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Mannitol brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588548/thyroxine-t4-transfer-from-blood-to-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-sheep-isolated-perfused-choroid-plexus-role-of-multidrug-resistance-associated-proteins-and-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides
#1
Kazem Zibara, Nabil El Zein, Mirna Sabra, Mohammad Hneino, Hayat Harati, Wael Mohamed, Firas H Kobeissy, Nouhad Kassem
Thyroxine (T4) enters the brain either directly across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or indirectly via the choroid plexus (CP), which forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B). In this study, using isolated perfused CP of the sheep by single-circulation paired tracer and steady-state techniques, T4 transport mechanisms from blood into lateral ventricle CP has been characterized as the first step in the transfer across the B-CSF-B. After removal of sheep brain, the CPs were perfused with (125)I-T4 and (14)C-mannitol...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549643/hypertonic-saline-for-raised-intracranial-pressure-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Christopher R Pasarikovski, Naif M Alotaibi, Fawaz Al-Mufti, R Loch Macdonald
BACKGROUND: The use of hyperosmolar agents such as mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS) to control high intracranial pressure (ICP) in traumatic brain injury patients has been well studied. However, the role of HTS in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)-associated raised ICP is still unclear. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The primary outcome of this review is to quantify ICP reduction produced by HTS and its effect on clinical outcomes defined by any standardized functional score...
May 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544917/effective-and-safe-mannitol-administration-in-patients-undergoing-supratentorial-tumor-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-and-double-blind-study
#3
Eren Fatma Akcil, Ozlem Korkmaz Dilmen, Esra Sultan Karabulut, Serdar Selcuk Koksal, Fatis Altindas, Yusuf Tunali
OBJECTIVES: Although osmotic diuresis with mannitol is commonly used to provide brain relaxation, there is no consensus regarding its optimal dose and combination with loop diuretics. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of mannitol and combination of furosemide with different doses of mannitol on brain relaxation and on blood electrolytes, lactate level, urine output, fluid balance and blood osmolarity in patients undergoing supratentorial tumor surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study included 51 patients (ASA I-III) scheduled for elective supratentorial craniotomy...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490163/effects-of-quercetin-and-mannitol-on-erythropoietin-levels-in-rats-following-acute-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Orhan Kalemci, Hasan Emre Aydin, Ceren Kizmazoglu, Ismail Kaya, Hulya Yılmaz, Nuri M Arda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study to investigate the normal values of erythropoietin (EPO) and neuroprotective effects of quercetin and mannitol on EPO and hematocrit levels after acute severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rat model. METHODS: A weight-drop impact acceleration model of TBI was used on 40 male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into sham (group I), TBI (group II), TBI+quercetin (50 mg/kg intravenously) (group III), and TBI+mannitol (1 mg/kg intravenously) (group IV) groups...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472567/long-term-benefit-of-intra-arterial-bevacizumab-for-recurrent-glioblastoma
#5
Rachel A Alter, Timothy G White, Andrew A Fanous, Shamik Chakraborty, Christopher G Filippi, David J Pisapia, Apostolos John Tsiouris, John A Boockvar
Standard treatment for recurrent GBM is not yet established. We present a case demonstrating the benefit of intra-arterial (IA) bevacizumab with blood brain barrier disruption (BBBD) for the treatment of recurrent GBM. A 31 year-old man diagnosed with GBM, following primary resection, received temozolomide. After a second resection, he received one dose of IA bevacizumab with BBBD using mannitol, preventing regrowth for 2.5 years. Following tumor regrowth, the patient received another dose of IA bevacizumab with BBBD, which has prevented regrowth for another year...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449392/osmotic-stress-decreases-complexity-underlying-the-electrophysiological-dynamic-in-soybean
#6
G F R Saraiva, A S Ferreira, G M Souza
Studies on plant electrophysiology are mostly focused on specific traits of single cells. Inspired by the complexity of the signalling network in plants, and by analogy with neurons in human brains, we sought evidence of high complexity in the electrical dynamics of plant signalling and a likely relationship with environmental cues. An EEG-like standard protocol was adopted for high-resolution measurements of the electrical signal in Glycine max seedlings. The signals were continuously recorded in the same plants before and after osmotic stimuli with a -2 MPa mannitol solution...
