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solar energy

Maryam Sardar, Chen Jun, Zaka Ullah, Aasma Tabassum, Mohsan Jelani, Ju Cheng, Yuxiang Sun, Xueming Lv, Lu Jian
We irradiate the single crystal boron-doped silicon (Si) at various laser fluences with 100 laser shots in ambient air at room temperature using an Nd:YAG laser and investigate its surface morphology and optical properties. The optical microscopy gives evidence of the formation of a crater and reveals that the heat-affected zone and melted area are increased with increase in laser fluence from 1.1 to 15.4  J/cm2 . The micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that the micro- and nano-structures such as microcracks, bubbles, nucleation sites, clusters, redeposited layered material, nanoparticles, and alike water droplet structures are formed on a laser-exposed Si surface...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Nguyen Thanh Phuc, Akihito Ishizaki
Excitation energy transfer (EET) is one of the most important processes in both natural and artificial chemical systems including, for example, photosynthetic complexes and organic solar cells. The EET rate, however, is strongly suppressed when there is a large difference in the excitation energy between the donor and acceptor molecules. Here, we demonstrate both analytically and numerically that the EET rate can be greatly enhanced by periodically modulating the excitation energy difference. The enhancement of EET by using this Floquet engineering, in which the system's Hamiltonian is made periodically time-dependent, turns out to be efficient even in the presence of strong fluctuations and dissipations induced by the coupling with a huge number of dynamic degrees of freedom in the surrounding molecular environments...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Haoran Li, Yurong He, Yanwei Hu, Xinzhi Wang
Sun-driven steam generation is now possible and has the potential to help meet future energy needs. Current technologies often use solar condensers to increase solar irradiance. More recently, a technology for solar steam generation that uses heated surface water and low optical concentration is reported. In this work, a commercially available, activated carbon fiber felt is used to generate steam efficiently under one sun illumination. The evaporation rate and solar conversion efficiency reach 1.22 kg m-2 h-1 and 79...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dong Chen, Jia Yao, Jingping Yin, Ruizhi Lv, Bin Huang, Siqi Liu, Chunhe Yang, Zhiguo Zhang, Lie Chen, Yiwang Chen, Yongfang Li
All-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) can offer unique advantages for applications in flexible devices, and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based polymer acceptors are the widely used polymer acceptors. However, their power conversion efficiency (PCE) still lags behind that of state-of-the-art polymer solar cells, due to low light absorption, suboptimal energy levels and the strong aggregation of the NDI-based polymer acceptor. In this work, by means of simple random copolymerization, a rhodanine-based dye molecule was introduced into the NDI-based polymer acceptor and showed an improved light absorption coefficient, an up-shifted lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level and reduced crystallization...
February 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
David Polo, Irene García-Fernández, Pilar Fernández-Ibañez, Jesús L Romalde
This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of solar photo-Fenton systems for the inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in water. The effect of solar irradiance, dark- Fenton reaction and three different reactant concentrations (2.5/5, 5/10 and 10/20 mg/L of Fe2+ /H2 O2 ) on the photo-Fenton process were tested in glass bottle reactors (200 mL) during 6 h under natural sunlight. Disinfection kinetics were determined both by RT-qPCR and infectivity assays. Mean water temperatures ranged from 25 to 27...
February 21, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Qiaogang Song, Tong Lin, Xue Sun, Bei Chu, Zisheng Su, Huishan Yang, Wenlian Li, Chun-Sing Lee
The electronic level alignment at the ITO/PbI2 interface is investigated by an ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. An n-type conductivity property is found for PbI2 as well as a downward shift energy level at the ITO/PbI2 interface. These indicate that PbI2 can be used as an anode buffer layer for organic electronic devices. The power conversion efficiency of the organic solar cell based on tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene/C70 planar heterojunction is dramatically increased from 1.05% to 3.82%. Meanwhile, the thermally activated delayed fluorescence organic light-emitting diode based on 4,4´,4"-tri(N-carbazolyl)triphenylamine:((1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(benzene-3,1diyl))tris(diphenylphosphine oxide) shows a significant reduced turn-on voltage and enhanced power efficiency from 6...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Simon Cerfontaine, Lionel Marcélis, Baptiste Laramee-Milette, Garry S Hanan, Frédérique Loiseau, Julien De Winter, Pascal Gerbaux, Benjamin Elias
Ruthenium-based complexes are widely used as photocatalysts, as photosensitizers, or as building blocks for supramolecular assemblies. In the field of solar energy conversion, building light harvesting antenna is of prime interest. Nevertheless, collecting light is mandatory but not sufficient; once collected and transferred, the exciton has to be long-lived enough to be transferred to a catalytic site. If Ru(II) terpyridine complexes are prime building blocks for structural reasons, the short lifetime of their excited state prevents their use as a harvesting center in light antennae...
