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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324684/tea-is-a-key-virulence-factor-for-alternaria-alternata-fr-keissler-infection-of-its-host
#1
Ye Kang, Hongwei Feng, Jingxu Zhang, Shiguo Chen, Bernal E Valverde, Sheng Qiang
A toxin-deficient mutant strain, HP001 mutant of Alternaria alternata, whose mycelium is unable to infect its host, produces little tenuazonic acid (TeA) toxin. How TeA plays a role in initiating host infection by A. alternata remains unclear. In this research we use Imaging-PAM based on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and transmission electron microscopy to explore the role of TeA toxin during the infection process of A. alternata. Photosystem II damage began even before wild type mycelium infected the leaves of its host, croftonweed (Ageratina adenophora)...
March 4, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324176/bhlha9-regulates-apical-ectodermal-ridge-formation-during-limb-development
#2
Kensuke Kataoka, Takahide Matsushima, Yoshiaki Ito, Tempei Sato, Shigetoshi Yokoyama, Hiroshi Asahara
Split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) and SHFM combined with long-bone deficiency (SHFLD) are congenital dysgeneses of the limb. Although six different loci/mutations (SHFM1-SHFM6) have been found from studies on families with SHFM, the causes and associated pathogenic mechanisms for a large number of patients remain unidentified. On the basis of the identification of a duplicated gene region involving BHLHA9 in some affected families, BHLHA9 was identified as a novel SHFM/SHFLD-related gene. Although Bhlha9 is predicted to participate in limb development as a transcription factor, its precise function is unclear...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324115/regenerative-responses-and-axon-pathfinding-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-chronically-injured-mice
#3
Benjamin J Yungher, Márcio Ribeiro, Kevin K Park
Purpose: Enhanced regeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons can be achieved by modification of numerous neuronal-intrinsic factors. However, axon growth initiation and the pathfinding behavior of these axons after traumatic injury remain poorly understood outside of acute injury paradigms, despite the clinical relevance of more chronic settings. We therefore examined RGC axon regeneration following therapeutic delivery that is postponed until 2 months after optic nerve crush injury...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324111/arap1-deficiency-causes-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-mice
#4
Ala Moshiri, Devin Humpal, Brian C Leonard, Denise M Imai, Addy Tham, Lynette Bower, Dave Clary, Thomas M Glaser, K C Kent Lloyd, Christopher J Murphy
Purpose: Small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) regulate membrane traffic and actin reorganization under the control of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Arap1 is an Arf-directed GAP that inhibits the trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to the early endosome, but the diversity of its functions is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Arap1 in the mammalian retina. Methods: Genetically engineered Arap1 knockout mice were screened for ocular abnormalities in the National Institutes of Health Knockout Mouse Production and Phenotyping (KOMP2) Project...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323924/guanabenz-sensitizes-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-to-lipotoxic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis
#5
Baroj Abdulkarim, Miriam Hernangomez, Mariana Igoillo Esteve, Daniel A Cunha, Lorella Marselli, Piero Marchetti, Laurence Ladriere, Miriam Cnop
Deficient as well as excessive/prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling can lead to pancreatic β cell failure and the development of diabetes. Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) such as palmitate induce lipotoxic ER stress in pancreatic β cells. One of the main ER stress response pathways is under the control of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), leading to phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). The antihypertensive drug guanabenz has been shown to inhibit eIF2α dephosphorylation and protect cells from ER stress...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320072/constitutive-androstane-receptor-regulates-the-intestinal-mucosal-response-to-injury
#6
Grace M Hudson, Kyle L Flannigan, Sarah L Erickson, Fernando A Vicentini, Alexandra Zamponi, Christina L Hirota, Laurie Alston, Christophe Altier, Subrata Ghosh, Kevin P Rioux, Sridhar Mani, Thomas K Chang, Simon A Hirota
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD), composed of Crohn's disease(CD) and ulcerative colitis(UC), involves aberrant interactions between a genetically susceptible individual, their microbiota and environmental factors. Alterations in xenobiotic receptor expression and function are associated with increased risk for IBD. In the current study, we assessed the role of the constitutive androstane receptor(CAR), a xenobiotic receptor closely related to the pregnane X receptor, in the regulation of intestinal mucosal homeostasis...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319655/meeting-nutritional-needs-in-the-first-1000-days-a-place-for-small-quantity-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements
#7
Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Anna Lartey, Kathryn G Dewey
The first 1000 days of life is marked by intense metabolic activity and tissue deposition. The increased nutritional needs during this period, and the challenges to meeting them, are often not understood or appreciated. Here, we describe the nutritional needs during the first 1000 days, highlight the challenges to meeting these needs in developing countries, outline intervention strategies, and examine the consumption of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) as a promising strategy. In low-income settings, the challenge to meeting nutritional needs during the first 1000 days is worsened by overreliance on cereal-based diets of low nutrient density and high prevalence of infections and infestations...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319421/detection-of-subclinical-vitamin-k-deficiency-in-neurosurgery-with-pivka-ii
#8
Sofia Dahlberg, Caroline Ulfsdotter Nilsson, Thomas Kander, Ulf Schött
Vitamin K is known for supporting the carboxylation of hepatic coagulation proteins. Levels of proteins induced by vitamin K absence for factor II (PIVKA-II) reflect hypocarboxylated prothrombin and can be used to detect subclinical vitamin K deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of perioperative subclinical vitamin K deficiency among neurosurgical patients using PIVKA-II and investigate the existence of any correlation to standard coagulation assays. Also, the antitumor effects of vitamin K were reviewed...
