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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923631/the-influence-of-fibroblast-on-the-arachnoid-leptomeningeal-cells-in-vitro
#1
Cornelius H Lam, Liudmila Romanova, Allison Hubel, Christopher Janson, Eric A Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast is pervasive in the setting of injury. Its invasion into the arachnoid tissue causes scarring, cortical adhesion of the brain, and obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid outflow. The purpose of this study is to determine the phenotypic and physiologic effects of fibroblasts on arachnoid in culture. METHODS: We studied the effects of fibroblast on the arachnoid cell growth, motility, phenotypic changes, and transport properties. Immortalized rat (Rattus norvegicus, Sprague Dawley breed) arachnoid cells were grown with fibroblast on opposite sides of polyethylene membranes or co-cultured in plastic wells...
December 3, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923162/comparison-of-different-osmotic-therapies-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Vinoth K M Khandelwal, Prabhakar Singh, Tatiana Ravingerova, Marslin Gregory, Hardik Gandhi, Manu Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in the affected region, increased intracranial pressure, consequent oedema and congestion contribute to the negative outcome of traumatic brain injury. Osmotic therapies are recommended for improvement in cognitive and motor functions. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of osmotic therapies in a mice model of traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Experimental closed head injury was performed in adult Swiss albino mice by the weight-drop method...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867922/palliative-resection-of-metastatic-brain-tumors-previously-treated-by-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#3
Yoo Sung Jeon, Young-Cho Koh, Sang Woo Song, Joon Cho, So Dug Lim
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic approaches to brain metastases include surgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and combination therapy. Recently, postoperative or preoperative SRS draws more attention to reduce postoperative recurrence in brain metastases. The goal of this study is to review surgical outcome of patients who had been treated by SRS, and to discuss the effectiveness of preoperative SRS. METHODS: From 2009 to 2015, 174 patients were treated by SRS for brain metastases, and among these 50 patients underwent surgery...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857907/clinical-outcome-of-acute-epidural-hematoma-in-korea-preliminary-report-of-285-cases-registered-in-the-korean-trauma-data-bank-system
#4
Young Ha Jeong, Ji Woong Oh, Sungmin Cho
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this preliminary collaborative study was to assess the clinical characteristics, management, and outcome of epidural hematoma (EDH) based on the data collected and registered in the Korean Trauma Data Bank System (KTDBS). METHODS: Of 2,698 patients registered in the KTDBS between September 2010 and March 2014, 285 patients with EDH were analyzed. Twenty-three trauma centers participated in the study voluntarily to collect data. We subcategorized the patients into two groups with good and poor outcomes...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854097/optimizing-the-delivery-of-antineoplastic-therapies-to-the-central-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Jarushka Naidoo, Hardik Panday, Sadhana Jackson, Stuart A Grossman
Despite significant advances in the treatment of systemic cancers, progress in the treatment of primary brain tumors has been quite modest. In addition, an increasing proportion of patients with systemic cancers are presenting with brain-only metastases. These observations highlight the critical role that the blood-brain barrier plays in preventing antineoplastic therapies from reaching the central nervous system in therapeutic concentrations. This review describes the anatomy of the blood-brain barrier and currently available methods to quantify the entry of therapeutic compounds into the brain...
November 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851869/intracerebral-synthesis-of-glutamine-from-hyperpolarized-glutamate
#6
Leslie Mazuel, Rolf F Schulte, Aurélie Cladière, Claudine Spéziale, Marie Lagrée, Martin Leremboure, Betty Jean, Franck Durif, Carine Chassain
PURPOSE: Changes in glutamate (Glu) levels occur in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. We proposed the use of (13)C spectroscopy and the highly amplified signal generated by hyperpolarization to achieve spatial and temporal resolutions adequate for in vivo studies of Glu metabolism in the healthy rat brain. Thus, we investigated uptake of hyperpolarized [1(-13C)]Glu after a temporary blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption protocol and its conversion to glutamine (Gln) in the brain...
