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Michitaka Honda, Takashi Akiyoshi, Hisashi Noma, Atsushi Ogura, Toshiya Nagasaki, Tsuyoshi Konishi, Yoshiya Fujimoto, Satoshi Nagayama, Yosuke Fukunaga, Masashi Ueno
BACKGROUND: For patients with low-lying rectal cancer, the feasibility of anus-preserving surgery in combination with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) has been not well established from the perspective of patient-centered outcomes. METHODS: We investigated 278 patients with low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma from 2005 to 2012. We compared their symptoms and QOL scores of patients who underwent anus-preserving surgery with (n = 88) and without (n = 143) NACRT according to the Wexner scale, EORTC QLQ C-30, CR29, and the modified fecal incontinence quality life scale (mFIQL)...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
K L Ostrow, A L Bergner, J Blakeley, D G Evans, R Ferner, J M Friedman, G J Harris, J T Jordan, B Korf, S Langmead, G Leschziner, V Mautner, V L Merker, L Papi, S R Plotkin, J M Slopis, M J Smith, A Stemmer-Rachamimov, K Yohay, A J Belzberg
Schwannomatosis is a tumor suppressor syndrome that causes multiple tumors along peripheral nerves. Formal diagnostic criteria were first published in 2005. Variability in clinical presentation and a relative lack of awareness of the syndrome have contributed to difficulty recognizing affected individuals and accurately describing the natural history of the disorder. Many critical questions such as the mutations underlying schwannomatosis, genotype-phenotype correlations, inheritance patterns, pathologic diagnosis of schwannomatosis-associated schwannomas, tumor burden in schwannomatosis, the incidence of malignancy, and the effectiveness of current, or new treatments remain unanswered...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Shun Li, Long-Feng Lu, Scott E LaPatra, Dan-Dan Chen, Yong-An Zhang
The aquatic spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes significant mortality in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and TBK1 plays a crucial role in the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) system by phosphorylating its substrates to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and cellular antiviral responses. In this study, we report that zebrafish STAT6 is induced during SVCV infection and reduces IFNφ1 expression by suppressing TBK1 phosphorylation. A typical IFN stimulatory response element (ISRE) motif was found in the promoter region of zebrafish STAT6, and zebrafish STAT6 transcription was significantly upregulated in the early stages of virus infection...
October 12, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Han Lu, Li Xiang, Xin Cui, Jing Liu, Yinan Wang, Ravin Narain, Hongbo Zeng
In this study, poly(2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylamide) (PLAEMA) with various molecular weights (MW) were synthesized by conventional free-radical polymerization. The effect of molecular weight and polymer dosage on the settling rate of kaolin particles, the turbidity of supernatant, mud-line position, and solid content were investigated to determine the flocculation performance. The interaction forces, polymer conformation, particle sizes and molecular weights were determined by several techniques, including surface forces apparatus (SFA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC)...
October 14, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hirohiko Ando, Akihiro Suzuki, Shinichiro Sakurai, Soichiro Kumagai, Akiyoshi Kurita, Katsuhisa Waseda, Hiroaki Takashima, Tetsuya Amano
Although late restenosis is one of the long-term complications of stent implantation, its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. For consecutive patients who developed in-stent restenosis (ISR) after stent implantation, integrated backscatter (IB) intravascular ultrasound was performed for ISR lesions. The tissue characteristics of neointima within the stented segment were compared between lesions with early restenosis and those with late restenosis. Of 73 ISR lesions arising after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES; n = 25) or bare-metal stent (BMS; n = 48) implantation, early and late restenosis were documented in 52 and 21 lesions, respectively...
October 11, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Sangwon Han, Minyoung Oh, Jungsu S Oh, Sang Ju Lee, Seung Jun Oh, Sun Ju Chung, Hee Kyung Park, Jae Seung Kim
Importance: Pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by freezing of gait, handwriting, and speech without abnormal eye movement or cognitive impairment. Several studies have suggested that PAGF may be a variant of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the characteristics of striatal dopamine transporter loss in PAGF are unknown. Objective: To investigate the subregional pattern of striatal dopamine transporter loss in patients with PAGF in comparison with patients with PSP and those with Parkinson disease (PD)...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Fernando Alfonso, Marcos García-Guimarães, Gonzalo Navarrete, Javier Cuesta, Teresa Bastante, Amparo Benedicto, Fernando Rivero, Bernardo Cortese
Drug-eluting balloons (DEB) may be considered as a "quiet revolution" in percutaneous coronary interventions. Early-generation DEB eluting paclitaxel proved to be very effective in animal models to reduce neointimal hyperplasia. Areas covered: Review of DEB efficacy in patients with coronary de novo lesions and in-stent restenosis (ISR). Expert opinion: Many randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have demonstrated the value of DEB in patients with ISR. In this setting, DEB are safe and effective with clinical and angiographic results superior to plain balloon angioplasty and at least equivalent to first generation drug-eluting stents (DES)...
