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"Clinical prediction"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923728/a-clinical-prediction-model-to-assess-risk-for-pancreatic-cancer-among-patients-with-new-onset-diabetes
#1
Ben Boursi, Brian Finkelman, Bruce J Giantonio, Kevin Haynes, Anil K Rustgi, Andrew D Rhim, Ronac Mamtani, Yu-Xiao Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Approximately 50% of all patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) develop diabetes mellitus before their cancer diagnosis. Screening individuals with new-onset diabetes might therefore allow earlier diagnosis of PDA. We sought to develop and validate a PDA risk prediction model to identify high-risk individuals among those with new-onset diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a population representative database from the UK...
December 3, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913881/phase-ii-trial-of-s-1-plus-leucovorin-in-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer-and-clinical-prediction-by-s-1-pharmacogenetic-pathway
#2
Ming-Ming He, Dong-Sheng Zhang, Feng Wang, Zi-Xian Wang, Shu-Qiang Yuan, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Hui-Yan Luo, Chao Ren, Miao-Zhen Qiu, Ying Jin, De-Shen Wang, Dong-Liang Chen, Zhao-Lei Zeng, Yu-Hong Li, Yang-Yang He, Yuan-Tao Hao, Pi Guo, Feng-Hua Wang, Yi-Xin Zeng, Rui-Hua Xu
BACKGROUND: The first one-arm phase II trial aimed to evaluate and predict efficacy and safety of S-1 plus oral leucovorin (S-1/LV) as first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC), using S-1 pharmacogenetic pathway approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 39 patients orally took S-1 at conventional dose and LV simultaneously at a dose of 25 mg twice daily for a week, within a 2-week cycle. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), while the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), time to failure (TTF), overall survival (OS), disease control rate (DCR), and adverse events (AEs)...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912898/a-clinical-prediction-model-for-prolonged-air-leak-after-pulmonary-resection
#3
Adam Attaar, Daniel G Winger, James D Luketich, Matthew J Schuchert, Inderpal S Sarkaria, Neil A Christie, Katie S Nason
OBJECTIVE: Prolonged air leak increases costs and worsens outcomes after pulmonary resection. We aimed to develop a clinical prediction tool for prolonged air leak using pretreatment and intraoperative variables. METHODS: Patients who underwent pulmonary resection for lung cancer/nodules (from January 2009 to June 2014) were stratified by prolonged parenchymal air leak (>5 days). Using backward stepwise logistic regression with bootstrap resampling for internal validation, candidate variables were identified and a nomogram risk calculator was developed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911103/tools-for-outcome-prediction-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
Faheem Khan, Mark B Owens, Marcos Restrepo, Pedro Povoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common causes of mortality world-wide. The mortality rate of patients with CAP is influenced by the severity of the disease, treatment failure and the requirement for hospitalization and/or intensive care unit (ICU) management, all of which may be predicted by biomarkers and clinical scoring systems. Areas Covered: We review the recent literature examining the efficacy of established and newly-developed clinical scores, biological and inflammatory markers such as C-Reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6), whether used alone or in conjunction with clinical severity scores to assess the severity of CAP, predict treatment failure, guide acute in-hospital or ICU admission and predict mortality...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901285/clinical-prediction-models
#5
J Ranstam, J A Cook, G S Collins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899736/eminence-and-omniscience-statistical-and-clinical-prediction-of-merit
#6
Donald J Foss
In this article, I review, comment upon, and assess some of the suggestions for evaluating scientific merit as suggested by contributors to this symposium. I ask the reader to take the perspective of the individual who has the final say in making a tenure, promotion, or hiring decision. I also ask that one imagine the difference between the fallible human state we are in on such an occasion and what it would be like to be omniscient when making such decisions. After adopting the terminology of "deep" and "surface" eminence, I consider what an omniscient being would take into account to determine eminence and to guide decision-making...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896227/stress-first-single-photon-emission-computed-myocardial-perfusion-imaging
#7
C I Aquino, M Scarano, F Squame, G Casaburi, S L Nori, L Pace
BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single photon emission tomography (SPET) is widely used in coronary artery disease evaluation. Recently major dosimetric concerns have arisen. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a pre-test scoring system could predict the results of stress SPET MPI, thus avoiding two radionuclide injections. METHODS: All consecutive patients (n=309) undergoing SPET MPI during the first 6 months of 2014 constituted the study group...
