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Low-intensity pulsed

Juan M Martínez, Carlota Delso, Diederich Aguilar, Guillermo Cebrián, Ignacio Álvarez, Javier Raso
The influence of temperature (7-43 °C), pH (3.5-7.0) and ethanol concentration (6-25%) on PEFinduced autolysis and the release of mannose from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Changes in the release of intracellular compounds absorbing at 260 nm and 280 nm depended on storage conditions and differed among untreated and PEF-treated cells. For untreated cells, the increase of the Abs260 and Abs280 values during 3 weeks of storage was very low when incubated in media of different pH, different ethanol concentrations, or at 7° and 25 °C...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Reiko Ashida, Ken-Ichi Kawabata, Takashi Maruoka, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Hideki Yoshikawa, Tatsuya Ioka, Kazuhiro Katayama, Sachiko Tanaka
Bubble-seeded histotripsy (BSH) is a newly developed ultrasound-based mechanical fractionation technique using locally injected phase change nanodroplets (PCNDs) as sensitizers. The PCNDs are a kind of microbubble precursor compressed into submicron-size in droplets form, which were designed for local administration and will expand into microbubbles under ultrasound exposure. Previously, we reported that a combination of PCNDs injection and pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) with an acoustic intensity as low as about 3 kW/cm2 at 1...
March 7, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Jun Du, Mahesh S Kodikara, Graeme J Moxey, Mahbod Morshedi, Adam Barlow, Cristóbal Quintana, Genmiao Wang, Robert Stranger, Chi Zhang, Marie P Cifuentes, Mark G Humphrey
1-Nitronaphthalenyl-4-alkynyl and 9-nitroanthracenyl-10-alkynyl complexes [M](C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-4-C10 H6 -1-NO2 ) ([M] = trans-[RuCl(dppe)2 ] (6b), trans-[RuCl(dppm)2 ] (7b), Ru(PPh3 )2 (η5 -C5 H5 ) (8b), Ni(PPh3 )(η5 -C5 H5 ) (9b), Au(PPh3 ) (10b)) and [M](C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-10-C14 H8 -9-NO2 ) ([M] = trans-[RuCl(dppe)2 ] (6c), trans-[RuCl(dppm)2 ] (7c), Ru(PPh3 )2 (η5 -C5 H5 ) (8c), Ni(PPh3 )(η5 -C5 H5 ) (9c), Au(PPh3 ) (10c)) were synthesized and their identities were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies...
March 7, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Andreas Leonidou, Panagiotis Lepetsos, Michalis Mintzas, Eustathios Kenanidis, George Macheras, Maria Tzetis, Michael Potoupnis, Eleftherios Tsiridis
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is the enzyme responsible for the production of nitric oxide (NO), a major proinflammatory and destructive mediator in osteoarthritis (OA). Areas covered: This is a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the involvement of iNOS in osteoarthritis and its potential to be used as a target for OA treatment. Evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human studies was systematically collected using medical search engines. Preclinical studies have focused on the effect of direct and indirect iNOS inhibitors in both animal and human tissues...
March 5, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Mei-Ling Chen, Zhi-Wen Gao, Xue-Min Chen, Shu-Chao Pang, Yi Zhang
Magnetic graphene-based hybrids are being increasing recognized as an effective nanotheranostic agent in biomedicine. Conventional technologies for their synthesis have drawbacks not only from a synthetic standpoint, mainly requiring high temperatures and multi-step processes, but also from a biological perspective, chemical precursors or surfactants involved in the chemical process are toxic to cells. Herein, we report a novel approach for one-step fabricating magnetic graphene hybrid nanocomposites based on laser irradiation of an Fe target in GO-PEG aqueous solution at room temperature without using any other chemical reagent...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Sunghoon Choi, Haenghwa Lee, Donghoon Lee, Seungyeon Choi, Chang-Lae Lee, Woocheol Kwon, Jungwook Shin, Chang-Woo Seo, Hee-Joung Kim
PURPOSE: This work describes the hardware and software developments of a prototype chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) R/F system. The purpose of this study is to validate the developed system for its possible clinical application on low-dose chest tomosynthesis imaging. METHODS: The prototype CDT R/F system was operated by carefully controlling the electromechanical subsystems through a synchronized interface. Once a command signal was delivered by the user, a tomosynthesis sweep started to acquire 81 projection views (PVs) in a limited angular range of ±20°...
