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Mannitol brain

Jia Shi, Bo Dong, Yumin Mao, Wei Guan, Jiachao Cao, Rongxing Zhu, Suinuan Wang
Hyperglycemia after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs frequently and is associated with poor clinical outcome and increased mortality. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms that lead to hyperglycemia and discuss how they may contribute to poor outcomes in patients with severe TBI. Moreover, we systematically review the proper management of hyperglycemia after TBI, covering topics such as nutritional support, glucose control, moderated hypothermia, naloxone, and mannitol treatment. However, to date, an optimal and safe glycemic target range has not been determined, and may not be safe to implement among TBI patients...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Tuncay Ateş, Yurdal Gezercan, Güner Menekşe, Yusuf Türköz, Hakan Parlakpinar, Ali İhsan Ökten, Yener Akyuva, Selami Çağatay Önal
AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effects of cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents on edematous tissue in rats with experimental head trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 54 female Sprague-Dawley rats with weights ranging between 200-250 g. Six experimental groups were examined with each group containing 9 rats. All rats were exposed to head trauma, and treatment groups were administered 2 microliters of one of the drugs (albumin, mannitol, hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl),glycerin and dextran) 6, 12 and 24 hours after the trauma via the cerebroventricular route and using a stereotactic device...
May 25, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Yi Xin, Xingjuan Gao, Xiuli Ju, Aimin Li
Pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage (PSAH) is a rare neuroradiological finding, particularly in pediatric patients. The appearance of PSAH is commonly associated with poor clinical outcome due to refractory cerebral edema. Recent clinical trials have favored hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) as a promising therapeutic strategy for adult patients with severe head injuries. The present report describes a pediatric case of diffuse brain edema characterized by the radiological appearance of PSAH successfully treated with HBOT...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Rong Xu, QuanQiu Wang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex, with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contributing to disease susceptibility and progression. While significant progress has been made in understanding genetic, molecular, behavioral, and neurological aspects of AD, relatively little is known about which environmental factors are important in AD etiology and how they interact with genetic factors in the development of AD. Here, we propose a data-driven, hypotheses-free computational approach to characterize which and how human gut microbial metabolites, an important modifiable environmental factor, may contribute to various aspects of AD...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Tao Jin, Hunter Mehrens, Ping Wang, Seong-Gi Kim
Recent proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the uptake and metabolism of non-labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) by a chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) MRI approach. In order to gain better understanding of this new approach, we performed dynamic in vivo CESL MRI on healthy rat brains with an intravenous injection of 2DG under various conditions at 9.4T. For three 2DG doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1g/kg, we found that 2DG-CESL signals increased linearly with injection dose at the initial (<20min) but not the later period (>40min) suggesting time-dependent differential weightings of 2DG transport and metabolism...
August 26, 2016: NeuroImage
Nadia Roumeliotis, Christian Dong, Géraldine Pettersen, Louis Crevier, Guillaume Emeriaud
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to describe the use of hyperosmolar therapy in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine its effect on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). DESIGN: A retrospective review of patients with severe TBI admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were ICP monitoring and administration of a hyperosmolar agent (20 % mannitol or 3 % hypertonic saline) within 48 h of PICU admission; for which dose and timing were recorded...