November 2016: Translational Medicine @ UniSa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891513/clinic-predictive-factors-for-insufficient-myocardial-reperfusion-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-patients-treated-with-selective-aspiration-thrombectomy-during-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#8
Jinfan Tian, Yue Liu, Xiantao Song, Min Zhang, Feng Xu, Fei Yuan, Shuzheng Lyu
Background. Insufficient data are available on the potential benefit of selective aspiration and clinical predictors for no-reflow in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) adjunct with aspiration thrombectomy. Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate clinical predictors for insufficient reperfusion in patients with high thrombus burden treated with PPCI and manual aspiration thrombectomy. Methods. From January 2011 till December 2015, 277 STEMI patients undergoing manual aspiration thrombectomy and PPCI were selected and 202 patients with a Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) thrombus grade 4~5 were eventually involved in our study...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891261/perioprosthetic-and-implant-supported-rehabilitation-of-complex-cases-clinical-management-and-timing-strategy
#9
Luca Landi, Stefano Piccinelli, Roberto Raia, Fabio Marinotti, Paolo Francesco Manicone
Treatment of complex perioprosthetic cases is one of the clinical challenges of everyday practice. Only a complete and thorough diagnostic setup may allow the clinician to formulate a realistic prognosis to select the abutments to support prosthetic rehabilitation. Clinical, radiographic, or laboratory parameters used separately are useless to correctly assign a reliable prognosis to single teeth except in the case of a clearly hopeless tooth. Therefore, it is crucial to gather the greatest quantity of data to determine the role that every single element can play in the prosthetic rehabilitation of the case...
2016: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885107/a-systematic-review-of-clinical-prediction-scores-for-deep-vein-thrombosis
#10
REVIEW
Marina Kafeza, Joseph Shalhoub, Nina Salooja, Lucy Bingham, Konstantina Spagou, Alun H Davies
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis remains a challenging problem. Various clinical prediction rules have been developed in order to improve diagnosis and decision making in relation to deep vein thrombosis. The purpose of this review is to summarise the available clinical scores and describe their applicability and limitations. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance using the keywords: clinical score, clinical prediction rule, risk assessment, clinical probability, pretest probability, diagnostic score and medical Subject Heading terms: 'Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis' OR 'Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis'...
November 24, 2016: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880993/clinical-factors-predictive-of-metastases-from-renal-cell-carcinomas
#11
Widia Fina, AH Hamid Agus Rizal, Mochtar Chaidir A, Umbas Rainy
Background: Lymph node and distant metastases are known as the prognostic factor in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Clinical parameters are needed to predict metastases preoperatively. The aim of this study was to assess clinical predictive factors for lymph node and distant metastases. Materials and Methods: We collected RCC data from January 1995 until December 2015 at Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital in Jakarta. We only reviewed data that had renal cell carcinoma histopathology by operation or biopsy. Clinical information such as patient age, gender, hemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and tumor size (clinical T stage) were reviewed and analyzed by Chi-squre and logistic regression to establish clinical predictive value...
January 9, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875175/proact-iterative-design-of-a-patient-centered-visualization-for-effective-prostate-cancer-health-risk-communication
#12
Anzu Hakone, Lane Harrison, Alvitta Ottley, Nathan Winters, Caitlin Gutheil, Paul K J Han, Remco Chang
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the US, and yet most cases represent localized cancer for which the optimal treatment is unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that the available treatment options, including surgery and conservative treatment, result in a similar prognosis for most men with localized prostate cancer. However, approximately 90% of patients choose surgery over conservative treatment, despite the risk of severe side effects like erectile dysfunction and incontinence. Recent medical research suggests that a key reason is the lack of patient-centered tools that can effectively communicate personalized risk information and enable them to make better health decisions...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874289/epigenetic-changes-as-prognostic-predictors-in-endometrial-carcinomas
#13
Sanja A Farkas, Bengt G Sorbe, Torbjörn K Nilsson
Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most frequent gynecological malignancies of the female. The diagnostic and prognostic markers for the high-risk subgroups with unfavorable prognosis are under intense debate worldwide, and, therefore, the aim of this study was to identify new potential DNA methylation markers for the high-risk groups. We used the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip to analyze the DNA methylation pattern and investigated its association with clinicopathological features important for defining the high-risk (FIGO-grade 3) and low-risk (FIGO-grade 1) groups of patients with endometrial cancer (n = 31 and n = 39, respectively)...
November 22, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864353/identification-of-clinically-predictive-metagenes-that-encode-components-of-a-network-coupling-cell-shape-to-transcription-by-image-omics
#14
Heba Z Sailem, Chris Bakal
The associations between clinical phenotypes (tumour grade, survival), and cell phenotypes, such as shape, signalling activity, and gene expression, are the basis for cancer pathology; but the mechanisms explaining these relationships are not always clear. The generation of large datasets containing information regarding cell phenotypes, and clinical data, provides an opportunity to describe these mechanisms. Here we develop an image-omics approach to integrate quantitative cell imaging data, gene expression, and protein-protein interaction data to systematically describe a 'shape-gene network' that couples specific aspects of breast cancer cell shape to signalling and transcriptional events...