November 8, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849336/durability-of-single-dose-intra-arterial-bevacizumab-after-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-for-recurrent-glioblastoma
#7
Shamik Chakraborty, Christopher G Filippi, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Sherese Fralin, Ashley Ray, Tamika Wong, Rafael Ortiz, David J Langer, John A Boockvar
BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab (BV) has been used to treat recurrent glioblastoma with a progression free survival of approximately 3-3.5 months. Typically, it is administered intravenously every 2-3 weeks at dosages ranging from 5-15 mg/kg. Serious side effects include GI tract perforations, hematologic disorders, intracranial hemorrhage, and malignant hypertension. We hypothesized that selective intracranial intra-arterial infusion (SIACI) of BV following blood/brain barrier disruption (BBBD) with mannitol may allow for reduced dosage, lower toxicity, and equivalent or superior progression free survival (PFS)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777397/evaluation-of-the-maintained-effect-of-3-hypertonic-saline-solution-in-an-animal-model-of-intracranial-hypertension
#8
Leonardo M Sousa, Almir F de Andrade, Alessandro R Belon, Matheus S Soares, Robson Luis Amorim, Jose Pinhata Otochi, Manoel J Teixeira, Wellingson S Paiva
BACKGROUND Current clinical treatment methods for refractory intracranial hypertension include elevation of the decubitus, ventilation adjustment, and use of hypertonic solutions such as hypertonic saline and mannitol solutions. Previous studies have shown that hypertonic solutions are particularly effective. Although several concentrations of saline solution have been proposed, a 3% solution is the most widely used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maintained efficacy of a 3% hypertonic saline solution in an experimental model of intracranial hypertension...
October 25, 2016: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626493/review-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hyperglycemia-a-potentially-modifiable-risk-factor
#9
Jia Shi, Bo Dong, Yumin Mao, Wei Guan, Jiachao Cao, Rongxing Zhu, Suinuan Wang
Hyperglycemia after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs frequently and is associated with poor clinical outcome and increased mortality. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms that lead to hyperglycemia and discuss how they may contribute to poor outcomes in patients with severe TBI. Moreover, we systematically review the proper management of hyperglycemia after TBI, covering topics such as nutritional support, glucose control, moderated hypothermia, naloxone, and mannitol treatment. However, to date, an optimal and safe glycemic target range has not been determined, and may not be safe to implement among TBI patients...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593830/the-effects-of-stereotactic-cerebroventricular-administration-of-albumin-mannitol-hypertonic-sodium-chloride-glycerin-and-dextran-in-rats-with-experimental-brain-edema
#10
Tuncay Ateş, Yurdal Gezercan, Güner Menekşe, Yusuf Türköz, Hakan Parlakpinar, Ali İhsan Ökten, Yener Akyuva, Selami Çağatay Önal
AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effects of cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents on edematous tissue in rats with experimental head trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 54 female Sprague-Dawley rats with weights ranging between 200-250 g. Six experimental groups were examined with each group containing 9 rats. All rats were exposed to head trauma, and treatment groups were administered 2 microliters of one of the drugs (albumin, mannitol, hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl),glycerin and dextran) 6, 12 and 24 hours after the trauma via the cerebroventricular route and using a stereotactic device...
May 25, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588084/successful-treatment-with-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-severe-brain-edema-characterized-by-radiological-appearance-of-pseudosubarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-a-child
#11
Yi Xin, Xingjuan Gao, Xiuli Ju, Aimin Li
Pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage (PSAH) is a rare neuroradiological finding, particularly in pediatric patients. The appearance of PSAH is commonly associated with poor clinical outcome due to refractory cerebral edema. Recent clinical trials have favored hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) as a promising therapeutic strategy for adult patients with severe head injuries. The present report describes a pediatric case of diffuse brain edema characterized by the radiological appearance of PSAH successfully treated with HBOT...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585440/towards-understanding-brain-gut-microbiome-connections-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Rong Xu, QuanQiu Wang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex, with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contributing to disease susceptibility and progression. While significant progress has been made in understanding genetic, molecular, behavioral, and neurological aspects of AD, relatively little is known about which environmental factors are important in AD etiology and how they interact with genetic factors in the development of AD. Here, we propose a data-driven, hypotheses-free computational approach to characterize which and how human gut microbial metabolites, an important modifiable environmental factor, may contribute to various aspects of AD...
August 26, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570111/glucose-metabolism-weighted-imaging-with-chemical-exchange-sensitive-mri-of-2-deoxyglucose-2dg-in-brain-sensitivity-and-biological-sources
#13
Tao Jin, Hunter Mehrens, Ping Wang, Seong-Gi Kim
Recent proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the uptake and metabolism of non-labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) by a chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) MRI approach. In order to gain better understanding of this new approach, we performed dynamic in vivo CESL MRI on healthy rat brains with an intravenous injection of 2DG under various conditions at 9.4T. For three 2DG doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1g/kg, we found that 2DG-CESL signals increased linearly with injection dose at the initial (<20min) but not the later period (>40min) suggesting time-dependent differential weightings of 2DG transport and metabolism...
December 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568371/hyperosmolar-therapy-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-study
#14
Nadia Roumeliotis, Christian Dong, Géraldine Pettersen, Louis Crevier, Guillaume Emeriaud
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to describe the use of hyperosmolar therapy in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine its effect on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). DESIGN: A retrospective review of patients with severe TBI admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were ICP monitoring and administration of a hyperosmolar agent (20 % mannitol or 3 % hypertonic saline) within 48 h of PICU admission; for which dose and timing were recorded...