October 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Rafael C Ferraz, Henrique Camara, Evandro A De-Souza, Silas Pinto, Ana Paula F Pinca, Richard C Silva, Vitor N Sato, Beatriz A Castilho, Marcelo A Mori
BACKGROUND: The General Control Nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase is a conserved member of the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway that represses protein translation and helps cells to adapt to conditions of nutrient shortage. As such, GCN2 is required for longevity and stress resistance induced by dietary restriction (DR). IMPACT is an ancient protein that inhibits GCN2. RESULTS: Here, we tested whether IMPACT down-regulation mimics the effects of DR in C. elegans...
October 7, 2016: BMC Biology
Michael Wainberg, Babak Alipanahi, Brendan Frey
BACKGROUND: Alternative mRNA splicing is critical to proteomic diversity and tissue and species differentiation. Exclusion of cassette exons, also called exon skipping, is the most common type of alternative splicing in mammals. RESULTS: We present a computational model that predicts absolute (though not tissue-differential) percent-spliced-in of cassette exons more accurately than previous models, despite not using any 'hand-crafted' biological features such as motif counts...
October 7, 2016: BMC Genomics
Xiangyu Yao, Jian Wu, Meng Lin, Wenxiang Sun, Xiao He, Channe Gowda, Silvia Bolland, Carole A Long, Rongfu Wang, Xin-Zhuan Su
Both type I interferon (IFN-I) and CD40 play a significant role in various infectious diseases, including malaria and autoimmune disorders. CD40 is mostly known to function in adaptive immunity, but previous observations of elevated CD40 levels early after malaria infection of mice led us to investigate its roles in innate IFN-I responses and disease control. Using a Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis N67 and C57BL/6 mouse model, we showed that infected CD40-/- mice had reduced STING and serum IFN-β levels day-2 post infection, higher day-4 parasitemia, and earlier deaths...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Fatih Mehmet Ucar
BACKGROUND: Oxidation and inflammation play significant roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery diseases. Monocyte count to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (MHR) is a new marker and has revealed as an indicator of inflammation in the literature. The present study aimed to search the effect of MHR on in-stent restenosis (ISR) in patients with stable or unstable angina pectoris undergoing bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. METHODS: A total of 468 consecutive stable or unstable angina pectoris patients (mean age 60...
October 3, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Naohito Beppu, Fumihiko Kimura, Tsukasa Aihara, Hiroshi Doi, Naohiro Tomita, Hidenori Yanagi, Naoki Yamanaka
BACKGROUND: Short-course radiotherapy with delayed surgery (SRT-delay) is still under clinical investigation for its efficacy in treating low rectal cancer (≤5 cm from the anal verge). This study was designed to assess the pattern of local recurrence and oncologic outcomes in T3 low rectal cancer treated with SRT-delay. METHODS: This study enrolled T3 low rectal cancer patients without distant metastasis between 2003 and 2015. All patients received total mesorectal excision following SRT-delay (25 Gy/10 fractions/5 days + S-1 radiosensitizer with a 4-week delay of surgery)...
October 3, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Yongli Guo, Dong An, Ying Liu, Jun Bao, Xiuxin Luo, Xintong Cheng, Yujiao Wang, Mingchun Gao, Junwei Wang
A bovine interferon-kappa (BoIFN-κ) gene was amplified, which encodes a protein of 215 amino acids sharing 63% identity with human IFN-κ. BoIFN-κ was demonstrated to have antiviral and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, BoIFN-κ was shown to be highly sensitive to trypsin, however, it remained stable despite changes in pH and temperature. Result showed that BoIFN-κ can bind with bovine type I IFN receptors, and the antiviral activity can be blocked by antibodies against type I IFN receptors or BoIFN-κ...