August 27, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Chao-Wei Huang, Tzu-Wen Hong, Ying-Jing Wang, Ko-Chien Chen, Ju-Chun Pei, Tai-Yuan Chuang, Wen-Sung Lai, Sheng-Hong Tsai, Richard Chu, Wei-Cheng Chen, Lee-Yan Sheen, Satoru Takahashi, Shih-Torng Ding, Tang-Long Shen
BACKGROUND: A newly defined Cordyceps species, Ophiocordyceps formosana (O. formosana) has been implicated in multitudinous bioactivities, including lowering glucose and cholesterol levels and modulating the immune system. However, few literatures demonstrate sufficient evidence to support these proposed functions. Although the use of Cordyceps spp. has been previously addressed to improve insulin insensitivity and improve the detrimental symptoms of depression; its mechanistic nature remains unsettled...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Hyungseok Seo, Eugene Kim, Haesun Jung, Young-Jin Lim, Jin Wook Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Young-Bem Se, Young-Tae Jeon, Jung-Won Hwang, Hee-Pyoung Park
OBJECTIVE Mannitol is used intraoperatively to induce brain relaxation in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor resection. The authors sought to determine the dose of mannitol that provides adequate brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects. METHODS A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive mannitol at 0.25 g/kg (Group A), 0.5 g/kg (Group B), 1.0 g/kg (Group C), and 1.5 g/kg (Group D). The degree of brain relaxation was classified according to a 4-point scale (1, bulging; 2, firm; 3, adequate; and 4, perfectly relaxed) by neurosurgeons; Classes 3 and 4 were considered to indicate satisfactory brain relaxation...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Lorenza González-Mariscal, Yanahi Posadas-Torrentera, Jael Miranda, Perla Uc, José Mario Ortega-Olvera, Sandra Hernández
Ions and molecules move across epithelial barriers by two pathways, the transcellular and the paracellular. The former is taken by lipophilic compounds, or by ions and molecules that move across the plasma membrane through pumps, carriers or exchangers. The second route is regulated by the tight junction (TJ) that through paracellular channels, allows the transport of ions across epithelial barriers. Since, a wide variety of bioactive molecules like peptides, proteins and oligonucleotides cannot use the transcellular route, due to their hydrophilic nature, interest has arisen in devising procedures to open the TJ in a reversible manner for paracellular drug delivery...
July 20, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
István A Krizbai, Ádám Nyúl-Tóth, Hans-Christian Bauer, Attila E Farkas, Andreas Traweger, János Haskó, Hannelore Bauer, Imola Wilhelm
Besides being indispensable for the protection and nutrition of the central nervous system (CNS), blood-brain barrier (BBB)-forming cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) have a major role in hampering drugs to reach therapeutically relevant concentrations in the brain. In this respect, the most important defense systems of CECs are tight junctions (TJs) sealing the paracellular way of transport, efflux pumps (ABC transporters) and metabolic enzymes. Here we review current strategies aiming at overcoming the BBB with the purpose of effectively delivering drugs to the CNS...
July 26, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Maj Schneider Thomsen, Svend Birkelund, Annette Burkhart, Allan Stensballe, Torben Moos
The brain vascular basement membrane is important for both blood-brain barrier (BBB) development, stability, and barrier integrity and the contribution hereto from brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), pericytes, and astrocytes of the BBB is probably significant. The aim of the present study was to analyse four different in vitro models of the murine BBB for expression and possible secretion of major basement membrane proteins from murine BCECs (mBCECs). mBCECs, pericytes, and glial cells (mainly astrocytes and microglia) were prepared from brains of C57BL/6 mice...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Guangsheng Wang, Shaodan Wang, Yeting Zhou, Xiaodong Chen, Xiaobo Ma, Daoming Tong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the presence of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) would predict nosocomial coma (NC) and poor outcome in patients with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The adult acute SICH patients with or without coma admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Shuyang People' Hospital Affiliated to Xuzhou Medical University from December 2012 to December 2015 were enrolled...
August 2016: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Wendong You, Junfeng Feng, Qilin Tang, Jun Cao, Lei Wang, Jin Lei, Qing Mao, Guoyi Gao, Jiyao Jiang
BACKGROUND: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is widely used in the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is limited evidence about the efficacy of ICP monitoring in older subjects (aged ≥65 years). This study evaluated the effect of intraventricular ICP monitoring on the outcome of older adults suffering from a severe TBI. METHODS: This prospective, observational study included 166 older TBI patients (aged ≥65 years) with Glasgow Coma scale (GCS) scores lower than 9 at admission...