December 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553852/ophiocordyceps-formosana-improves-hyperglycemia-and-depression-like-behavior-in-an-stz-induced-diabetic-mouse-model
#15
Chao-Wei Huang, Tzu-Wen Hong, Ying-Jing Wang, Ko-Chien Chen, Ju-Chun Pei, Tai-Yuan Chuang, Wen-Sung Lai, Sheng-Hong Tsai, Richard Chu, Wei-Cheng Chen, Lee-Yan Sheen, Satoru Takahashi, Shih-Torng Ding, Tang-Long Shen
BACKGROUND: A newly defined Cordyceps species, Ophiocordyceps formosana (O. formosana) has been implicated in multitudinous bioactivities, including lowering glucose and cholesterol levels and modulating the immune system. However, few literatures demonstrate sufficient evidence to support these proposed functions. Although the use of Cordyceps spp. has been previously addressed to improve insulin insensitivity and improve the detrimental symptoms of depression; its mechanistic nature remains unsettled...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540904/a-prospective-randomized-trial-of-the-optimal-dose-of-mannitol-for-intraoperative-brain-relaxation-in-patients-undergoing-craniotomy-for-supratentorial-brain-tumor-resection
#16
Hyungseok Seo, Eugene Kim, Haesun Jung, Young-Jin Lim, Jin Wook Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Young-Bem Se, Young-Tae Jeon, Jung-Won Hwang, Hee-Pyoung Park
OBJECTIVE Mannitol is used intraoperatively to induce brain relaxation in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor resection. The authors sought to determine the dose of mannitol that provides adequate brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects. METHODS A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive mannitol at 0.25 g/kg (Group A), 0.5 g/kg (Group B), 1.0 g/kg (Group C), and 1.5 g/kg (Group D). The degree of brain relaxation was classified according to a 4-point scale (1, bulging; 2, firm; 3, adequate; and 4, perfectly relaxed) by neurosurgeons; Classes 3 and 4 were considered to indicate satisfactory brain relaxation...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510485/strategies-that-target-tight-junctions-for-enhanced-drug-delivery
#17
Lorenza González-Mariscal, Yanahi Posadas, Jael Miranda, Perla Yaceli Uc, José Mario Ortega-Olvera, Sandra Hernández
Ions and molecules move across epithelial barriers by two pathways, the transcellular and the paracellular. The former is taken by lipophilic compounds, or by ions and molecules that move across the plasma membrane through pumps, carriers or exchangers. The second route is regulated by the tight junction (TJ) that through paracellular channels, allows the transport of ions across epithelial barriers. Since, a wide variety of bioactive molecules like peptides, proteins and oligonucleotides cannot use the transcellular route, due to their hydrophilic nature, interest has arisen in devising procedures to open the TJ in a reversible manner for paracellular drug delivery...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464716/pharmaceutical-targeting-of-the-brain
#18
István A Krizbai, Ádám Nyúl-Tóth, Hans-Christian Bauer, Attila E Farkas, Andreas Traweger, János Haskó, Hannelore Bauer, Imola Wilhelm
Besides being indispensable for the protection and nutrition of the central nervous system (CNS), blood-brain barrier (BBB)-forming cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) have a major role in hampering drugs to reach therapeutically relevant concentrations in the brain. In this respect, the most important defense systems of CECs are tight junctions (TJs) sealing the paracellular way of transport, efflux pumps (ABC transporters) and metabolic enzymes. Here we review current strategies aiming at overcoming the BBB with the purpose of effectively delivering drugs to the CNS...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456748/synthesis-and-deposition-of-basement-membrane-proteins-by-primary-brain-capillary-endothelial-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-the-blood-brain-barrier
#19
Maj Schneider Thomsen, Svend Birkelund, Annette Burkhart, Allan Stensballe, Torben Moos
The brain vascular basement membrane is important for both blood-brain barrier (BBB) development, stability, and barrier integrity and the contribution hereto from brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), pericytes, and astrocytes of the BBB is probably significant. The aim of the present study was to analyse four different in vitro models of the murine BBB for expression and possible secretion of major basement membrane proteins from murine BCECs (mBCECs). mBCECs, pericytes, and glial cells (mainly astrocytes and microglia) were prepared from brains of C57BL/6 mice...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434564/-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy-is-an-independently-risk-factor-for-nosocomial-coma-in-patients-with-supratentorial-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-261-patients
#20
Guangsheng Wang, Shaodan Wang, Yeting Zhou, Xiaodong Chen, Xiaobo Ma, Daoming Tong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the presence of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) would predict nosocomial coma (NC) and poor outcome in patients with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The adult acute SICH patients with or without coma admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Shuyang People' Hospital Affiliated to Xuzhou Medical University from December 2012 to December 2015 were enrolled...
August 2016: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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