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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806048/electrolytes-calcium-disorders
#1
Craig Barstow
A normal serum calcium level is 8 to 10 mg/dL. The diagnosis of hypercalcemia (ie, levels 10.5 mg/dL or greater) should be confirmed with an albumin-adjusted or ionized calcium level. The two most common causes of hypercalcemia are hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. Drugs, notably lithium and thiazide diuretics, also can cause hypercalcemia. Patients with severe or symptomatic hypercalcemia should be treated initially with hydration to decrease calcium levels. The evaluation should include a parathyroid hormone (PTH) level...
August 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804641/breast-cancer-detected-as-an-incidental-finding-on-99m-tc-mibi-scintigraphy
#2
Toshihiro Homma, Osamu Manabe, Kazuomi Ichinokawa, Hiroko Yamashita, Noriko Oyama-Manabe, Fumi Kato, Kenji Hirata, Markus Kroenke, Nagara Tamaki
We report a case of breast cancer detected as an incidental finding on (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy. (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy is usually used to evaluate cardiac perfusion or to detect ectopic parathyroid adenomas; however, it is also known to sensitively detect breast cancer. Accordingly, a few reports have described the incidental detection of breast cancer by (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy performed to detect parathyroid adenoma. Our present case underscores the importance of attending to any incidental findings when searching for parathyroid adenomas using (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy...
July 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793001/hypovitaminosis-d-in-patients-undergoing-kidney-transplant-the-importance-of-sunlight-exposure
#3
Cristiane F Vilarta, Marianna D Unger, Luciene M Dos Reis, Wagner V Dominguez, Elias David-Neto, Rosa M Moysés, Silvia Titan, Melani R Custodio, Mariel J Hernandez, Vanda Jorgetti
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant...
July 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782797/in-situ-preservation-of-the-inferior-parathyroid-gland-during-central-neck-dissection-for-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#4
J B Wang, K Wu, L H Shi, Y Y Sun, F B Li, L Xie
BACKGROUND: Postoperative hypocalcaemia due to dysfunction of the parathyroid glands is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy plus central neck dissection (CND). There is a lack of surgical techniques described to help preserve the inferior parathyroid gland in situ during CND. The objective of this study was to introduce the 'TBP layer' (layer of thymus-blood vessel-inferior parathyroid gland) concept for preserving the inferior parathyroid gland in situ during CND, and to evaluate its effectiveness...
August 7, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768698/the-future-advances-in-therapeutic-approach-and-management-strategies-for-men1
#5
Rachel S van Leeuwaarde, Joanne M de Laat, Carolina R C Pieterman, Koen M A Dreijerink, Menno Vriens, Gerlof D Valk
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a rare autosomal inherited disorder associated with a high risk for patients to simultaneously develop tumours of the parathyroid glands, duodeno-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and tumors of the anterior pituitary gland. Early identification of MEN1 in patients enables presymptomatic screening of manifestations which makes timely interventions possible with the intention to prevent morbidity and mortality. Causes of death nowadays have shifted towards local or metastatic progression of malignant neuro endocrine tumors...
August 2, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723610/pediatric-reference-intervals-for-29-ortho-vitros-5600-immunoassays-using-the-caliper-cohort-of-healthy-children-and-adolescents
#6
Victoria Higgins, Angela W S Fung, Man Khun Chan, Joseph Macri, Khosrow Adeli
BACKGROUND: Accurate reference intervals (RIs) based on a healthy pediatric population are essential for pediatric test result interpretation. The CALIPER project has recruited a large healthy cohort and completed a series of a priori studies to address gaps in pediatric RIs. As immunoassays from different manufacturers for endocrine and special chemistry markers are not standardized and show marked intermethod differences, direct RI studies are needed for each major analytical platform...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642759/biodistribution-and-efficacy-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-following-intranodal-administration-in-experimental-colitis
#7
Mercedes Lopez-Santalla, Pablo Mancheño-Corvo, Amelia Escolano, Ramon Menta, Olga DelaRosa, Jose Luis Abad, Dirk Büscher, Juan M Redondo, Juan A Bueren, Wilfried Dalemans, Eleuterio Lombardo, Marina I Garin
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a large potential in cell therapy for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, thanks to their immunomodulatory properties. The encouraging results in animal models have initiated the translation of MSC therapy to clinical trials. In cell therapy protocols with MSCs, administered intravenously, several studies have shown that a small proportion of infused MSCs can traffic to the draining lymph nodes (LNs). This is accompanied with an increase of different types of regulatory immune cells in the LNs, suggesting the importance of migration of MSCs to the LNs in order to contribute to immunomodulatory response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642344/a-role-for-tet2-in-parathyroid-carcinoma
#8
Elham Barazeghi, Anthony J Gill, Stan Sidhu, Olov Norlén, Roberto Dina, F Fausto Palazzo, Per Hellman, Peter Stålberg, Gunnar Westin
Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is rarely caused by parathyroid carcinoma (PC, <1-5% of pHPT cases). The TET proteins oxidize the epigenetic mark 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and inactivation by mutation or epigenetic deregulation of TET1 and TET2 play important roles in various cancers. Recently, we found that 5hmC was severely reduced in all of the analyzed PCs and with deranged expression of TET1 for the majority of PCs. Here, we have examined the expression of the TET2 protein in 15 5hmC-negative PCs from patients who had local invasion or metastases...
