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Neuro otology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879230/bilateral-cochleovestibulopathy-due-to-internal-auditory-canal-metastasis-in-a-patient-with-stomach-cancer
#1
Sertaç Yetişer
Bilateral sudden onset hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction due to metastatic carcinoma of the internal auditory canal (IAC) on both sides is an extremely rare occurrence. This is a challenging case in neuro-otology that is difficult to relieve by medical support, and spontaneous compensation by vestibular rehabilitation is minimal. The spread of tumor cells to the cerebrospinal space indicates poor prognosis. We present a patient with stage-III gastric carcinoma who experienced sudden hearing loss and severe imbalance...
November 23, 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844162/erratum-to-neuro-otology-some-recent-clinical-advances
#2
Miriam S Welgampola, Gülden Akdal, G Michael Halmagyi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704498/dizziness
#3
Daniel R Gold, David S Zee
Dizziness and vertigo are among the most common symptoms to bring a patient to a neurologist. Because symptoms are often vague and imprecise, a systematic approach is essential. By categorizing vestibular disorders based on timing, triggers, and duration, as well as through focused oculomotor and vestibular examinations, the vast majority of neuro-otologic diagnoses can be made at the bedside. Here the authors discuss historical and examination pearls for the most common neuro-otologic disorders.
October 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683300/catamnesis-results-of-an-inpatient-neuro-otologic-and-psychosomatic-tinnitus-therapy-1-5-years-after-discharge
#4
H Schaaf, S Weiß, G Hesse
Treating tinnitus with the resources offered in hospitals can become necessary for patients suffering from complex tinnitus if a high symptom severity, usually accompanied by a corresponding psychosomatic comorbidity, is present. For such costly therapies, for example, the neuro-otologic psychosomatic tinnitus therapy (NPT) examined here, the long-term effect is particularly important; however, reliable catamnesis studies for inpatient treatments are not yet available. Data from 169 (from a total of 327 contacted) inpatients suffering from complex tinnitus were analysed here...
September 28, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638065/bedside-examination
#5
D Straumann
In most dizzy patients a limited selection of bedside tests, together with the history, is adequate to establish a differential diagnosis and select the next diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A set of basic bedside tests that should be applied in every patient with vertigo or imbalance allows identifying: (1) patients who need immediate referral for further assessment and treatment; (2) patients with nonthreatening disorders for which treatment can be started without more detailed testing; (3) patients with benign paroxysmal vertigo, in whom a detailed work-up is not required and who can immediately be treated with an appropriate particle-repositioning maneuver; and (4) patients who need a comprehensive neuro-otologic and neurologic work-up...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632181/neuro-otology-some-recent-clinical-advances
#6
Miriam S Welgampola, Gülden Akdal, G Michael Halmagyi
Vestibular disorders manifesting as vertigo, chronic dizziness and imbalance are common problems in neurological practice. Here, we review some recent interesting and important advances in diagnosis of vestibular disorders using the video head impulse test and in the management of benign positional vertigo and migrainous vertigo.
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600105/surgical-treatment-of-sporadic-vestibular-schwannoma-in-a-series-of-1006-patients
#7
Z Zhang, Y Nguyen, D De Seta, F Y Russo, A Rey, M Kalamarides, O Sterkers, D Bernardeschi
The management of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) has evolved in the last decades. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution in surgical outcomes of VSs operated by a neurotological team between 1990 and 2006 by different approaches. A monocentric retrospective review of medical charts of 1006 patients was performed. In order to assess eventual changes and progress, the 17-years period was divided in three periods, each one comprehending 268 VS (1990-1996), 299 VS (1997-2001), and 439 VS (2002-2006)...
September 6, 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596486/embalance-validation-of-a-decision-support-system-in-the-early-diagnostic-evaluation-and-management-plan-formulation-of-balance-disorders-in-primary-care-study-protocol-of-a-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Laura Rammazzo, Dimitris Kikidis, Amal Anwer, Nora Macdonald, Efthymios Kyrodimos, Christoph Maurer, Floris Wuyts, Linda Luxon, Athanasios Bibas, Doris-Eva Bamiou
BACKGROUND: Balance problems are caused by multiple factors and often lead to falls and related fractures, bringing large socio-economic costs. The complexity of balance control mechanisms, the lack of medical expertise, and the absence of specialised equipment contribute to the delayed or incorrect diagnosis and management ofthese patients. Advances in computer science have allowed the development of computer systems that support clinical diagnosis and treatment decisions based on individualised patient data...