April 27, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435989/aggressive-medical-management-of-acute-traumatic-subdural-hematomas-before-emergency-craniotomy-in-patients-presenting-with-bilateral-unreactive-pupils-a-cohort-study
#7
Arturo Chieregato, Alessandra Venditto, Emanuele Russo, Costanza Martino, Giovanni Bini
BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acute traumatic subdural hematoma (aSDH) admitted to the emergency room with bilaterally dilated, unreactive pupils (bilateral mydriasis) is notoriously poor. METHODS: Of 2074 TBI patients consecutively admitted to our facility between 1997 and 2012, 115 had a first CT scan with aSDH, unreactive bilateral mydriasis, and a Glasgow Coma Score of 3 or 4. Sixty-two patients were unoperated and died within hours or a few days...
April 24, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431870/the-effect-of-hypertonic-saline-and-mannitol-on-coagulation-in-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#8
Haifeng Wang, Hongshi Cao, Xiaohong Zhang, Liang Ge, Li Bie
BACKGROUND: Hyperosmolar therapy, using either hypertonic saline (HTS) or mannitol (MT), is considered the treatment of choice for intracranial hypertension, a disorder characterized by high intracranial pressure (ICP). However, hyperosmolar agents have been postulated to impair coagulation and platelet function. The aim of this study was to identify whether HTS and MT could affect coagulation in moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. METHODS: In this prospective and randomized double-blind study, we included adult patients with moderate TBI...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342705/comparison-of-20-mannitol-and-3-hypertonic-saline-on-intracranial-pressure-and-systemic-hemodynamics
#9
Navdeep Sokhal, Girija Prasad Rath, Arvind Chaturvedi, Manmohan Singh, Hari Hara Dash
Mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) are most commonly used hyperosmotic agents for intraoperative brain relaxation. We compared the changes in ICP and systemic hemodynamics after infusion of equiosmolar solutions of both agents in patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial tumors. Forty enrolled adults underwent a standard anesthetic induction. Apart from routine monitoring parameters, subdural ICP with Codmann catheter and cardiac indices by Vigileo monitor, were recorded. The patients were randomized to receive equiosmolar solutions of either 20% mannitol (5ml/kg) or 3% HS (5...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319185/real-time-monitoring-of-human-blood-brain-barrier-disruption
#10
Vesa Kiviniemi, Vesa Korhonen, Jukka Kortelainen, Seppo Rytky, Tuija Keinänen, Timo Tuovinen, Matti Isokangas, Eila Sonkajärvi, Topi Siniluoto, Juha Nikkinen, Seppo Alahuhta, Osmo Tervonen, Taina Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Teemu Myllylä, Outi Kuittinen, Juha Voipio
Chemotherapy aided by opening of the blood-brain barrier with intra-arterial infusion of hyperosmolar mannitol improves the outcome in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Proper opening of the blood-brain barrier is crucial for the treatment, yet there are no means available for its real-time monitoring. The intact blood-brain barrier maintains a mV-level electrical potential difference between blood and brain tissue, giving rise to a measurable electrical signal at the scalp. Therefore, we used direct-current electroencephalography (DC-EEG) to characterize the spatiotemporal behavior of scalp-recorded slow electrical signals during blood-brain barrier opening...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285405/the-effects-of-blood-and-blood-products-on-the-arachnoid-cell
#11
Eric A Hansen, Liudmila Romanova, Christopher Janson, Cornelius H Lam
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), large amounts of red blood cells and hemolytic products are deposited intracranially creating debris in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This debris, which includes heme and bilirubin, is cleared via the arachnoid granulations and lymphatic systems. However, the mechanisms by which erythrocytes and their breakdown products interfere with normal CSF dynamics remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to model in vitro how blood breakdown products affect arachnoid cells at the CSF-blood barrier, and the extent to which the resorption of CSF into the venous drainage system is mechanically impaired following TBI...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258418/comparison-of-equiosmolar-hypertonic-saline-and-mannitol-for-brain-relaxation-during-craniotomies-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
REVIEW
Jingxue Fang, Yanzhang Yang, Wei Wang, Yang Liu, Tong An, Meijuan Zou, Gang Cheng
There is a controversy about the effects of hypertonic saline (HS) used for brain relaxation in patients requiring craniotomies. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of equiosmolar hypertonic saline with mannitol on intraoperative brain relaxation in patients undergoing craniotomies. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases, and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The outcome indicators included brain relaxation, hemodynamic status, fluid volume, and blood chemistry...