March 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319154/effectiveness-of-community-based-complementary-food-supplement-yingyangbao-distribution-in-children-aged-6-23-months-in-poor-areas-in-china
#9
Jie Wang, Suying Chang, Liyun Zhao, Wentao Yu, Jian Zhang, Qingqing Man, Li He, Yifan Duan, Hui Wang, Robert Scherpbier, Shi-An Yin
BACKGROUND: Poor growth and micronutrient deficiency mainly attack older infants and young children. Some countries have adopted clinically effective measures to combat malnutrition, but the compliance and improvement in efficacy of intervention vehicles in national programs require evaluation. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after a nutrition intervention program in 3 national poverty counties in China. Soybean-based complementary food supplements called Yingyangbao (YYB) in Chinese and training materials on child feeding were distributed to households with children aged 6-23 months for 18 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319097/long-noncoding-rna-lnckdm2b-is-required-for-ilc3-maintenance-by-initiation-of-zfp292-expression
#10
Benyu Liu, Buqing Ye, Liuliu Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Guanling Huang, Pingping Zhu, Ying Du, Jiayi Wu, Xiwen Qin, Runsheng Chen, Yong Tian, Zusen Fan
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) communicate with other hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells to regulate immunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis. How ILC lineages develop and are maintained remains largely unknown. In this study we observed that a divergent long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), lncKdm2b, was expressed at high levels in intestinal group 3 ILCs (ILC3s). LncKdm2b deficiency in the hematopoietic system led to reductions in the number and effector functions of ILC3s. LncKdm2b expression sustained the maintenance of ILC3s by promoting their proliferation through activation of the transcription factor Zfp292...
March 20, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319090/a-single-copy-sleeping-beauty-transposon-mutagenesis-screen-identifies-new-pten-cooperating-tumor-suppressor-genes
#11
Jorge de la Rosa, Julia Weber, Mathias Josef Friedrich, Yilong Li, Lena Rad, Hannes Ponstingl, Qi Liang, Sandra Bernaldo de Quirós, Imran Noorani, Emmanouil Metzakopian, Alexander Strong, Meng Amy Li, Aurora Astudillo, María Teresa Fernández-García, María Soledad Fernández-García, Gary J Hoffman, Rocío Fuente, George S Vassiliou, Roland Rad, Carlos López-Otín, Allan Bradley, Juan Cadiñanos
The overwhelming number of genetic alterations identified through cancer genome sequencing requires complementary approaches to interpret their significance and interactions. Here we developed a novel whole-body insertional mutagenesis screen in mice, which was designed for the discovery of Pten-cooperating tumor suppressors. Toward this aim, we coupled mobilization of a single-copy inactivating Sleeping Beauty transposon to Pten disruption within the same genome. The analysis of 278 transposition-induced prostate, breast and skin tumors detected tissue-specific and shared data sets of known and candidate genes involved in cancer...