July 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621914/distinguishing-parathyroid-and-thyroid-lesions-on-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-a-correlation-of-clinical-data-ancillary-studies-and-molecular-analysis
#9
Margaret Cho, Thaira Oweity, Tamar C Brandler, Karen Fried, Pascale Levine
BACKGROUND: Differentiating parathyroid and thyroid lesions can be challenging because of considerable morphologic overlap and anatomic proximity. Therefore, the authors sought to identify characteristic morphologic patterns and useful adjunct tests to distinguish these 2 entities. METHODS: A search was conducted in the study institution database for clinically indeterminate thyroid nodules from 2000 through 2016 with an emphasis on confirmed parathyroid nodules...
June 16, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573053/humoral-hypercalcemia-of-malignancy-with-a-parathyroid-hormone-related-peptide-secreting-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-accompanied-by-a-gastric-cancer
#10
Katsushi Takeda, Ryosuke Kimura, Nobuhiro Nishigaki, Shinya Sato, Asami Okamoto, Kumiko Watanabe, Sachie Yasui
Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) is caused by the oversecretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) from malignant tumors. Although any tumor may cause HHM, that induced by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) or gastric cancer (GC) is rare. We report here a 74-year-old male who displayed HHM with both ICC and GC and showed an elevated serum PTHrP level. Treatment of the hypercalcemia with saline, furosemide, elcatonin, and zoledronic acid corrected his serum calcium level and improved symptoms...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571792/papillary-carcinoma-of-the-thyroid-in-patients-with-primary-hyperparathyroidism-is-there-a-link
#11
M Beebeejaun, E Chinnasamy, P Wilson, A Sharma, N Beharry, G Bano
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is present in up to 0.1% of the general population. The incidence is higher in women and increases with age. The majority of the cases is asymptomatic and up to 85% are due to single gland adenoma. Parathyroidectomy is the treatment of choice after localization of the hyperactive gland. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) is the most common cancer of the thyroid and constitutes more than 70% of thyroid malignancies. PTC can present as a single nodule or can be Multifocal. The incidence is higher in women...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537925/preoperative-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-postoperative-hypocalcemia-in-thyroid-cancer-patients-undergoing-total-thyroidectomy-plus-central-compartment-neck-dissection
#12
Xiaofei Wang, Jingqiang Zhu, Feng Liu, Yanping Gong, Zhihui Li
BACKGROUND: There appears to be a lack of consensus whether preoperative vitamin D deficiency (VDD) increases the risk of postoperative hypocalcemia and decreases the accuracy of postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) in predicting hypocalcemia in thyroid cancer patients undergoing total thyroidectomy (TT) plus central compartment neck dissection (CCND). This study aims to address these issues. METHOD: All consecutive thyroid cancer patients who underwent TT plus CCND were retrospectively reviewed through a prospectively collected database between October 2015 and April 2016 in a tertiary referral hospital...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533650/extensive-visceral-calcification-demonstrated-on-99m-tc-mdp-bone-scan-in-patient-with-carcinoma-penis-and-hypercalcemia-of-malignancy
#13
Sunny J Gandhi, Bhavdeep Rabadiya
Hypercalcemia is a common life-threatening complication associated with several malignancies. Parathyroid-related peptide has been shown to cause hypercalcemia in several solid tumors but rarely in penile cancer. We report a case of penile cancer with hypercalcemia causing metastatic visceral calcification in lungs, liver, and stomach detected on bone scan without significant abnormalities on CT scan.
