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"Clinical prediction"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107604/predicting-recovery-in-patients-with-acute-low-back-pain-a-clinical-prediction-model
#1
T da Silva, P Macaskill, K Mills, C Maher, C Williams, C Lin, M J Hancock
BACKGROUND: There is substantial variability in the prognosis of acute low back pain (LBP). The ability to identify the probability of individual patients recovering by key time points would be valuable in making informed decisions about the amount and type of treatment to provide. Predicting recovery based on presentation 1-week after initially seeking care is clinically important and may be more accurate than predictions made at initial presentation. The aim of this study was to predict the probability of recovery at 1-week, 1-month and 3-months after 1-week review in patients who still have LBP 1-week after initially seeking care...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107591/the-role-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-predicting-one-year-mortality-after-liver-transplantation
#2
Kuang-Cheng Chan, Jia-Rong Yeh, Wei-Zen Sun
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score has been extensively used to prioritize patients for liver transplantation and determine their prognosis, but with limited predictive value. Autonomic dysfunction may correlate with increased mortality after liver transplant. In this study, two autonomic biomarkers, complexity and deceleration capacity, were added to the predicting model for one-year mortality after liver transplantation. METHODS: Thirty patients with end-stage liver diseases awaiting liver transplantation were included...
January 20, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105894/clinical-prediction-and-the-idea-of-a-population
#3
David Armstrong
Using an analysis of the British Medical Journal over the past 170 years, this article describes how changes in the idea of a population have informed new technologies of medical prediction. These approaches have largely replaced older ideas of clinical prognosis based on understanding the natural histories of the underlying pathologies. The 19(th)-century idea of a population, which provided a denominator for medical events such as births and deaths, was constrained in its predictive power by its method of enumerating individual bodies...
January 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099353/a-predictive-model-to-estimate-the-pretest-probability-of-metastasis-in-patients-with-osteosarcoma
#4
Sisheng Wang, Shaoluan Zheng, Kongzu Hu, Heyan Sun, Jinling Zhang, Genxiang Rong, Jie Gao, Nan Ding, Binjie Gui
Osteosarcomas (OSs) represent a huge challenge to improve the overall survival, especially in metastatic patients. Increasing evidence indicates that both tumor-associated elements but also on host-associated elements are under a remarkable effect on the prognosis of cancer patients, especially systemic inflammatory response. By analyzing a series prognosis of factors, including age, gender, primary tumor size, tumor location, tumor grade, and histological classification, monocyte ratio, and NLR ratio, a clinical predictive model was established by using stepwise logistic regression involved circulating leukocyte to compute the estimated probabilities of metastases for OS patients...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099293/validating-a-clinical-prediction-rule-for-ventricular-shunt-malfunction
#5
Tehnaz P Boyle, Amir A Kimia, Lise E Nigrovic
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to validate a published ventricular shunt clinical prediction rule for the identification of children at low risk for ventricular shunt malfunction based on the absence of 3 high-risk clinical predictors (irritability, nausea or vomiting, and headache). METHODS: We identified children aged 21 years and younger with a ventricular shunt who presented between 2010 and 2013 to a single pediatric emergency department (ED) for evaluation of potential shunt malfunction...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098436/bringing-3d-tumor-models-to-the-clinic-predictive-value-for-personalized-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Kathrin Halfter, Barbara Mayer
Current decision-guiding algorithms in cancer drug treatment are based on decades of research and numerous clinical trials. For the majority of patients, this data is successfully applied for a systemic disease management. For a number of patients however, treatment stratification according to clinically based risk criteria will not be sufficient. The most effective treatment options are ideally identified prior to the start of clinical drug therapy. This review will discuss the implementation of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models as a preclinical testing paradigm for the efficacy of clinical cancer treatment...
January 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091343/prediction-of-transition-to-psychosis-in-patients-with-a-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-methodology-and-reporting
#7
E Studerus, A Ramyead, A Riecher-Rössler
BACKGROUND: To enhance indicated prevention in patients with a clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, recent research efforts have been increasingly directed towards estimating the risk of developing psychosis on an individual level using multivariable clinical prediction models. The aim of this study was to systematically review the methodological quality and reporting of studies developing or validating such models. METHOD: A systematic literature search was carried out (up to 14 March 2016) to find all studies that developed or validated a clinical prediction model predicting the transition to psychosis in CHR patients...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087872/clinical-inquiry-how-do-clinical-prediction-rules-compare-with-joint-fluid-analysis-in-diagnosing-gout
#8
Katie L Westerfield, Anne Mounsey, Joan Nashelsky
Clinical prediction rules effectively diagnose gout without joint fluid analysis. The American College of Rheumatology clinical prediction rules, the most accurate rules developed for research purposes, have a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 89%, positive likelihood ratio of 8.36, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.09.