March 3, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187815/principles-of-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
M Czosnyka, J D Pickard, L A Steiner
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is governed by volumes of intracranial blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue. Expansion of any of these volumes will trigger compensatory changes in the other compartments, resulting in initially limited change in ICP. Due to the rigid skull, once compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, ICP rises very rapidly. Intracranial hypertension is associated with unfavorable outcome in brain-injured patients. This chapter discusses the pathophysiology of raised ICP, as well as typical waveforms, monitoring techniques, and clinical management...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175535/376%C3%A2-the-salt-versus-sugar-debate-urinary-sodium-losses-following-hypertonic-saline-administration-curtails-its-superior-osmolar-effect-in-comparison-to-mannitol-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Aniruddha Tekkatte Jagannatha, Sriganesh Kamath, Indira Devi, Umamaheswara G S Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103265/rabbit-model-of-human-gliomas-implications-for-intra-arterial-drug-delivery
#15
Huamin Qin, Miroslaw Janowski, Monica S Pearl, Izabela Malysz-Cymborska, Shen Li, Charles G Eberhart, Piotr Walczak
The prognosis for malignant brain tumors remains poor despite a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This is partly due to the blood-brain barrier, a major obstacle that prevents therapeutic agents from effectively reaching the tumor. We have recently developed a method for precise and predictable opening of the blood-brain barrier via the intra-arterial administration of mannitol, a hyperosmolar agent, in a rabbit model, whose vascular anatomy facilitates the use of standard interventional neuroradiology techniques and devices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065791/neuroprotective-strategies-for-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-combined-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-the-icu
#16
Weiwei Hu, Yali Chao, Xiaojuan Geng
BACKGROUND: We investigated neuroprotective treatment strategies for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the ICU. METHODS: The 83 cases diagnosed with secondary AMI were, for the first time, divided into an observation group (n = 43) and control group (n = 40). All of the patients underwent emergency or elective PCI. Patients in the control group were treated with mannitol to reduce intracranial pressure and cinepazide maleate to improve microcirculation in the brain as well as given a comprehensive treatment with oxygen inhalation, fluid infusion, acid-base imbalance correction and electrolyte disturbance...
January 5, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017126/recent-advances-in-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-fus-triggered-brain-delivery
#17
Nidhi Nainwal
Successful delivery of therapeutic agents in the brain is very challenging, which makes treatment of various brain disorders very difficult. One of the major causes of this difficulty is the presence of physiological barriers in the brain like blood brain barrier (BBB) and blood cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) barrier. These barriers are very specific and restrict the entry of water soluble agents and ionized molecule. Only lipid soluble and small molecular size agents are allowed to enter into the brain. But there are several serious brain diseases in which the use of only conventional small molecular mass lipophilic drug is not effective...
December 22, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923631/the-influence-of-fibroblast-on-the-arachnoid-leptomeningeal-cells-in-vitro
#18
Cornelius H Lam, Liudmila Romanova, Allison Hubel, Christopher Janson, Eric A Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast is pervasive in the setting of injury. Its invasion into the arachnoid tissue causes scarring, cortical adhesion of the brain, and obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid outflow. The purpose of this study is to determine the phenotypic and physiologic effects of fibroblasts on arachnoid in culture. METHODS: We studied the effects of fibroblast on the arachnoid cell growth, motility, phenotypic changes, and transport properties. Immortalized rat (Rattus norvegicus, Sprague Dawley breed) arachnoid cells were grown with fibroblast on opposite sides of polyethylene membranes or co-cultured in plastic wells...
December 3, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923162/comparison-of-different-osmotic-therapies-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vinoth K M Khandelwal, Prabhakar Singh, Tatiana Ravingerova, Marslin Gregory, Hardik Gandhi, Manu Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in the affected region, increased intracranial pressure, consequent oedema and congestion contribute to the negative outcome of traumatic brain injury. Osmotic therapies are recommended for improvement in cognitive and motor functions. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of osmotic therapies in a mice model of traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Experimental closed head injury was performed in adult Swiss albino mice by the weight-drop method...
February 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867922/palliative-resection-of-metastatic-brain-tumors-previously-treated-by-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#20
Yoo Sung Jeon, Young-Cho Koh, Sang Woo Song, Joon Cho, So Dug Lim
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic approaches to brain metastases include surgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and combination therapy. Recently, postoperative or preoperative SRS draws more attention to reduce postoperative recurrence in brain metastases. The goal of this study is to review surgical outcome of patients who had been treated by SRS, and to discuss the effectiveness of preoperative SRS. METHODS: From 2009 to 2015, 174 patients were treated by SRS for brain metastases, and among these 50 patients underwent surgery...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
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