September 5, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458835/characteristics-and-mechanism-of-perverted-head-shaking-nystagmus-in-central-lesions-video-oculography-analysis
#9
Jeong-Yoon Choi, Ileuk Jung, Jin-Man Jung, Do-Young Kwon, Moon-Ho Park, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVE: Perverted downbeat head-shaking nystagmus (pdHSN) has been considered a sign of central pathology. Two hypotheses have been advanced as the mechanisms of pdHSN without proper validation. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of pdHSN. METHODS: Eighteen patients with pdHSN due to central lesions were subjected to analyses of their oculographic characteristics. The peak velocity, temporal features including the duration and time constant (TC), rotational axis of pdHSN were analyzed...
September 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174775/role-of-cervical-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-cvemp-and-auditory-brainstem-response-abr-in-the-evaluation-of-vestibular-schwannoma
#10
Deepa Aniket Valame, Geeta Bharat Gore
INTRODUCTION: Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) can assess the integrity of the inferior vestibular nerve thereby promising to be a useful tool in the audiological test battery to diagnose vestibular schwannoma. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the utility of cVEMP in diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma in conjunction with the ABR and to evaluate whether the size of lesion has any effect on the cVEMP measures. METHODS: Case-files of 15 known cases of vestibular schwannoma whose pure tone audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR), cVEMP and radiological investigation findings were available, were included in the study...
April 28, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148159/comparison-of-the-bedside-head-impulse-test-with-the-video-head-impulse-test-in-a-clinical-practice-setting-a-prospective-study-of-500-outpatients
#11
Chun Wai Yip, Miriam Glaser, Claudia Frenzel, Otmar Bayer, Michael Strupp
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the bedside head-impulse test (bHIT) using the video HIT (vHIT) as the gold standard for quantifying the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Secondary aims were to determine the bHIT inter-rater reliability and sensitivity in detecting unilateral and bilateral vestibulopathy. METHODS: In this prospective study, 500 consecutive outpatients presenting to a tertiary neuro-otology clinic with vertigo or dizziness of various vestibular etiologies who did not have any of the pre-defined exclusion criteria were recruited...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083889/vestibular-paroxysmia-a-treatable-neurovascular-cross-compression-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Michael Strupp, Marianne Dieterich
The leading symptoms of vestibular paroxysmia (VP) are recurrent, spontaneous, short attacks of spinning or non-spinning vertigo that generally last less than one minute and occur in a series of up to 30 or more per day. VP may manifest when arteries in the cerebellar pontine angle cause a segmental, pressure-induced dysfunction of the eighth nerve. The symptoms are usually triggered by direct pulsatile compression with ephaptic discharges, less often by conduction blocks. MR imaging reveals the neurovascular compression of the eighth nerve (3D constructive interference in steady state and 3D time-of-flight sequences) in more than 95% of cases...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083888/vestibular-migraine-the-most-frequent-entity-of-episodic-vertigo
#13
REVIEW
Marianne Dieterich, Mark Obermann, Nese Celebisoy
Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common cause of episodic vertigo in adults as well as in children. The diagnostic criteria of the consensus document of the International Bárány Society for Neuro-Otology and the International Headache Society (2012) combine the typical signs and symptoms of migraine with the vestibular symptoms lasting 5 min to 72 h and exclusion criteria. Although VM accounts for 7% of patients seen in dizziness clinics and 9% of patients seen in headache clinics it is still underdiagnosed...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083886/current-concepts-and-future-approaches-to-vestibular-rehabilitation
#14
REVIEW
Fredrik Tjernström, Oz Zur, Klaus Jahn
Over the last decades methods of vestibular rehabilitation to enhance adaptation to vestibular loss, habituation to changing sensory conditions, and sensory reweighting in the compensation process have been developed. However, the use of these techniques still depends to a large part on the educational background of the therapist. Individualized assessment of deficits and specific therapeutic programs for different disorders are sparse. Currently, vestibular rehabilitation is often used in an unspecific way in dizzy patients irrespective of the clinical findings...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023859/high-speed-video-oculography-for-measuring-three-dimensional-rotation-vectors-of-eye-movements-in-mice