April 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525934/parathyroid-hormone-levels-predict-long-term-outcome-after-operative-management-of-parathyroid-cancer
#14
Andreas Machens, Kerstin Lorenz, Henning Dralle
The role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum levels for prediction of outcome is ill defined for parathyroid cancer, which is a very rare disease. This investigation of 17 consecutive patients with parathyroid cancer, (re-)operated on at a tertiary referral center between 1994 and July 2016, with a mean follow-up of 179.6 months (15 years) aimed to clarify the suitability of PTH serum levels for prediction of clinical outcome after comprehensive operative management of parathyroid cancer. Cancer-specific mortality occurred significantly more often with the performance of sternotomy before or at first operation at this institution (80 vs...
July 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501573/alterations-of-dna-methylation-in-parathyroid-tumors
#15
REVIEW
Vito Guarnieri, Lucia Anna Muscarella, Chiara Verdelli, Sabrina Corbetta
Parathyroid tumors are common endocrine neoplasias associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, a metabolic disorder characterized by parathormone hypersecretion. Parathyroid neoplasia are frequently benign adenomas or multiple glands hyperplasia, while malignancies are rare. The epigenetic scenario in parathyroid tumors has just begun to be decoded: DNA methylation, histones and chromatin modifiers expression have been investigated so far. The main findings suggest that DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling are active and deregulated in parathyroid tumors, cooperating with genetic alterations to drive the tumor phenotype: the tumor suppressors menin and parafibromin, involved in parathyroid tumorigenesis, interact with chromatin modifiers, defining distinct epigenetic derangements...
May 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485270/a-review-of-the-scaffold-protein-menin-and-its-role-in-hepatobiliary-pathology
#16
Laurent Ehrlich, Chad Hall, Fanyin Meng, Terry Lairmore, Gianfranco Alpini, Shannon Glaser
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) is a familial cancer syndrome with neuroendocrine tumorigenesis of the parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells. The MEN1 gene codes for the canonical tumor suppressor protein, menin. Its protein structure has recently been crystallized, and it has been investigated in a multitude of other tissues. In this review, we summarize recent advancements in understanding the structure of the menin protein and its function as a scaffold protein in histone modification and epigenetic gene regulation...
April 28, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476229/genetics-of-hyperparathyroidism-including-parathyroid-cancer
#17
REVIEW
William F Simonds
Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a metabolic disease caused by the excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone from 1 or more neoplastic parathyroid glands. HPT is largely sporadic, but it can be associated with a familial syndrome. The study of such families led to the discovery of tumor suppressor genes whose loss of function is now recognized to underlie the development of many sporadic parathyroid tumors. Heritable and acquired oncogenes causing parathyroid neoplasia are also known. Studies of somatic changes in parathyroid tumor DNA and investigation of kindreds with unexplained familial HPT promise to unmask more genes relevant to parathyroid neoplasia...
June 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476174/a-patient-with-a-history-of-breast-cancer-and-multiple-bone-lesions-a-case-report
#18
Marie-Angela Schnyder, Paul Stolzmann, Gerhard Frank Huber, Christoph Schmid
BACKGROUND: Long-term severe hyperparathyroidism leads to thinning of cortical bone and cystic bone defects referred to as osteitis fibrosa cystica. Cysts filled with hemosiderin deposits may appear colored as "brown tumors." Osteitis fibrosa cystica and brown tumors are occasionally visualized as multiple, potentially corticalis-disrupting bone lesions mimicking metastases by bone scintigraphy or (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 72-year-old white woman who presented with malaise, weight loss, and hypercalcemia...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462644/evaluation-of-the-radiation-dose-exposure-and-associated-cancer-risks-in-patients-having-preoperative-parathyroid-localization
#19
S R Moosvi, S Smith, J Hathorn, T Groot-Wassink
OBJECTIVE The study aimed to evaluate the total effective and organ absorbed radiation doses associated with three- and four-phase parathyroid computed tomography (CT) and sestamibi scans used for the preoperative localisation of parathyroid adenomas in a cohort of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism at a single institution. We aimed to assess the risk of cancer incidence for the organs demonstrating the highest absorbed doses for the different imaging techniques, and more specifically determine the risk for our cohort of patients...
May 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459368/next-generation-sequencing-for-endocrine-cancers-recent-advances-and-challenges
#20
REVIEW
Padmanaban S Suresh, Thejaswini Venkatesh, Rie Tsutsumi, Abhishek Shetty
Contemporary molecular biology research tools have enriched numerous areas of biomedical research that address challenging diseases, including endocrine cancers (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, testicular, ovarian, and neuroendocrine cancers). These tools have placed several intriguing clues before the scientific community. Endocrine cancers pose a major challenge in health care and research despite considerable attempts by researchers to understand their etiology. Microarray analyses have provided gene signatures from many cells, tissues, and organs that can differentiate healthy states from diseased ones, and even show patterns that correlate with stages of a disease...
May 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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