March 20, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319060/the-anti-diabetic-drug-exenatide-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-counteracts-hepatocarcinogenesis-through-camp-pka-egfr-stat3-axis
#12
M Zhou, M T S Mok, H Sun, A W Chan, Y Huang, A S L Cheng, G Xu
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a close association of type 2 diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exenatide (Ex-4), a potent diabetes drug targeting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), is protective against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the Ex-4 function and GLP-1R status have yet been explored in HCC. Herein we investigated the effect of Ex-4 in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated mice consuming control or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet. Administration of Ex-4 significantly improved obesity-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and reduced HCC multiplicity in obese DEN-treated mice, in which suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis were confined to tumor cells...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319048/amino-acid-insensitive-mtorc1-regulation-enables-nutritional-stress-resilience-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#13
Demetrios Kalaitzidis, Dongjun Lee, Alejo Efeyan, Youmna Kfoury, Naema Nayyar, David B Sykes, Francois E Mercier, Ani Papazian, Ninib Baryawno, Gabriel D Victora, Donna Neuberg, David M Sabatini, David T Scadden
The mTOR pathway is a critical determinant of cell persistence and growth wherein mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) mediates a balance between growth factor stimuli and nutrient availability. Amino acids or glucose facilitates mTORC1 activation by inducing RagA GTPase recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal outer surface, enabling activation of mTOR by the Ras homolog Rheb. Thereby, RagA alters mTORC1-driven growth in times of nutrient abundance or scarcity. Here, we have evaluated differential nutrient-sensing dependence through RagA and mTORC1 in hematopoietic progenitors, which dynamically drive mature cell production, and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which provide a quiescent cellular reserve...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318588/comparative-composition-diversity-and-abundance-of-oligosaccharides-in-early-lactation-milk-from-commercial-dairy-and-beef-cows
#14
William M Sischo, Diana M Short, Mareen Geissler, Apichaya Bunyatratchata, Daniela Barile
Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318178/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-insulin-resistance-as-risk-factors-for-dyslipidemia-in-obese-children
#15
Meltem Erol, Özlem Bostan Gayret, Şahin Hamilçıkan, Emrah Can, Özgu L Yiğit
INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is one of the major complications of obesity; vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are attending metabolic complications in dyslipidemic obese children. Objective. To determine if vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between 2014 and 2015...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318109/agreement-between-factor-xiii-activity-and-antigen-assays-in-measurement-of-factor-xiii-a-french-multicenter-study-of-147-human-plasma-samples
#16
C Caron, R Meley, V Le Cam Duchez, M F Aillaud, C Lavenu-Bombled, F Dutrillaux, C Flaujac, A Ryman, C Ternisien, D Lasne, H Galinat, C Pouplard
INTRODUCTION: Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a rare hemorrhagic disorder whose early diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and prophylactic supplementation in cases of severe deficiency. International guidelines recommend a quantitative FXIII activity assay as first-line screening test. FXIII antigen measurement may be performed to establish the subtype of FXIII deficiency (FXIIID) when activity is decreased. METHODS: The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the analytical and diagnostic levels of performance of a new latex immunoassay, K-Assay(®) FXIII reagent from Stago, for first-line measurement of FXIII antigen...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317868/hsp70-1-is-required-for-interleukin-5-induced-angiogenic-responses-through-enos-pathway
#17
Sung Lyea Park, Tae-Wook Chung, Sangtae Kim, Byungdoo Hwang, Jung Min Kim, Hwan Myung Lee, Hee-Jae Cha, Yoonhee Seo, Soo Young Choe, Ki-Tae Ha, Gonhyung Kim, Seok-Joong Yun, Sung-Soo Park, Yung Hyun Choi, Bo Kyung Kim, Won-Tae Kim, Eun-Jong Cha, Cam Patterson, Wun-Jae Kim, Sung-Kwon Moon
We report a pivotal role for IL-5 as an angiogenic activator. IL-5 increased proliferation, migration and colony tube formation in HUVECs associated with the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT/eNOS, and promoted microvessel sprouting from an angiogenesis animal model. The angiogenic effects were confirmed in IL-5-deficient mice and addition of IL-5 antibody. HSP70-1 was identified via expression profiling following IL-5 stimulation. A siRNA knockdown of HSP70-1 suppressed angiogenic responses and eNOS phosphorylation induced by IL-5...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#18
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315909/a-concise-review-of-hashimoto-thyroiditis-ht-and-the-importance-of-iodine-selenium-vitamin-d-and-gluten-on-the-autoimmunity-and-dietary-management-of-ht-patients-points-that-need-more-investigation
#19
REVIEW
Michael I Liontiris, Elias E Mazokopakis
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a chronic autoimmune thyroid disease caused by an interaction between genetic factors and environmental conditions, both of which are yet to be fully understood. The management of HT depends on its clinical manifestations, commonly including diffuse or nodular goiter with euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and permanent hypothyroidism. However, in most cases of patients with HT, lifelong levothyroxine substitution is required. The additional role of diet for the management of HT is usually overlooked...
March 20, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315849/environmental-and-genetic-determinants-of-two-vitamin-d-metabolites-in-healthy-australian-children
#20
Abdulhadi Bima, Angela Pezic, Cong Sun, Fergus J Cameron, Christine Rodda, Ingrid van der Mei, Rachel Chiaroni-Clarke, Terence Dwyer, Andrew Kemp, Jun Qu, John Carlin, Justine A Ellis, Anne-Louise Ponsonby
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with adverse health outcomes. We examined genetic and environmental determinants of serum 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 in childhood. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 322 healthy Australian children (predominantly Caucasians) who provided a venous blood sample. A parental interview was conducted and skin phototype and anthropometry measures were assessed. Concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 were measured by selective solid-phase extraction-capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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