February 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Alexander N Tikhonov
This chapter presents an overview of structural properties of the cytochrome (Cyt) b6 f complex and its functioning in chloroplasts. The Cyt b6 f complex stands at the crossroad of photosynthetic electron transport pathways, providing connectivity between Photosystem (PSI) and Photosysten II (PSII) and pumping protons across the membrane into the thylakoid lumen. After a brief review of the chloroplast electron transport chain, the consideration is focused on the structural organization of the Cyt b6 f complex and its interaction with plastoquinol (PQH2 , reduced form of plastoquinone), a mediator of electron transfer from PSII to the Cyt b6 f complex...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Leigh M Damare, Kristin N Bridges, Matthew M Alloy, Thomas E Curran, Brianne K Soulen, Heather P Forth, Claire R Lay, Jeffrey M Morris, James A Stoeckel, Aaron P Roberts
The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig led to the release of millions of barrels of oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil in aquatic ecosystems exerts toxicity through multiple mechanisms, including photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure with UV radiation. The timing and location of the spill coincided with both fiddler crab reproduction and peak yearly UV intensities, putting early life stage fiddler crabs at risk of injury due to photo-induced toxicity. The present study assessed sensitivity of fiddler crab larvae to photo-induced toxicity during co-exposure to a range of environmentally relevant dilutions of high-energy water accommodated fractions of DWH oil, and either <10, 50, or 100% ambient sunlight, achieved with filters that allowed for variable UV penetration...
February 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Chunmei Li, Zhongjing Xie, Zhiqian Chen, Nanpu Cheng, Jinghui Wang, Guoan Zhu
Black phosphorus (BP), a new two-dimensional material, has been the focus of scientists' attention. BP nanotubes have potential in the field of optoelectronics due to their low-dimensional effects. In this work, the bending strain energy, electronic structure, and optical properties of BP nanotubes were investigated by using the first-principles method based on density functional theory. The results show that these properties are closely related to the rolling direction and radius of the BP nanotube. All the calculated BP nanotube properties show direct bandgaps, and the BP nanotubes with the same rolling direction express a monotone increasing trend in the value of bandgap with a decrease in radius, which is a stacking effect of the compression strain on the inner atoms and the tension strain on the outer atoms...
February 19, 2018: Materials
Lihong Liu, Weihai Fang, Run Long, Oleg V Prezhdo
Non-radiative electron-hole recombination plays a key role in determining photon conversion efficiencies in solar cells. Experiments demonstrate significant reduction in the recombination rate upon passivation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite with Lewis base molecules. Using non-adiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory, we find that the nonradiative charge recombination is decelerated by an order of magnitude upon adsorption of the molecules. Thiophene acts by the traditional passivation mechanism, forcing electron density away from the surface...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Yanbing Zhang, Hammad Cheema, Louis McNamara, Leigh Anna Hunt, Nathan Hammer, Jared Heath Delcamp
A series of 4 ullazine-donor based donor-π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) dyes have been synthesized and compared to a prior ullazine donor-acceptor (D-A) dye as well as a triphenylamine donor with an identical π-bridge and acceptor. The D-π-A ullazine series demonstrates an unusually uniform-in-intensity panchromatic UV-Vis absorption spectrum throughout the visible region. This is in part due to the introduction of strong high-energy bands through incorporation of the ullazine building block as shown by computational analysis...
February 20, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Naresh B Kotadiya, Hao Lu, Anirban Mondal, Yutaka Ie, Denis Andrienko, Paul M W Blom, Gert-Jan H A Wetzelaer
Barrier-free (Ohmic) contacts are a key requirement for efficient organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and field-effect transistors. Here, we propose a simple and robust way of forming an Ohmic hole contact on organic semiconductors with a high ionization energy (IE). The injected hole current from high-work-function metal-oxide electrodes is improved by more than an order of magnitude by using an interlayer for which the sole requirement is that it has a higher IE than the organic semiconductor...
