensory feedback from the prosthesis to the user is still missing. The sensory substitution methods described in the literature comprise mostly simple position and force sensors combined with discrete stimulation units. The present study describes a novel system for sophisticated electrotactile feedback integrating advanced distributed sensing (electronic skin) and stimulation (matrix electrodes)...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Diego L Guarin, Robert E Kearney
The mechanical properties of a joint are determined by the combination of intrinsic and reflex mechanisms. However, in some situations the reflex contributions are small so that intrinsic mechanisms play the dominant role in the control of posture and movement. The intrinsic mechanisms, characterized by the joint compliance, can be described well by a second order, linear model for small perturbations around an operating point defined by mean position and torque. However, the compliance parameters depend strongly on the operating point...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
R B Flores, Dsr Angrimani, B R Rui, M M Brito, R A Abreu, C I Vannucchi
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has a high incidence in older intact dogs. Due to the increased prostatic oxidative stress and hormonal imbalance of BPH, sperm damage can arise, such as sperm morphological alterations and DNA fragmentation. This study aimed to compare the reproductive potential of healthy dogs and those affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia. Ten dogs were assigned to two experimental groups: dogs without BPH (control; n = 5) and dogs diagnosed with BPH (n = 5), based on clinical signs and ultrasonographic findings...
October 24, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Lilla Bonanno, Silvia Marino, Pietro Ciolli, Margherita Russo, Daniele Bruschetta, Antonio Duca, Fabio Trimarchi, Angelo Quartarone, Giuseppe Anastasi
According to the classical view, the cerebellum has long been confined to motor control physiology; however, it has now become evident that it exerts several non-somatic features other than the coordination of movement and is engaged also in the regulation of cognition and emotion. In a previous diffusion-weighted imaging-constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography study, we demonstrated the existence of a direct cerebellum-hippocampal pathway, thus reinforcing the hypothesis of the cerebellar role in non-motor domains...
October 24, 2016: Cerebellum
Preeti Raghavan, Daniel Geller, Nina Guerrero, Viswanath Aluru, Joseph P Eimicke, Jeanne A Teresi, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Anna Palumbo, Alan Turry
: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It leads to a sudden and overwhelming disruption in one's physical body, and alters the stroke survivors' sense of self. Long-term recovery requires that bodily perception, social participation and sense of self are restored; this is challenging to achieve, particularly with a single intervention. However, rhythmic synchronization of movement to external stimuli facilitates sensorimotor coupling for movement recovery, enhances emotional engagement and has positive effects on interpersonal relationships...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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