September 29, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Takayuki Yabe, Mikihoto Toda, Rine Nakanishi, Daiga Saito, Ippei Watanabe, Ryo Okubo, Hideo Amano, Takanori Ikeda
BACKGROUND: The treatment strategy for in-stent restenosis (ISR) with bifurcation lesions has not been well explored. We examined the clinical outcomes between final kissing balloon technique (FKBT) after stent implantation and single-stent implantation without FKBT for bifurcation ISR lesions. METHODS: We identified 115 consecutive ISR with bifurcation lesions among 108 patients who underwent drug-eluting stent implantation. The patients were divided into the FKBT group (34 patients, 35 lesions) and the non-FKBT group (74 patients, 80 lesions)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
Tomasz Roleder, Keyvan Karimi Galougahi, Chee Yang Chin, Navdeep K Bhatti, Emmanouil Brilakis, Tamim M Nazif, Ajay J Kirtane, Dimitri Karmpaliotis, Wojciech Wojakowski, Martin B Leon, Gary S Mintz, Akiko Maehara, Gregg W Stone, Ziad A Ali
AIMS: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been employed to assess the composition of the atherosclerotic plaques in native coronary arteries. However, little is known about the detection of neoatherosclerosis by NIRS in in-stent restenosis (ISR). The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the distribution of lipid determined by NIRS and morphology of ISR on optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed both NIRS and OCT in 39 drug-eluting stents with ISR...
September 27, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Rainer Zbinden, Stefanie von Felten, Bastian Wein, David Tueller, David J Kurz, Ivano Reho, Soren Galatius, Hannes Alber, David Conen, Matthias Pfisterer, Christoph Kaiser, Franz R Eberli
AIMS: The British National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend to use DES instead of BMS only in lesions >15mm in length or in vessels < 3mm in diameter. We analysed the impact of stent length and stent diameter on ISR in the BASKET-PROVE study population and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of DES compared to BMS. METHODS/RESULTS: The BASKET-PROVE trial compared DES vs. BMS in large coronary arteries (≥3mm). We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves with regard to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and target lesion revascularisations (TLRs) avoided...
September 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Jingjing Han, Yanjin Wang, Qing Chu, Tianjun Xu
The laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) is a member of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR receptors), which may participate in the immune regulation process. The role of LGP2 on modulating signaling was ambiguous, some researchers suggested that the regulation mechanism of LGP2 to melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) were different. In this study, the bioinformatics and functions of LGP2 from miiuy croaker (mmLGP2) were characterized...
September 13, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Soon Jun Hong, Chul Min Ahn, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Young-Guk Ko, Seung-Ho Hur, Cheol Woong Yu, Seung-Jin Lee, Cheol Ung Choi, Je Sang Kim, Jung-Han Yoon, Young Joon Hong, Jae-Woong Choi, Seung-Hyuk Choi, Yangsoo Jang, Do-Sun Lim
AIMS: At present no proven standard treatment for drug-eluting stent (DES) restenosis is available, and the efficacy and safety of everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) for DES restenosis are limited. The purpose of this prospective, randomized 9-month intracoronary ultrasound (IVUS) and 3-year clinical follow-up study was to compare the effects of EESs and ZESs on neointima volume and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) such as death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR) and stent thrombosis in DES restenosis patients...
September 15, 2016: European Heart Journal
Akihito Tanaka, Azeem Latib, Richard J Jabbour, Hiroyoshi Kawamoto, Francesco Giannini, Marco Ancona, Damiano Regazzoli, Antonio Mangieri, Roberto Mattioli, Alaide Chieffo, Mauro Carlino, Matteo Montorfano, Antonio Colombo
This study investigates clinical outcomes after drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment for in-stent restenosis (ISR) based on the angiographic result achieved after predilatation and before DCB treatment. Among ISR lesions treated with DCBs, 166 lesions with angiography immediately after predilatation were analyzed. The lesions were divided into 2 groups according to angiographic results after predilatation: (1) "adequate" defined as the presence of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 3 flow, residual stenosis ≤30%, and no major dissections (n = 98 lesions) or (2) "inadequate" (n = 68 lesions)...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Haiwei Xie, Jingguang Wei, Qiwei Qin
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ubiquitously found in living organisms and are an important component in innate immune response. Tachyplesin I is a potent antimicrobial peptide isolated from the hemocytes of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus. Previous studies have shown that the 17-residue peptide exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. However, the efficiencies and defense mechanisms of the Tachyplesin I against fish viruses are still unknown...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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