February 19, 2018: Nature Materials
Xiangchuan Meng, Xiaotian Hu, Xia Yang, Jingping Yin, Qingxia Wang, Liqiang Huang, Zoukangning Yu, Ting Hu, Licheng Tan, Weihua Zhou, Yiwang Chen
Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs) are an indispensable component for flexible optoelectronic devices. In this work, the meter-scale composite transparent electrode (CTEs) composing of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and Ag-grid/PET with optimized mechanical and optical properties is demonstrated by slot-die roll-to-roll technique with solution printing method under a low cost (2.8 $ for per square meter), via control of the viscosity and surface energy of PEDOT:PSS ink as well as the printing parameters...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tianhuan Peng, Junjian Miao, Zhaoshuai Gao, Linjuan Zhang, Yi Gao, Chunhai Fan, Di Li
Surface plasmon resonance of coinage metal nanoparticles is extensively exploited to promote catalytic reactions via harvesting solar energy. Previous efforts on elucidating the mechanisms of enhanced catalysis are devoted to hot electron-induced photothermal conversion and direct charge transfer to the adsorbed reactants. However, little attention is paid to roles of hot holes that are generated concomitantly with hot electrons. In this work, 13 nm spherical Au nanoparticles with small absorption cross-section are employed to catalyze a well-studied glucose oxidation reaction...
February 19, 2018: Small
Sung-Fu Hung, Zhi-Zhong Chen, Chun-Chih Chang, Chia-Shuo Hsu, Ming-Kang Tsai, Chia-Cheng Kang, Hao Ming Chen
II-VI semiconductors exhibit unique behaviors that can generate dual-holes ("heavy and light"), but the application in photocatalysis is still missing. Herein, an empirical utilization of light/heavy holes in a hybrid metal cluster-2D semiconductor nanoplatelets is reported. This hybrid material can boost the hole-transfer at the surface and suppress the recombination. Different roles are enacted by light-holes and heavy-holes, in which the light-holes with higher energy and mobility can facilitate the slow kinetics of water oxidation and further reduce the onset voltage, while the massive heavy-holes can increase the resulting photocurrent by about five times, achieving a photocurrent of 2 mA cm-2 at 1...
February 19, 2018: Small
Haifeng Yuan, Elke Debroye, Eva Bladt, Gang Lu, Masoumeh Keshavarz, Kris P F Janssen, Maarten B J Roeffaers, Sara Bals, Edward H Sargent, Johan Hofkens
Organic-inorganic halide perovskites (OIHPs) have demonstrated outstanding energy conversion efficiency in solar cells and light-emitting devices. In spite of intensive developments in both materials and devices, electronic traps and defects that significantly affect their device properties remain under-investigated. Particularly, it remains challenging to identify and to resolve traps individually at the nanoscopic scale. Here, photo-active traps (PATs) are mapped over OIHP nanocrystal morphology of different crystallinity by means of correlative optical differential super-resolution localization microscopy (Δ-SRLM) and electron microscopy...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yan Zhang, Yungen Wu, Zhe Sun, Yanan Kang, Tianyang Chen, Hui Wang, Mao Liang, Song Xue
Self-assembly of organic sensitizer layers in cobalt complex-based DSCs was studied to elucidate its role in reducing the loss of charge recombination. DSCs with various dye loadings were fabricated by dye desorption without the aid of basic solvent. The FT-IR and UV results indicate the deprotonation of the anchoring organic sensitizers, which influences the conduction band of TiO2 remarkably by changing the surface potential. Positive band edge shifts and a decrease of the recombination rate constant are demonstrated to be the main factors affecting energy loss at open circuit...
February 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Miriam Ezbiri, Michael Takacs, Boris Stolz, Jeffrey Lungthok, Aldo Steinfeld, Ronald Michalsky
Perovskites are attractive redox materials for thermo/electrochemical fuel synthesis. To design perovskites with balanced redox energetics for thermochemically splitting CO2 , the activity of lattice oxygen vacancies and stability against crystal phase changes and detrimental carbonate formation are predicted for a representative range of perovskites by electronic structure computations. Systematic trends in these materials properties when doping with selected metal cations are described in the free energy range defined for isothermal and temperature-swing redox cycles...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
Chr Lamnatou, F Motte, G Notton, D Chemisana, C Cristofari
Building-integrated solar thermal (BIST) systems are a specific type of solar thermal systems which are integrated into the building and they participate in building functionality. The present article is about the life-cycle assessment of different options of a BIST system (Mediterranean climatic conditions: Ajaccio, France). The environmental profile of the studied configurations is assessed by means of CED (cumulative energy demand), GWP (global warming potential) and EPBT (energy payback time). The proposed configurations (for the collector) include: i) a system without PCM (phase change material) using only rock wool as insulation and ii) a system with PCM (myristic acid) and rock wool...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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