November 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081211/development-and-validation-of-a-clinical-prediction-rule-for-bacteremia-among-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients-in-outpatient-settings
#9
Sho Sasaki, Takeshi Hasegawa, Hiroo Kawarazaki, Atsushi Nomura, Daisuke Uchida, Takahiro Imaizumi, Masahide Furusho, Hiroki Nishiwaki, Shingo Fukuma, Yugo Shibagaki, Shunichi Fukuhara
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no reliable clinical prediction rule (CPR) for identifying bacteremia in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been established. The aim of this study was to develop a CPR for bacteremia in maintenance HD patients visiting the outpatient department. METHODS: This multicenter cohort study involved consecutive maintenance HD patients who visited the outpatient clinic or emergency room of seven Japanese institutions between August 2011 and July 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081031/intracranial-hemorrhage-recurrence-on-vitamin-k-antagonist-severity-of-the-first-episode-and-hasbled-score-fail-to-identify-high-risk-patients-from-the-chirone-study
#10
Daniela Poli, Emilia Antonucci, Francesco Dentali, Sophie Testa, Gualtiero Palareti
The most feared complication of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) treatment is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The previously published CHIRONE Study fails to identify risk factors associated with ICH recurrence after VKAs resumption. The aim of this secondary analysis of the study is to evaluate if patients who need surgery or with severe neurological sequelae after the first episode show a higher risk of ICH recurrence. The HASBLED score was used to stratify bleeding risk and to evaluate the distribution of recurrence in relation to each class of risk...
January 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077252/incorporating-body-type-apple-vs-pear-in-stop-bang-questionnaire-improves-its-validity-to-detect-osa
#11
Lisa Sangkum, Ikrita Klair, Chok Limsuwat, Sabrina Bent, Leann Myers, Supat Thammasitboon
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether adding the item of "apple body type" to the STOP-BANG questionnaire enhances diagnostic performance of the questionnaire for detecting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sleep center setting. PATIENTS: Two hundred and eight subjects who were referred for an evaluation of possible OSA at Tulane Comprehensive Sleep Center...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069255/is-urgent-ct-angiography-necessary-in-cases-of-acute-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#12
A Martín Díaz, L Fernández Rodríguez, M Martí de Gracia
Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding usually presents as hematochezia, rectal bleeding or melena and represents 1-2% of the medical appointments in the Emergency Services. Mortality reaches the 30-40% and it is highly related with the severity and associated comorbidity. Most clinical practice guidelines include colonoscopy at some point in the diagnostic and therapeutic process (urgent for severe cases and ambulatory for mild ones) and look for predictors of severity. In the last years, there have been numerous studies where is clear the relevance and complementarity of advanced diagnostic imaging techniques, gradually incorporated as an alternative or second step in severe cases...
January 6, 2017: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065767/derivation-and-internal-validation-of-a-clinical-prediction-tool-for-30-day-mortality-in-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#13
Neil Sengupta, Elliot B Tapper
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are limited data to predict which patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding are at risk for adverse outcomes. We aimed to develop a clinical tool based on admission variables to predict 30-day mortality in lower gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: We used a validated machine learning algorithm to identify adult patients hospitalized with lower gastrointestinal bleeding at an academic medical center between 2008 and 2015. The cohort was split randomly into a derivation and validation cohort...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056835/clinical-prediction-in-defined-populations-a-simulation-study-investigating-when-and-how-to-aggregate-existing-models
#14
Glen P Martin, Mamas A Mamas, Niels Peek, Iain Buchan, Matthew Sperrin
BACKGROUND: Clinical prediction models (CPMs) are increasingly deployed to support healthcare decisions but they are derived inconsistently, in part due to limited data. An emerging alternative is to aggregate existing CPMs developed for similar settings and outcomes. This simulation study aimed to investigate the impact of between-population-heterogeneity and sample size on aggregating existing CPMs in a defined population, compared with developing a model de novo. METHODS: Simulations were designed to mimic a scenario in which multiple CPMs for a binary outcome had been derived in distinct, heterogeneous populations, with potentially different predictors available in each...