2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Aniruddha Tekkatte Jagannatha, Sriganesh Kamath, Indira Devi, Umamaheswara G S Rao
INTRODUCTION: Osmotherapy forms an integral part in the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). An ideal choice between mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS) remains to be conclusively proven. More importantly, attention has not been paid to the long-term osmolarity changes during the therapy. The current prospective randomized study aims at evaluating the effect of serum and urine osmolarity and sodium achieved with mannitol and HTS on intracranial pressure (ICP) and outcome...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Hong-Tao Sun, Maohua Zheng, Yanmin Wang, Yunfeng Diao, Wanyong Zhao, Zhengjun Wei
The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical value of multiple brain parameters on monitoring intracranial pressure (ICP) procedures in the therapy of severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) utilizing mild hypothermia treatment (MHT) alone or a combination strategy with other therapeutic techniques. A total of 62 patients with sTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score <8) were treated using mild hypothermia alone or mild hypothermia combined with conventional ICP procedures such as dehydration using mannitol, hyperventilation, and decompressive craniectomy...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Kristina Endres, Sven Reinhardt, Anastasia Geladaris, Julia Knies, Marcus Grimm, Tobias Hartmann, Ulrich Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Murine models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are mainly based on overexpression of pathologic amyloid precursor protein and/or presenilins. Those genes resemble underlying cause of early onset type of AD while about 99 % of all human cases are to be characterized as sporadic, late onset. Appropriate animal models for this type of AD are still missing. We here investigated, if transnasal delivery of A-beta 42 peptides might serve to mimic pathological effects in mice. RESULTS: A-beta 42 peptides, used for the behavioral study, showed the expected dose-dependent toxicity in neur oblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and were able to form higher molecular weight species in vitro...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
N Goerig, S Semrau, B Frey, K Korn, B Fleckenstein, K Überla, A Dörfler, F Putz, U S Gaipl, R Fietkau
INTRODUCTION: For both patients with high-grade gliomas and multiple cerebral metastases, radio(chemo)therapy is the standard therapy. Neurological decline during treatment is rarely attributed to infections of the brain but to tumor progression or side effects of radiotherapy. CASE REPORTS: We present 4 cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia associated with neurological deterioration, which occurred during or shortly after radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy of the brain (brain metastases 2, high-grade glioma 1, carcinoma infiltrating brain 1)...
July 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Ruoli Chen, Carl P Chen, Jane E Preston
Transthyretin (TTR) is a binding protein for the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4 ), retinol and β-amyloid peptide. TTR aids the transfer of T4 from the blood to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but also prevents T4 loss from the blood-CSF barrier. It is, however, unclear whether TTR affects the clearance of β-amyloid from the CSF. This study aimed to investigate roles of TTR in β-amyloid and T4 efflux from the CSF. Eight-week-old 129sv male mice were anaesthetized and their lateral ventricles were cannulated...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Xinming Li, John Tsibouklis, Tingting Weng, Buning Zhang, Guoqiang Yin, Guangzhu Feng, Yingde Cui, Irina N Savina, Lyuba I Mikhalovska, Susan R Sandeman, Carol A Howel, Sergey V Mikhalovsky
Effective therapy lies in achieving a therapeutic amount of drug to the proper site in the body and then maintaining the desired drug concentration for a sufficient time interval to be clinically effective for treatment. The blood brain barrier (BBB) hinders most drugs from entering the central nervous system (CNS) from the blood stream, leading to the difficulty of delivering drugsto the brain via the circulatory system for the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of brain diseases. Several brain drug delivery approaches have been developed such as intracerebral and intracerebroventricular administration, intranasal delivery, and blood-to-brain delivery as a result of transient BBB disruption induced by biological, chemical or physical stimuli such as zonula occludens toxin, mannitol, magnetic heating and ultrasound, but these approaches showed disadvantages of being dangerous, high cost as well as unsuitability for most brain diseases and drugs...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
Hsin-I Tong, Wen Kang, Philip M C Davy, Yingli Shi, Si Sun, Richard C Allsopp, Yuanan Lu
The ability of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) to travel towards chemotactic gradient, traverse tissue barriers, and accumulate precisely at diseased sites makes them attractive candidates as drug carriers and therapeutic gene delivery vehicles targeting the brain, where treatments are often hampered by the blockade of the blood brain barrier (BBB). This study was designed to fully establish an optimized cell-based delivery system using monocytes and MDM, by evaluating their homing efficiency, engraftment potential, as well as carriage and delivery ability to transport nano-scaled particles and exogenous genes into the brain, following the non-invasive intravenous (IV) cell adoptive transfer in an acute neuroinflammation mouse model induced by intracranial injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides...
2016: PloS One
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