March 3, 2018: Medical Physics
Catarina C V Oliveira, Filipe Figueiredo, Florbela Soares, Wilson Pinto, Maria Teresa Dinis
The present study reveals the first characterization of the plasma melatonin rhythms of the meagre (Argyrosomus regius) under aquaculture conditions. Melatonin levels were monitored during a 24 h cycle under a photoperiod of 16 L:8D and under constant darkness (DD), respectively to characterize the daily rhythm of this indoleamine and to test its endogenous origin. Besides, to identify which light intensities are perceived as night or day by this species, the degree of inhibition of nocturnal melatonin production caused by increasing intensities of light was tested (3...
March 2, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Luca Fedeli, Arianna Formenti, Lorenzo Cialfi, Andrea Pazzaglia, Matteo Passoni
Near-critical plasmas irradiated at ultra-high laser intensities (I > 1018 W/cm2 ) allow to improve the performances of laser-driven particle and radiation sources and to explore scenarios of great astrophysical interest. Near-critical plasmas with controlled properties can be obtained with nanostructured low-density materials. By means of 3D Particle-In-Cell simulations, we investigate how realistic nanostructures influence the interaction of an ultra-intense laser with a plasma having a near-critical average electron density...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jui Fang, Zhuhuang Zhou, Ning-Fang Chang, Yung-Liang Wan, Po-Hsiang Tsui
Hepatic steatosis is an abnormal state where excess lipid mass is accumulated in hepatocyte vesicles. Backscattered ultrasound signals received from the liver contain useful information regarding the degree of steatosis in the liver. The homodyned-K (HK) distribution has been demonstrated as a general model for ultrasound backscattering. The estimator based on the first three integer moments (denoted as "FTM") of the intensity has potential for practical applications because of its simplicity and low computational complexity...
February 15, 2018: Ultrasonics
Grace Wellington, Dawn Elder, Angela Campbell
Wellington G, Elder D, Campbell A. 24 - hour oxygen saturation recordings in preterm infants: editing artefact. AIM: To create editing guidelines for artefact removal in preterm infant pulse oximetry recordings. METHODS: 38 preterm infants ready for discharge home from the neonatal intensive care unit underwent 24-hour pulse oximetry recording using the Masimo® Rad-8 device. An expert panel determined editing rules based on clinical protocols. For each recording three reports were generated, 'raw' no editing, 'auto' using the software editing feature and 'manual' reviewed and edited according to the rules...
February 24, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Tobias Kampfrath, R Kramer Campen, Martin Wolf, Mohsen Sajadi
The dielectric response of liquids in the terahertz (THz) and sub-THz frequency range arise from low-energy collective molecular motions, which are often strongly influenced by intermolecular interactions. To shed light on the microscopic origin of the THz dielectric response of the simplest alcohol, methanol, we resonantly excite this liquid with an intense THz electric-field pulse and monitor the relaxation of the induced optical birefringence. We find a unipolar THz Kerr-effect signal which, in contrast to aprotic polar liquids, shows a weak coupling between the THz electric field and the permanent molecular dipole moment...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Yuchen Wang, Maureen R Newman, Danielle S W Benoit
Impaired fracture healing is a major clinical problem that can lead to patient disability, prolonged hospitalization, and significant financial burden. Although the majority of fractures heal using standard clinical practices, approximately 10% suffer from delayed unions or non-unions. A wide range of factors contribute to the risk for nonunions including internal factors, such as patient age, gender, and comorbidities, and external factors, such as the location and extent of injury. Current clinical approaches to treat nonunions include bone grafts and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), which realizes clinical success only to select patients due to limitations including donor morbidities (grafts) and necessity of fracture reduction (LIPUS), respectively...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Mehmet Emre Coskun, Kubra Acikalin Coskun, Yusuf Tutar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum operating parameters (pulse duration, energy levels, and application time) to promote induction of osteoblast and fibroblast cell proliferation and to maintain cell viability treated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT). BACKGROUND DATA: The positive effects of LIPUS and LLLT on cellular activity have been reported in recent years. Comparisons between experimental parameters of previous studies are difficult because scientific studies reported frequencies and the duty cycles of LIPUS and wavelengths and doses of LLLT in a wide range of parameters...