January 6, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051972/characteristics-classification-and-prevention-of-child-maltreatment-fatalities
#15
James E McCarroll, Joscelyn E Fisher, Stephen J Cozza, Renè J Robichaux, Carol S Fullerton
BACKGROUND: Preventing child maltreatment fatalities is a critical goal of the U.S. society and the military services. Fatality review boards further this goal through the analysis of circumstances of child deaths, making recommendations for improvements in practices and policies, and promoting increased cooperation among the many systems that serve families. The purpose of this article is to review types of child maltreatment death, proposed classification models, risk and protective factors, and prevention strategies...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045960/modelling-predictors-of-molecular-response-to-frontline-imatinib-for-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia
#16
Haneen Banjar, Damith Ranasinghe, Fred Brown, David Adelson, Trent Kroger, Tamara Leclercq, Deborah White, Timothy Hughes, Naeem Chaudhri
BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) has become increasingly difficult in recent years due to the variety of treatment options available and challenge deciding on the most appropriate treatment strategy for an individual patient. To facilitate the treatment strategy decision, disease assessment should involve molecular response to initial treatment for an individual patient. Patients predicted not to achieve major molecular response (MMR) at 24 months to frontline imatinib may be better treated with alternative frontline therapies, such as nilotinib or dasatinib...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035692/application-of-a-risk-score-to-identify-older-adults-with-community-onset-pneumonia-most-likely-to-benefit-from-empiric-pseudomonas-therapy
#17
Christopher R Frei, Sylvie Rehani, Grace C Lee, Natalie K Boyd, Erene Attia, Ashley Pechal, Rachel S Britt, Eric M Mortensen
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of empiric Pseudomonas pharmacotherapy on 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with community-onset pneumonia stratified according to their risk (low, medium, or high) of drug-resistant pathogens. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. DATA SOURCE: Veterans Health Administration database. PATIENTS: A total of 50,119 patients who were at least 65 years of age, hospitalized with pneumonia, and received antibiotics within 48 hours of admission between fiscal years 2002 and 2007; patients were stratified into empiric Pseudomonas therapy (31,027 patients) and no Pseudomonas therapy (19,092 patients) groups based on antibiotics received during their first 48 hours of admission...
December 30, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030608/predicting-hospitalised-paediatric-pneumonia-mortality-risk-an-external-validation-of-risc-and-mrisc-and-local-tool-development-risc-malawi-from-malawi
#18
Shubhada Hooli, Tim Colbourn, Norman Lufesi, Anthony Costello, Bejoy Nambiar, Satid Thammasitboon, Charles Makwenda, Charles Mwansambo, Eric D McCollum, Carina King
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of under-5 mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical prediction tools may aide case classification, triage, and allocation of hospital resources. We performed an external validation of two published prediction tools and compared this to a locally developed tool to identify children admitted with pneumonia at increased risk for in-hospital mortality in Malawi. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the performance of the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC) and modified RISC (mRISC) scores in a child pneumonia dataset prospectively collected during routine care at seven hospitals in Malawi between 2011-2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002683/a-prediction-model-to-help-with-the-assessment-of-adenopathy-in-lung-cancer-hal
#19
Oisin J O'Connell, Francisco A Almeida, Michael J Simoff, Lonny Yarmus, Ray Lazarus, Benjamin Young, Yu Chen, Roy Semaan, Timothy M Saettele, Joseph Cicenia, Harmeet Bedi, Corrine Kliment, Liang Li, Sonali Sethi, Javier Diaz-Mendoza, David Feller-Kopman, Juhee Song, Thomas Gildea, Hans Lee, Horiana B Grosu, Michael Machuzak, Macarena Rodriguez-Vial, George A Eapen, Carlos A Jimenez, Roberto F Casal, David E Ost
RATIONALE: Estimating the probability of finding N2 or N3 (prN2/3) malignant nodal disease on EBUS-TBNA in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can facilitate the selection of subsequent management strategies. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to develop a clinical prediction model for estimating the prN2/3. METHODS: We used the AQuIRE registry to identify patients with NSCLC with clinical radiographic stage T1-3, N0-3, M0 disease that had EBUS-TBNA for staging...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001220/predicting-death-from-kala-azar-construction-development-and-validation-of-a-score-set-and-accompanying-software
#20
Dorcas Lamounier Costa, Regina Lunardi Rocha, Eldo de Brito Ferreira Chaves, Vivianny Gonçalves de Vasconcelos Batista, Henrique Lamounier Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa
INTRODUCTION: Early identification of patients at higher risk of progressing to severe disease and death is crucial for implementing therapeutic and preventive measures; this could reduce the morbidity and mortality from kala-azar. We describe a score set composed of four scales in addition to software for quick assessment of the probability of death from kala-azar at the point of care. METHODS: Data from 883 patients diagnosed between September 2005 and August 2008 were used to derive the score set, and data from 1,031 patients diagnosed between September 2008 and November 2013 were used to validate the models...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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