#15
Takao Imai, Yasumitsu Takimoto, Noriaki Takeda, Atsuhiko Uno, Hidenori Inohara, Shoichi Shimada
BACKGROUND: The mouse is the most commonly used animal model in biomedical research because of recent advances in molecular genetic techniques. Studies related to eye movement in mice are common in fields such as ophthalmology relating to vision, neuro-otology relating to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), neurology relating to the cerebellum's role in movement, and psychology relating to attention. Recording eye movements in mice, however, is technically difficult. METHODS: We developed a new algorithm for analyzing the three-dimensional (3D) rotation vector of eye movement in mice using high-speed video-oculography (VOG)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995360/internuclear-ophthalmoplegia-plus-ataxia-indicates-a-dorsomedial-tegmental-lesion-at-the-pontomesencephalic-junction
#16
Sun-Uk Lee, Hyo-Jung Kim, Jeong-Jin Park, Ji-Soo Kim
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) indicates a lesion involving the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) that interconnects the abducens nucleus and medial rectus subnucleus of the oculomotor nuclear complex. In fact, rostral-caudal localization value of the INO is often limited except when it accompanies symptoms and signs owing to involvement of nearby structures. Ataxia is often observed in lesions involving the cerebellum or the fibers to and from it anywhere in the brainstem. Herein, we sought to determine the localizing value of INO plus ataxia in the rostrocaudal axis of the brainstem...
May 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26722351/the-video-head-impulse-test-in-a-case-of-suspected-bilateral-loss-of-vestibular-function
#17
Pedro L Mangabeira Albernaz, Flavia Salvaterra Cusin
Introduction A patient who had no symptoms suggestive of bilateral loss of vestibular function presented no responses in rotational and caloric tests. Objectives To demonstrate the importance of the video head impulse test in neuro-otologic diagnosis. Resumed Report This patient had a neuro-otologic evaluation and presented no responses in torsion swing tests, caloric tests, and rotational tests in a Bárány chair. The video head impulse test elicited responses in four of the six semicircular canals...
January 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26693454/electronystagmography-a-very-useful-diagnostic-tool-in-cases-of-vertigo
#18
Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Raj Kumar Mundra
A significant number of patients seen in otorhinolaryngology have symptoms of vestibular dysfunction. Examination of vestibulo-ocular reflex has been and still is the principal method of evaluating vestibular functions. Electronystagmography (ENG) has been the gold standard to test the vestibular functions. The present study aims to evaluate the utility of ENG in diagnosing the etiology of vertigo. Total of 50 patients of either sex presenting with vertigo underwent ENG after a detailed history according to the proforma of questionnaire and routine ENT examination attending ENT OPD...
December 2015: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26641814/abnormal-head-oscillations-in-neuro-ophthalmology-and-neuro-otology
#19
REVIEW
Aasef G Shaikh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The study describes the clinical phenomenology and contemporary pathophysiology of concurrent oscillations of the eyes and the head that are present in neurological conditions with diverse causes. RECENT FINDINGS: One classic example is spasmus nutans in which the eye oscillations are the primary cause, whereas head nodding is thought to be an operant conditional response that suppresses the eye oscillations to facilitate clear vision. The second example is a combination of head tremor and inadequate compensatory eye movements because of vestibular hypofunction leading to the illusion of pendular nystagmus - hence, the condition is called pseudonystagmus...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26412160/are-white-matter-abnormalities-associated-with-unexplained-dizziness
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Hena Ahmad, Niccolò Cerchiai, Michelangelo Mancuso, Augusto P Casani, Adolfo M Bronstein
INTRODUCTION: Although cerebral small vessel disease is a significant contributor to the development of imbalance and falls in the elderly, whether it causes dizziness is not known. METHODS: A retrospective case analysis was conducted for 122 dizzy patients referred to two neuro-otology tertiary centres in London and Pisa. Patients were divided into 'explained' causes of dizziness (e.g. benign positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, orthostatic hypotension, cerebellar ataxias) and 'unexplained' dizziness...
November 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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