February 21, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Jiamin Li, Qingwei Zhang, Cong Ren, Xianxian Wu, Ying Zhang, Xue Bai, Yuan Lin, Mingqi Li, Jiangbo Fu, Philipp Kopylov, Siqi Wang, Tingting Yu, Ning Wang, Chaoqian Xu, Yong Zhang, Baofeng Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has been shown to take part in the generation and progression of diverse diseases, involving a series of changes leading to a loss of their endothelial characteristics and an acquirement of properties typical of mesenchymal cells. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a new therapeutic option that has been successfully used in fracture healing. However, whether LIPUS can inhibit oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell damages through inhibiting EndMT remained unknown...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
E Di Russo, I Blum, J Houard, M Gilbert, G Da Costa, D Blavette, L Rigutti
A systematic study of the biases occurring in the measurement of the composition of GaN by Atom Probe Tomography was carried out, in which the role of surface electric field and laser pulse intensity has been investigated. Our data confirm that the electric field is the main factor influencing the measured composition, which exhibits a deficiency of N at low field and a deficiency of Ga at high field. The deficiency of Ga at high field is interpreted in terms of preferential evaporation of Ga. The detailed analysis of multiple evaporation events reveals that the measured composition is not affected by pile-up phenomena occurring in detection system...
February 6, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
N Lemos, L Cardoso, J Geada, G Figueira, F Albert, J M Dias
We experimentally demonstrate that plasma waveguides produced with ultra-short laser pulses (sub-picosecond) in gas jets are capable of guiding high intensity laser pulses. This scheme has the unique ability of guiding a high-intensity laser pulse in a plasma waveguide created by the same laser system in the very simple and stable experimental setup. A hot plasma column was created by a femtosecond class laser that expands into an on-axis parabolic low density profile suitable to act as a waveguide for high intensity laser beams...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clara M Korstjens, Sjoerd Rutten, Peter A Nolte, Marion A van Duin, Jenneke Klein-Nulend
Disturbed vascularity leads to impaired fracture healing. Since low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) increases new bone formation in delayed-unions, we investigated whether LIPUS increases blood supply in delayed-unions of the osteotomized fibula, and if LIPUS-increased bone formation is correlated to increased blood supply. Blood vessel parameters were analysed using histology, immunohistochemistry, and histomorphometric analysis as well as their correlation with bone formation and resorption parameters...
February 13, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Jonathan A N Fisher, Iryna Gumenchuk

 The use of transcranial, low intensity focused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging neuromodulation technology that shows promise for both therapeutic and research applications. Among many, one of the most exciting applications is the use of FUS to rehabilitate or augment human sensory capabilities. While there is compelling empirical evidence demonstrating this capability, basic questions regarding the spatiotemporal extent of the modulatory effects remain. Our objective was to assess the basic, yet often overlooked hypothesis that FUS in fact alters sensory-evoked neural activity within the region of the cerebral cortex at the beam's focus...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Vanesa Bochkezanian, Robert U Newton, Gabriel S Trajano, Amilton Vieira, Timothy S Pulverenti, Anthony J Blazevich
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in skeletal muscles in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) with the aim of increasing muscle recruitment and thus muscle force production. NMES has been conventionally used in clinical practice as functional electrical stimulation (FES), using low levels of evoked force that cannot optimally stimulate muscular strength and mass improvements, and thus trigger musculoskeletal changes in paralysed muscles. The use of high intensity intermittent NMES training using wide-pulse width and moderate-intensity as a strength training tool could be a promising method to increase muscle force production in people with SCI...
February 13, 2018: BMC Neurology
K Füreder, K Svardal, W Frey, H Kroiss, J Krampe
Depending on design capacity, agitators consume about 5 to 20% of the total energy consumption of a wastewater treatment plant. Based on inhabitant-specific energy consumption (kWh PE120-1 a-1; PE120 is population equivalent, assuming 120 g chemical oxygen demand per PE per day), power density (W m-3) and volume-specific energy consumption (Wh m-3 d-1) as evaluation indicators, this paper provides a sound contribution to understanding energy consumption and energy optimization potentials of agitators. Basically, there are two ways to optimize agitator operation: the reduction of the power density and the reduction of the daily operating time...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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