November 18, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859489/elevated-fabp1-serum-levels-are-associated-with-poorer-survival-in-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-failure
#15
Constantine J Karvellas, Jaime L Speiser, Mélanie Tremblay, William M Lee, Christopher F Rose
BACKGROUND/AIM: Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced Acute Liver Failure (ALF) is associated with significant mortality. Traditional prognostic scores lack sensitivity. HYPOTHESIS: Serum Liver-type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP1) early (day 1) or late (day 3-5) levels are associated with 21-day mortality in the absence of liver transplant. METHODS: Serum samples from 198 APAP-ALF patients (nested case control study with 99 survivors, 99 non-survivors) were analyzed by ELISA methods and assessed with clinical data from the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group (ALFSG) Registry (1998-2014)...
November 18, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852632/predicting-the-chances-of-a-live-birth-after-one-or-more-complete-cycles-of-in-vitro-fertilisation-population-based-study-of-linked-cycle-data-from-113%C3%A2-873-women
#16
David J McLernon, Ewout W Steyerberg, Egbert R Te Velde, Amanda J Lee, Siladitya Bhattacharya
OBJECTIVE:  To develop a prediction model to estimate the chances of a live birth over multiple complete cycles of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) based on a couple's specific characteristics and treatment information. DESIGN:  Population based cohort study. SETTING:  All licensed IVF clinics in the UK. National data from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority register. PARTICIPANTS:  All 253 417 women who started IVF (including intracytoplasmic sperm injection) treatment in the UK from 1999 to 2008 using their own eggs and partner's sperm...
November 16, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852530/clinical-prediction-rules-for-prognosis-and-treatment-prescription-in-neck-pain-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Joan Kelly, Carrie Ritchie, Michele Sterling
Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) developed to identify sub-groups of people with neck pain for different prognoses (i.e. prognostic) or response to treatments (i.e. prescriptive) have been recommended as a research priority to improve health outcomes for these conditions. A systematic review was undertaken to identify prognostic and prescriptive CPRs relevant to the conservative management of adults with neck pain and to appraise stage of development, quality and readiness for clinical application. Six databases were systematically searched from inception until 4th July 2016...
October 31, 2016: Manual Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847252/400-or-more-participants-needed-for-stable-contingency-table-estimates-of-clinical-prediction-rule-performance
#18
Peter Kent, Eleanor Boyle, Jennifer L Keating, Hanne B Albert, Jan Hartvigsen
OBJECTIVE: To quantify variability in the results of statistical analyses based on contingency tables and discuss the implications for the choice of sample size for studies that derive clinical prediction rules. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: An analysis of three pre-existing sets of large cohort data (n= 4,062 to 8,674) was performed. In each dataset, repeated random-sampling of various sample sizes, from n=100 up to n=2,000, was performed 100 times at each sample size and the variability in estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, post-test probabilities, odds ratios and risk/prevalence ratios, for each sample size was calculated...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832977/development-and-validation-of-a-parsimonious-and-pragmatic-charm-score-to-predict-mortality-in-patients-with-suspected-sepsis
#19
Kuan-Fu Chen, Su-Hsun Liu, Chih-Huang Li, Chin-Chieh Wu, Chung-Hsien Chaou, I-Shiang Tzeng, Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Gerald N Blaney, Zhen-Ying Liu, Shih-Tsung Han, Yi-Lin Chan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to derive and validate a parsimonious and pragmatic clinical prediction rule using the concepts of Predisposition, Infection, Response, and Organ Dysfunction to predict in-hospital mortality; and to compare it with other prediction rules, as well as with conventional biomarkers for evaluating the mortality risk of patients with suspected sepsis in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic cohort study with consecutive ED patients aged 18 or older with documented diagnostic codes of infection and two sets of blood culture ordered by physicians between 2010 and 2012 in a tertiary teaching hospital...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830754/ror1-is-a-novel-prognostic-biomarker-in-patients-with-lung-adenocarcinoma
#20
Yu-Zhu Zheng, Rui Ma, Jian-Kang Zhou, Cheng-Lin Guo, Yong-Sheng Wang, Zheng-Guang Li, Lun-Xu Liu, Yong Peng
Currently, there is no reliable biomarker to clinically predict the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). The receptor-tyrosine-kinase like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is reported to be overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in several tumors. This study aimed to examine the expression of ROR1 and evaluate its prognostic significance in human lung ADC patients. In this present study, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterize expression of ROR1 protein in lung ADC patients...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
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